Genesis

1 In [the] beginning*+ God*+ created+ the heavens and the earth.+

Now the earth proved to be formless and waste and there was darkness upon the surface of [the] watery deep;*+ and God’s active force* was moving to and fro+ over the surface of the waters.+

And God proceeded to say:*+ “Let light come to be.” Then there came to be light.+ After that God saw that the light was good, and God brought about a division between the light and the darkness.+ And God began calling the light Day,+ but the darkness he called Night.+ And there came to be evening and there came to be morning, a first day.

And God went on to say: “Let an expanse+ come to be in between the waters and let a dividing occur between the waters and the waters.”+ Then God proceeded to make the expanse and to make a division between the waters that should be beneath the expanse and the waters that should be above the expanse.+ And it came to be so. And God began to call the expanse Heaven.+ And there came to be evening and there came to be morning, a second day.

And God went on to say: “Let the waters under the heavens be brought together into one place and let the dry land appear.”+ And it came to be so. 10 And God began calling the dry land Earth,+ but the bringing together of the waters he called Seas.+ Further, God saw that [it was] good.+ 11 And God went on to say: “Let the earth cause grass to shoot forth, vegetation bearing seed,+ fruit trees yielding fruit according to their kinds,*+ the seed of which is in it,+ upon the earth.” And it came to be so. 12 And the earth began to put forth grass, vegetation bearing seed according to its kind+ and trees yielding fruit, the seed of which is in it according to its kind.+ Then God saw that [it was] good. 13 And there came to be evening and there came to be morning, a third day.

14 And God went on to say: “Let luminaries come to be in the expanse of the heavens to make a division between the day and the night;+ and they must serve as signs and for seasons and for days and years.+ 15 And they must serve as luminaries in the expanse of the heavens to shine upon the earth.”+ And it came to be so. 16 And God proceeded to make* the two great luminaries, the greater luminary for dominating the day and the lesser luminary for dominating the night, and also the stars.+ 17 Thus God put them in the expanse of the heavens to shine upon the earth,+ 18 and to dominate by day and by night and to make a division between the light and the darkness.+ Then God saw that [it was] good.+ 19 And there came to be evening and there came to be morning, a fourth day.

20 And God went on to say: “Let the waters swarm forth a swarm of living souls*+ and let flying creatures fly over the earth upon the face of the expanse of the heavens.”+ 21 And God proceeded to create* the great sea monsters*+ and every living soul* that moves about,+ which the waters swarmed forth according to their kinds, and every winged flying creature according to its kind.+ And God got to see that [it was] good. 22 With that God blessed them, saying: “Be fruitful and become many and fill the waters in the sea basins,+ and let the flying creatures become many in the earth.” 23 And there came to be evening and there came to be morning, a fifth day.

24 And God went on to say: “Let the earth+ put forth living souls according to their kinds, domestic+ animal* and moving+ animal and wild beast*+ of the earth according to its kind.” And it came to be so. 25 And God proceeded to make the wild beast of the earth according to its kind and the domestic animal according to its kind and every moving animal of the ground according to its kind.+ And God got to see that [it was] good.

26 And God* went on to say: “Let us+ make* man* in our image,*+ according to our likeness,+ and let them have in subjection the fish of the sea and the flying creatures of the heavens and the domestic animals and all the earth and every moving animal that is moving upon the earth.”+ 27 And God proceeded to create the man in his image, in God’s image he created him;+ male and female he created them.+ 28 Further, God blessed+ them and God said to them: “Be fruitful+ and become many and fill the earth and subdue+ it, and have in subjection+ the fish of the sea and the flying creatures of the heavens and every living creature that is moving* upon the earth.”

29 And God went on to say: “Here* I have given to YOU all vegetation bearing seed which is on the surface of the whole earth and every tree on which there is the fruit of a tree bearing seed.+ To YOU let it serve as food.+ 30 And to every wild beast of the earth and to every flying creature of the heavens and to everything moving upon the earth in which there is life as a soul* I have given all green vegetation for food.”+ And it came to be so.

31 After that God saw everything he had made and, look! [it was] very good.+ And there came to be evening and there came to be morning, a sixth day.

2 Thus the heavens and the earth and all their army came to their completion.+ And by the seventh day God came to the completion of his work that he had made, and he proceeded to rest* on the seventh day from all his work that he had made.+ And God proceeded to bless the seventh day and make it sacred,* because on it he has been resting* from all his work that God has created for the purpose of making.*+

This is a history* of the heavens and the earth in the time of their being created, in the day that Jehovah* God* made earth and heaven.+

Now there was as yet no bush of the field found in the earth and no vegetation of the field was as yet sprouting, because Jehovah God had not made it rain+ upon the earth and there was no man to cultivate the ground. But a mist*+ would go up from the earth and it watered the entire surface of the ground.+

And Jehovah God proceeded to form the man out of dust*+ from the ground+ and to blow into his nostrils the breath of life,*+ and the man came to be a living soul.*+ Further, Jehovah* God planted a garden in E′den,*+ toward the east,* and there he put the man whom he had formed.+ Thus Jehovah God made to grow out of the ground every tree desirable to one’s sight and good for food and also the tree of life+ in the middle of the garden and the tree of the knowledge of good and bad.+

10 Now there was a river issuing* out of E′den to water the garden, and from there it began to be parted and it became, as it were, four heads. 11 The first one’s name is Pi′shon; it is the one encircling the entire land of Hav′i·lah,+ where there is gold. 12 And the gold of that land is good.+ There also are the bdellium gum+ and the onyx stone.+ 13 And the name of the second river is Gi′hon; it is the one encircling the entire land of Cush.* 14 And the name of the third river is Hid′de·kel;*+ it is the one going to the east of As·syr′i·a.*+ And the fourth river is the Eu·phra′tes.*+

15 And Jehovah God proceeded to take the man and settle him in the garden of E′den+ to cultivate it and to take care of it.+ 16 And Jehovah God also laid this command upon the man: “From every tree of the garden you may eat to satisfaction.+ 17 But as for the tree of the knowledge of good and bad you must not eat from it, for in the day you eat from it you will positively die.”*+

18 And Jehovah* God went on to say: “It is not good for the man to continue by himself. I am going to make a helper for him, as a complement* of him.”+ 19 Now Jehovah God was forming* from the ground every wild beast of the field and every flying creature of the heavens, and he began bringing them to the man to see what he would call each one; and whatever the man would call it, each living soul,+ that was its name.+ 20 So the man was calling the names of all the domestic animals and of the flying creatures of the heavens and of every wild beast of the field, but for man there was found no helper* as a complement of him. 21 Hence Jehovah God had a deep sleep+ fall upon the man and, while he was sleeping, he took one of his ribs and then closed up the flesh over its place. 22 And Jehovah* God proceeded to build the rib that he had taken from the man into a woman and to bring her to the man.+

23 Then the man said:

“This is at last bone of my bones

And flesh of my flesh.+

This one will be called Woman,*

Because from man* this one was taken.”+

24 That is why a man will leave his father and his mother+ and he must stick to his wife* and they must become one flesh.+ 25 And both of them continued to be naked,+ the man and his wife, and yet they did not become ashamed.+

3 Now the serpent+ proved to be the most cautious+ of all the wild beasts of the field that Jehovah God had made.+ So it began to say to the woman:+ “Is it really so that God said YOU must not eat from every tree of the garden?”+ At this the woman said to the serpent: “Of the fruit of the trees* of the garden we may eat.+ But as for [eating] of the fruit of the tree that is in the middle of the garden,+ God has said, ‘YOU must not eat from it, no, YOU must not touch it that YOU do not die.’”+ At this the serpent said to the woman: “YOU positively will not die.*+ For God knows that in the very day of YOUR eating from it YOUR eyes are bound to be opened and YOU are bound to be like God,* KNOWING good and bad.”+

Consequently the woman saw that the tree was good for food and that it was something to be longed for to the eyes, yes, the tree was desirable to look upon.*+ So she began taking of its fruit and eating it. Afterward she gave some also to her husband* when with her and he began eating it.+ Then the eyes of both of them became opened and they began to realize that they were naked.+ Hence they sewed fig leaves together and made loin coverings for themselves.+

Later they heard the voice* of Jehovah God walking in the garden about the breezy part* of the day,+ and the man* and his wife went into hiding from the face of Jehovah God in between the trees of the garden.+ And Jehovah God kept calling to the man and saying to him: “Where are you?”+ 10 Finally he said: “Your voice I heard in the garden, but I was afraid because I was naked and so I hid myself.”+ 11 At that he said: “Who told you that you were naked?+ From the tree from which I commanded you not to eat have you eaten?”+ 12 And the man went on to say: “The woman whom you gave to be* with me, she gave me [fruit] from the tree and so I ate.”+ 13 With that Jehovah God said to the woman: “What is this you have done?” To this the woman replied: “The serpent—it deceived me and so I ate.”+

14 And Jehovah* God proceeded to say to the serpent:+ “Because you have done this thing, you are the cursed one out of all* the domestic animals and out of all the wild beasts of the field. Upon your belly you will go and dust is what you will eat* all the days of your life.+ 15 And I+ shall put enmity+ between you+ and the woman+ and between your seed*+ and her seed.+ He*+ will bruise* you+ in the head+ and you+ will bruise him*+ in the heel.”+

16 To the woman he said: “I shall greatly increase the pain of your pregnancy;*+ in birth pangs you will bring forth children,+ and your craving will be for your husband, and he will dominate you.”+

17 And to Adam he said: “Because you listened to your wife’s voice and took to eating from the tree concerning which I gave you this command,+ ‘You must not eat from it,’ cursed is the ground on your account.+ In pain you will eat its produce all the days of your life.+ 18 And thorns and thistles it will grow for you,+ and you must eat the vegetation of the field. 19 In the sweat of your face you will eat bread until you return to the ground, for out of it you were taken.+ For dust you are and to dust you will return.”+

20 After this Adam called his wife’s name Eve,*+ because she had to become the mother of everyone living.+ 21 And Jehovah God proceeded to make long garments of skin for Adam and for his wife and to clothe them.+ 22 And Jehovah God went on to say: “Here the man has become like one of us in knowing good and bad,+ and now in order that he may not put his hand out and actually take [fruit] also from the tree of life+ and eat and live to time indefinite,—” 23 With that Jehovah God* put him out of the garden of E′den+ to cultivate the ground from which he had been taken.+ 24 And so he drove the man out and posted* at the east of the garden of E′den+ the cherubs+ and the flaming blade of a sword that was turning itself continually to guard the way to the tree of life.

4 Now Adam had intercourse with Eve his wife and she became pregnant.+ In time she gave birth to Cain*+ and said: “I have produced* a man with the aid of Jehovah.”+ Later she again gave birth, to his brother Abel.+

And Abel came to be a herder of sheep,+ but Cain became a cultivator of the ground.+ And it came about at the expiration of some time* that Cain proceeded to bring some fruits of the ground+ as an offering to Jehovah.+ But as for Abel, he too brought some firstlings+ of his flock, even their fatty pieces.+ Now while Jehovah was looking with favor upon Abel and his offering,+ he did not look with any favor upon Cain and upon his offering.+ And Cain grew hot with great anger,+ and his countenance began to fall. At this Jehovah said to Cain: “Why are you hot with anger and why has your countenance fallen? If you turn to doing good, will there not be an exaltation?+ But if you do not turn to doing good, there is sin crouching at the entrance, and for you is its craving;+ and will you, for your part, get the mastery over it?”+

After that Cain said to Abel his brother: [“Let us go over into the field.”]* So it came about that while they were in the field Cain proceeded to assault Abel his brother and kill him.+ Later on Jehovah said to Cain: “Where is Abel your brother?”+ and he said: “I do not know. Am I my brother’s guardian?”+ 10 At this he said: “What have you done? Listen!* Your brother’s blood* is crying out to me from the ground.+ 11 And now you are cursed in banishment from the ground,+ which has opened its mouth to receive your brother’s blood at your hand.+ 12 When you cultivate the ground, it will not give you back its power.*+ A wanderer and a fugitive you will become in the earth.”+ 13 At this Cain said to Jehovah: “My punishment for error is too great to carry. 14 Here you are actually driving me this day from off the surface of the ground, and from your face I shall be concealed;+ and I must become a wanderer+ and fugitive on the earth, and it is certain that anyone finding me will kill me.”+ 15 At this Jehovah said to him: “For that reason* anyone killing Cain must suffer vengeance seven times.”+

And so Jehovah set up a sign for Cain in order that no one finding him should strike him.+ 16 With that Cain went away from the face of Jehovah+ and took up residence in the land of Fugitiveness* to the east of E′den.

17 Afterward Cain had intercourse with his wife+ and she became pregnant and gave birth to E′noch. Then he engaged in building a city and called the city’s name by the name of his son E′noch.+ 18 Later there was born to E′noch I′rad. And I′rad became father to Me·hu′ja·el, and Me·hu′ja·el became father to Me·thu′sha·el, and Me·thu′sha·el became father to La′mech.

19 And La′mech proceeded to take two wives for himself. The name of the first was A′dah and the name of the second was Zil′lah. 20 In time A′dah gave birth to Ja′bal. He proved to be the founder of those who dwell in tents+ and have livestock.+ 21 And the name of his brother was Ju′bal. He proved to be the founder* of all those who handle the harp+ and the pipe.*+ 22 As for Zil′lah, she too gave birth to Tu′bal-cain, the forger* of every sort of tool of copper and iron.+ And the sister of Tu′bal-cain was Na′a·mah. 23 Consequently La′mech composed* these words for his wives A′dah and Zil′lah:

“Hear my voice, you wives of La′mech;

Give ear to my saying:*

A man* I have killed for wounding me,*

Yes, a young man for giving me a blow.*

24 If seven times Cain is to be avenged,+

Then La′mech seventy times and seven.”

25 And Adam proceeded to have intercourse again with his wife and so she gave birth to a son and called his name Seth,*+ because, as she said: “God has appointed another seed* in place of Abel, because Cain killed him.”+ 26 And to Seth also there was born a son and he proceeded to call his name E′nosh.+ At that time a start was made* of calling on the name of Jehovah.+

5 This is the book of Adam’s history.* In the day of God’s creating Adam he made him in the likeness of God.+ Male and female he created them.+ After that he blessed them and called their name Man*+ in the day of their being created.+

And Adam lived on for a hundred and thirty years. Then he became father to a son in his likeness, in his image, and called his name Seth.+ And the days of Adam after his fathering Seth came to be eight hundred years. Meanwhile he became father to sons and daughters.+ So all the days of Adam that he lived amounted to* nine hundred and thirty years and he died.+

And Seth lived on for a hundred and five years. Then he became father to E′nosh.+ And after his fathering E′nosh Seth continued to live eight hundred and seven years. Meanwhile he became father to sons and daughters. So all the days of Seth amounted to nine hundred and twelve years and he died.

And E′nosh lived on for ninety years. Then he became father to Ke′nan.+ 10 And after his fathering Ke′nan E′nosh continued to live eight hundred and fifteen years. Meanwhile he became father to sons and daughters. 11 So all the days of E′nosh amounted to nine hundred and five years and he died.

12 And Ke′nan lived on for seventy years. Then he became father to Ma·hal′a·lel.+ 13 And after his fathering Ma·hal′a·lel Ke′nan continued to live eight hundred and forty years. Meanwhile he became father to sons and daughters. 14 So all the days of Ke′nan amounted to nine hundred and ten years and he died.

15 And Ma·hal′a·lel lived on for sixty-five years. Then he became father to Ja′red.+ 16 And after his fathering Ja′red Ma·hal′a·lel continued to live eight hundred and thirty years. Meanwhile he became father to sons and daughters. 17 So all the days of Ma·hal′a·lel amounted to eight hundred and ninety-five years and he died.

18 And Ja′red lived on for a hundred and sixty-two years. Then he became father to E′noch.*+ 19 And after his fathering E′noch Ja′red continued to live eight hundred years. Meanwhile he became father to sons and daughters. 20 So all the days of Ja′red amounted to nine hundred and sixty-two years and he died.

21 And E′noch lived on for sixty-five years. Then he became father to Me·thu′se·lah.+ 22 And after his fathering Me·thu′se·lah E′noch went on walking with* the [true] God* three hundred years. Meanwhile he became father to sons and daughters. 23 So all the days of E′noch amounted to three hundred and sixty-five years. 24 And E′noch kept walking+ with the [true] God.+ Then he was no more, for God* took him.*+

25 And Me·thu′se·lah lived on for a hundred and eighty-seven years. Then he became father to La′mech.+ 26 And after his fathering La′mech Me·thu′se·lah continued to live seven hundred and eighty-two years. Meanwhile he became father to sons and daughters. 27 So all the days of Me·thu′se·lah amounted to nine hundred and sixty-nine years and he died.

28 And La′mech lived on for a hundred and eighty-two years. Then he became father to a son. 29 And he proceeded to call his name Noah,*+ saying: “This one will bring us comfort from our work and from the pain of our hands resulting from the ground which Jehovah has cursed.”+ 30 And after his fathering Noah La′mech continued to live five hundred and ninety-five years. Meanwhile he became father to sons and daughters. 31 So all the days of La′mech amounted to seven hundred and seventy-seven years and he died.

32 And Noah got to be five hundred years old. After that Noah became father to Shem,+ Ham+ and Ja′pheth.+

6 Now it came about that when men started to grow in numbers on the surface of the ground and daughters were born to them,+ then the sons* of the [true] God+ began to notice+ the daughters of men, that they were good-looking; and they went taking wives for themselves, namely, all whom they chose. After that Jehovah said: “My spirit+ shall not act toward man indefinitely+ in that he* is also flesh.+ Accordingly his days shall amount to a hundred and twenty years.”+

The Neph′i·lim* proved to be in the earth in those days, and also after that, when the sons of the [true] God continued to have relations with the daughters of men and they bore sons to them, they were the mighty ones* who were of old, the men of fame.*

Consequently Jehovah saw that the badness of man was abundant in the earth and every inclination+ of the thoughts of his heart was only bad all the time.*+ And Jehovah felt regrets+ that he had made men in the earth, and he felt hurt at his heart.+ So Jehovah said: “I am going to wipe men whom I have created+ off the surface of the ground, from man to domestic animal, to moving animal and to flying creature of the heavens,+ because I do regret that I have made them.”+ But Noah found favor in the eyes of Jehovah.

This is the history of Noah.

Noah was a righteous man.+ He proved himself faultless among his contemporaries.* Noah walked with the [true] God.+ 10 In time Noah became father to three sons, Shem, Ham and Ja′pheth.+ 11 And the earth came to be ruined in the sight of the [true] God+ and the earth became filled with violence.+ 12 So God saw the earth and, look! it was ruined,+ because all flesh had ruined its way on the earth.+

13 After that God said to Noah: “The end of all flesh has come before me,+ because the earth is full of violence as a result of them; and here I am bringing them to ruin together with the earth.+ 14 Make for yourself an ark* out of wood of a resinous tree.*+ You will make compartments* in the ark, and you must cover it inside and outside with tar.+ 15 And this is how you will make it: three hundred cubits*+ the length of the ark, fifty cubits its width, and thirty cubits its height. 16 You will make a tso′har [roof; or, window]* for the ark, and you will complete it to the extent of a cubit upward,* and the entrance of the ark you will put in its side;+ you will make it with a lower [story], a second [story] and a third [story].

17 “And as for me, here I am bringing the deluge*+ of waters upon the earth to bring to ruin all flesh in which the force of life+ is active* from under the heavens. Everything that is in the earth will expire.+ 18 And I do establish my covenant with you; and you must go into the ark, you and your sons and your wife and your sons’ wives with you.+ 19 And of every living creature of every sort of flesh,+ two of each, you will bring into the ark to preserve them alive with you.+ Male and female they will be. 20 Of the flying creatures according to their kinds and of the domestic animals according to their kinds,+ of all moving animals of the ground according to their kinds,* two of each will go in there to you to preserve them alive.+ 21 And as for you, take for yourself every sort of food that is eaten;+ and you must gather it to yourself, and it must serve as food for you and for them.”+

22 And Noah proceeded to do according to all that God had commanded him. He did just so.+

7 After that Jehovah said to Noah: “Go, you and all your household,+ into the ark, because you are the one I have seen to be righteous before me among this generation.+ Of every clean beast you must take to yourself by sevens,* the sire and its mate;*+ and of every beast that is not clean just two, the sire and its mate; also of the flying creatures of the heavens by sevens, male and female,+ to preserve offspring* alive on the surface of the entire earth.+ For in just seven days more I am making it rain+ upon the earth forty days and forty nights;+ and I will wipe every existing thing that I have made off the surface of the ground.”+ And Noah proceeded to do according to all that Jehovah had commanded him.

And Noah was six hundred years old when the deluge* of waters occurred on the earth.+ So Noah went in, and his sons and his wife and his sons’ wives with him, into the ark ahead of the waters of the deluge.*+ Of every clean beast and of every beast that is not clean and of the flying creatures and everything that moves on the ground,+ they went in by twos to Noah inside the ark, male and female, just as God* had commanded Noah. 10 And seven days later it turned out that the waters of the deluge* came upon the earth.

11 In the six hundredth year of Noah’s life, in the second month,* on the seventeenth day of the month, on this day all the springs of the vast watery deep* were broken open and the floodgates* of the heavens were opened.+ 12 And the downpour upon the earth went on for forty days and forty nights.+ 13 On this very day Noah went in, and Shem and Ham and Ja′pheth, Noah’s sons,+ and the wife of Noah and the three wives of his sons with him, into the ark;+ 14 they and every wild beast according to its kind,+ and every domestic animal according to its kind, and every moving animal that moves on the earth according to its kind,+ and every flying creature according to its kind,+ every bird, every winged creature.+ 15 And they kept going to Noah inside the ark, two by two, of every sort of flesh in which the force of life was active.*+ 16 And those going in, male and female of every sort of flesh, went in, just as God had commanded him. After that Jehovah shut the door behind him.+

17 And the deluge* went on for forty days upon the earth, and the waters kept increasing and began carrying the ark and it was floating high above the earth. 18 And the waters became overwhelming and kept increasing greatly upon the earth, but the ark kept going on the surface of the waters.+ 19 And the waters overwhelmed the earth so greatly that all the tall mountains that were under the whole heavens came to be covered.+ 20 Up to fifteen cubits the waters overwhelmed them and the mountains became covered.+

21 So all flesh that was moving upon the earth expired,+ among the flying creatures and among the domestic animals and among the wild beasts and among all the swarms that were swarming upon the earth, and all mankind.+ 22 Everything in which the breath of the force of life was active* in its nostrils, namely, all that were on the dry ground, died.+ 23 Thus he wiped out every existing thing that was on the surface of the ground, from man to beast, to moving animal and to flying creature of the heavens, and they were wiped off the earth;+ and only Noah and those who were with him in the ark kept on surviving.+ 24 And the waters continued overwhelming the earth a hundred and fifty days.

8 After that God remembered+ Noah and every wild beast and every domestic animal that was with him in the ark,+ and God caused a wind* to pass over the earth, and the waters began to subside.+ And the springs of the watery deep*+ and the floodgates*+ of the heavens became stopped up, and so the downpour from the heavens was restrained. And the waters began receding from off the earth, progressively receding;* and at the end of a hundred and fifty days the waters were lacking.+ And in the seventh month,* on the seventeenth day of the month, the ark+ came to rest on the mountains of Ar′a·rat.+ And the waters kept on progressively lessening* until the tenth month.* In the tenth month, on the first of the month, the tops of the mountains appeared.+

So it occurred that at the end of forty days Noah proceeded to open the window+ of the ark that he had made. After that he sent out a raven,+ and it continued flying outdoors,* going and returning, until the waters dried off the earth.

Later he sent out from him a dove+ to see whether the waters had abated from the surface of the ground. And the dove did not find any resting-place for the sole of its foot, and so it returned to him into the ark because the waters were yet upon the surface of the whole earth.+ At that he put his hand out and took it and brought it to himself inside the ark. 10 And he went on waiting still another seven days, and once again he sent out the dove from the ark. 11 Later on the dove came to him about the time of evening and, look! there was an olive leaf+ freshly plucked in its bill, and so Noah got to know that the waters had abated from the earth.+ 12 And he went on waiting still another seven days. Then he sent out the dove, but it did not come back again to him anymore.+

13 Now in the six hundred and first year,+ in the first month,* on the first day of the month, it came about that the waters had drained from off the earth; and Noah proceeded to remove the covering of the ark and to look, and here the surface of the ground had drained dry.+ 14 And in the second month, on the twenty-seventh day of the month, the earth had dried off.+

15 God now spoke to Noah, saying: 16 “Go out of the ark, you and your wife and your sons and your sons’ wives with you.+ 17 Every living creature that is with you of every sort of flesh,+ among the flying creatures+ and among the beasts+ and among all the moving animals that move upon the earth,+ bring out with you, as they must swarm in the earth and be fruitful and become many upon the earth.”+

18 At that Noah went out, and also his sons+ and his wife and his sons’ wives with him. 19 Every living creature, every moving animal and every flying creature, everything that moves on the earth, according to their families they went out of the ark.+ 20 And Noah began to build an altar+ to Jehovah and to take some of all the clean beasts+ and of all the clean flying creatures+ and to offer burnt offerings upon the altar.+ 21 And Jehovah began to smell a restful* odor,+ and so Jehovah said in his heart:+ “Never again shall I call down evil upon the ground+ on man’s account, because the inclination+ of the heart of man is bad from his youth up;+ and never again shall I deal every living thing a blow just as I have done.+ 22 For all the days the earth continues,* seed sowing and harvest, and cold and heat, and summer and winter, and day and night, will never cease.”+

9 And God went on to bless Noah and his sons and to say to them: “Be fruitful and become many and fill the earth.+ And a fear of YOU and a terror of YOU will continue upon every living creature of the earth and upon every flying creature of the heavens, upon everything that goes moving on the ground, and upon all the fishes of the sea. Into YOUR hand they are now given.+ Every moving animal that is alive may serve as food for YOU.+ As in the case of green vegetation, I do give it all to YOU.+ Only flesh with its soul*+—its blood+YOU must not eat.+ And, besides that, YOUR blood of YOUR souls* shall I ask back. From the hand of every living creature shall I ask it back; and from the hand of man,* from the hand of each one* who is his brother, shall I ask back the soul* of man.+ Anyone shedding man’s blood, by man will his own blood be shed,+ for in God’s image he made man. And as for YOU men, be fruitful and become many, make the earth swarm with YOU and become many in it.”+

And God went on to say to Noah and to his sons with him: “And as for me, here I am establishing my covenant+ with YOU men and with YOUR offspring* after YOU,+ 10 and with every living soul that is with YOU, among fowls, among beasts and among all living creatures of the earth with YOU, from all those going out of the ark to every living creature of the earth.+ 11 Yes, I do establish my covenant with YOU: No more will all flesh be cut off by waters of a deluge, and no more will there occur a deluge to bring the earth to ruin.”+

12 And God added: “This is the sign+ of the covenant that I am giving between me and YOU and every living soul that is with YOU, for the generations to time indefinite. 13 My rainbow+ I do give* in the cloud, and it must serve as a sign of the covenant between me and the earth. 14 And it shall occur that when I bring a cloud over the earth, then the rainbow will certainly appear in the cloud. 15 And I shall certainly remember my covenant+ which is between me and YOU and every living soul among all flesh;+ and no more will the waters become a deluge to bring all flesh to ruin.+ 16 And the rainbow must occur in the cloud,+ and I shall certainly see it to remember the covenant to time indefinite+ between God and every living soul among all flesh that is upon the earth.”+

17 And God repeated to Noah: “This is the sign of the covenant that I do establish between me and all flesh that is upon the earth.”+

18 And Noah’s sons+ who came out of the ark were Shem and Ham and Ja′pheth. Later Ham was the father of Ca′naan.+ 19 These three were Noah’s sons, and from these was all the earth’s population* spread abroad.+

20 Now Noah started off as a farmer*+ and proceeded to plant a vineyard.+ 21 And he began drinking of the wine and became intoxicated,+ and so he uncovered himself in the midst of his tent. 22 Later Ham+ the father of Ca′naan saw his father’s nakedness+ and went telling it to his two brothers outside.+ 23 At that Shem and Ja′pheth took a* mantle+ and put it upon both their shoulders and walked in backwards. Thus they covered their father’s nakedness, while their faces were turned away,* and they did not see their father’s nakedness.+

24 Finally Noah awoke from his wine and got to know what his youngest son had done to him. 25 At this he said:

“Cursed be Ca′naan.+

Let him become the lowest slave* to his brothers.”+

26 And he added:

“Blessed be Jehovah,*+ Shem’s God,

And let Ca′naan become a slave* to him.+

27 Let God grant ample space to Ja′pheth,

And let him reside* in the tents of Shem.+

Let Ca′naan become a slave to him also.”

28 And Noah continued to live three hundred and fifty years after the deluge.+ 29 So all the days of Noah amounted to nine hundred and fifty years and he died.+

10 And this is the history of Noah’s sons,+ Shem, Ham and Ja′pheth.

Now sons began to be born to them after the deluge.+ The sons of Ja′pheth were Go′mer+ and Ma′gog+ and Ma′da·i+ and Ja′van+ and Tu′bal+ and Me′shech+ and Ti′ras.+

And the sons of Go′mer were Ash′ke·naz+ and Ri′phath+ and To·gar′mah.+

And the sons of Ja′van were E·li′shah+ and Tar′shish,+ Kit′tim+ and Do′da·nim.*+

From these the population of the isles* of the nations was spread about in their lands, each according to its tongue, according to their families, by their nations.

And the sons of Ham were Cush+ and Miz′ra·im+ and Put+ and Ca′naan.+

And the sons of Cush were Se′ba+ and Hav′i·lah and Sab′tah and Ra′a·mah+ and Sab′te·ca.

And the sons of Ra′a·mah were She′ba and De′dan.+

And Cush became father to Nim′rod.+ He made the start in becoming a mighty one* in the earth. He displayed himself a mighty hunter* in opposition to* Jehovah. That is why there is a saying: “Just like Nim′rod a mighty hunter in opposition to Jehovah.”+ 10 And the beginning of his kingdom came to be Ba′bel*+ and E′rech+ and Ac′cad and Cal′neh, in the land of Shi′nar.+ 11 Out of that land he went forth into As·syr′i·a+ and set himself to building Nin′e·veh+ and Re·ho′both-Ir and Ca′lah 12 and Re′sen between Nin′e·veh and Ca′lah: this is the great city.

13 And Miz′ra·im+ became father to Lu′dim+ and An′a·mim and Le·ha′bim and Naph·tu′him+ 14 and Path·ru′sim+ and Cas·lu′him+ (from among whom the Phi·lis′tines+ went forth) and Caph′to·rim.+

15 And Ca′naan became father to Si′don+ his firstborn and Heth+ 16 and the Jeb′u·site+ and the Am′or·ite+ and the Gir′ga·shite 17 and the Hi′vite+ and the Ark′ite and the Si′nite 18 and the Ar′vad·ite+ and the Zem′a·rite and the Ha′math·ite;+ and afterward the families of the Ca′naan·ite were scattered. 19 So the boundary of the Ca′naan·ite came to be from Si′don as far as Ge′rar,+ near Ga′za,+ as far as Sod′om and Go·mor′rah+ and Ad′mah+ and Ze·boi′im,+ near La′sha.* 20 These were the sons of Ham according to their families, according to their tongues, in their lands, by their nations.

21 And to Shem, the forefather of all the sons of E′ber,+ the brother of Ja′pheth the oldest, there was also progeny born. 22 The sons of Shem were E′lam+ and As′shur+ and Ar·pach′shad+ and Lud and A′ram.

23 And the sons of A′ram were Uz and Hul and Ge′ther and Mash.+

24 And Ar·pach′shad became father to She′lah,+ and She′lah became father to E′ber.

25 And to E′ber there were two sons born. The name of the one was Pe′leg,*+ because in his days the earth* was divided;+ and the name of his brother was Jok′tan.+

26 And Jok′tan became father to Al·mo′dad and She′leph and Ha·zar·ma′veth and Je′rah+ 27 and Ha·do′ram and U′zal and Dik′lah+ 28 and O′bal and A·bim′a·el and She′ba+ 29 and O′phir+ and Hav′i·lah+ and Jo′bab;+ all these were the sons of Jok′tan.

30 And their place of dwelling came to extend from Me′sha as far as Se′phar, the mountainous region of the East.

31 These were the sons of Shem according to their families, according to their tongues, in their lands, according to their nations.+

32 These were the families of the sons of Noah according to their family descents, by their nations, and from these the nations were spread about in the earth after the deluge.+

11 Now all the earth continued to be of one language* and of one set of words.* And it came about that in their journeying eastward they eventually discovered a valley plain in the land of Shi′nar,+ and they took up dwelling there. And they began to say, each one to the other: “Come on! Let us make bricks and bake them with a burning process.” So brick served as stone for them, but bitumen served as mortar for them.+ They now said: “Come on! Let us build ourselves a city and also a tower* with its top in the heavens,+ and let us make a celebrated name* for ourselves,+ for fear we may be scattered over all the surface of the earth.”+

And Jehovah proceeded to go down to see the city and the tower that the sons of men had built.+ After that Jehovah said: “Look! They are one people and there is one language for them all,+ and this is what they start to do. Why, now there is nothing that they may have in mind to do that will be unattainable for them.+ Come now! Let us+ go down and there confuse+ their language that they may not listen to* one another’s language.”+ Accordingly Jehovah scattered them from there over all the surface of the earth,+ and they gradually left off building the city.+ That is why its name was called Ba′bel,*+ because there Jehovah had confused the language of all the earth,* and Jehovah had scattered+ them from there over all the surface of the earth.

10 This is the history of Shem.+

Shem was a hundred years old when he became father to Ar·pach′shad+ two years after the deluge. 11 And after his fathering Ar·pach′shad Shem continued to live five hundred years. Meanwhile he became father to sons and daughters.+

12 And Ar·pach′shad* lived thirty-five years. Then he became father to She′lah.+ 13 And after his fathering She′lah Ar·pach′shad continued to live four hundred and three years. Meanwhile he became father to sons and daughters.

14 And She′lah lived thirty years. Then he became father to E′ber.+ 15 And after his fathering E′ber She′lah continued to live four hundred and three years. Meanwhile he became father to sons and daughters.

16 And E′ber lived on for thirty-four years. Then he became father to Pe′leg.+ 17 And after his fathering Pe′leg E′ber continued to live four hundred and thirty years. Meanwhile he became father to sons and daughters.

18 And Pe′leg lived on for thirty years. Then he became father to Re′u.+ 19 And after his fathering Re′u Pe′leg continued to live two hundred and nine years. Meanwhile he became father to sons and daughters.

20 And Re′u lived on for thirty-two years. Then he became father to Se′rug.+ 21 And after his fathering Se′rug Re′u continued to live two hundred and seven years. Meanwhile he became father to sons and daughters.

22 And Se′rug lived on for thirty years. Then he became father to Na′hor.+ 23 And after his fathering Na′hor Se′rug continued to live two hundred years. Meanwhile he became father to sons and daughters.

24 And Na′hor lived on for twenty-nine years. Then he became father to Te′rah.+ 25 And after his fathering Te′rah Na′hor continued to live a hundred and nineteen years. Meanwhile he became father to sons and daughters.

26 And Te′rah lived on for seventy years, after which he became father to A′bram,+ Na′hor+ and Ha′ran.

27 And this is the history of Te′rah.

Te′rah became father to A′bram, Na′hor and Ha′ran; and Ha′ran became father to Lot.+ 28 Later Ha′ran died while in company with Te′rah* his father in the land of his birth, in Ur+ of the Chal·de′ans.*+ 29 And A′bram and Na′hor proceeded to take wives for themselves. The name of A′bram’s wife was Sar′ai,+ while the name of Na′hor’s wife was Mil′cah,+ the daughter of Ha′ran, the father of Mil′cah and father of Is′cah. 30 But Sar′ai continued to be barren;+ she had no child.

31 After that Te′rah took A′bram his son and Lot, the son of Ha′ran, his grandson,+ and Sar′ai+ his daughter-in-law, the wife of A′bram his son, and they went with him* out of Ur of the Chal·de′ans to go to the land of Ca′naan.+ In time they came to Ha′ran+ and took up dwelling there. 32 And the days of Te′rah came to be two hundred and five years. Then Te′rah died in Ha′ran.

12 And Jehovah proceeded to say to A′bram: “Go your way out of your country and from your relatives* and from the house of your father to the country that I shall show you;+ and I shall make a great nation out of you and I shall bless you and I will make your name great; and prove yourself a blessing.+ And I will bless those who bless you, and him that calls down evil upon you I shall curse,+ and all the families of the ground will certainly bless themselves* by means of you.”+

At that A′bram went just as Jehovah had spoken to him, and Lot went with him. And A′bram was seventy-five years old when he went out from Ha′ran.+ So A′bram took Sar′ai his wife+ and Lot the son of his brother+ and all the goods that they had accumulated+ and the souls whom they had acquired in Ha′ran, and they got on their way out to go to the land of Ca′naan.+ Finally they came to the land of Ca′naan. And A′bram went on through the land as far as the site of She′chem,*+ near the big trees of Mo′reh;+ and at that time the Ca′naan·ite was in the land. Jehovah now appeared to A′bram and said: “To your seed+ I am going to give this land.”+ After that he built an altar there to Jehovah, who had appeared to him. Later he moved from there to the mountainous region to the east of Beth′el+ and pitched his tent with Beth′el on the west and A′i+ on the east. Then he built an altar there to Jehovah+ and began to call on the name* of Jehovah.+ Afterward A′bram broke camp, going then from encampment to encampment toward the Neg′eb.*+

10 Now a famine arose in the land and A′bram made his way down toward Egypt to reside there as an alien,+ because the famine was severe in the land.+ 11 And it came about that as soon as he got near to entering Egypt, then he said to Sar′ai his wife: “Please, now! I well know you are a woman beautiful in appearance.+ 12 So it is bound to happen that the Egyptians will see you and will say, ‘This is his wife.’ And they will certainly kill me, but you they will preserve alive. 13 Please say you are my sister,+ in order that it may go well with me on your account, and my soul will be certain to live due to you.”+

14 So it happened that, as soon as A′bram entered Egypt, the Egyptians got to see the woman, that she was very beautiful. 15 And the princes of Phar′aoh* also got to see her and they began praising her to Phar′aoh, so that the woman was taken to the house of Phar′aoh. 16 And he treated A′bram well on her account, and he came to have sheep and cattle and asses and menservants and maidservants and she-asses and camels.+ 17 Then Jehovah touched Phar′aoh and his household with great plagues+ because of Sar′ai, A′bram’s wife.+ 18 With that Phar′aoh called A′bram and said: “What is this you have done to me? Why did you not tell me that she was your wife?+ 19 Why did you say, ‘She is my sister,’+ so that I was about to take her as my wife? And now here is your wife. Take her and go!” 20 And Phar′aoh issued commands to men concerning him, and they went escorting him and his wife and all that he had.*+

13 Following that A′bram went up out of Egypt, he and his wife and all that he had, and Lot with him, to the Neg′eb.+ And A′bram was heavily stocked with herds and silver and gold.+ And he made his way from encampment to encampment out of the Neg′eb and to Beth′el, to the place where his tent had been at first between Beth′el and A′i,+ to the place of the altar that he had made there originally;+ and A′bram proceeded to call there on* the name of Jehovah.+

Now Lot, who was going along with A′bram, also owned sheep and cattle and tents. So the land did not allow for them to dwell all together, because their goods had become many and they were not able to dwell all together.+ And a quarrel arose between the herders of A′bram’s livestock and the herders of Lot’s livestock; and at that time the Ca′naan·ite and the Per′iz·zite were dwelling in the land.+ Hence A′bram said to Lot:+ “Please, do not let any quarreling continue between me and you and between my herdsmen and your herdsmen, for we men are brothers.+ Is not the whole land available to* you? Please, separate from me. If you go to the left, then I will go to the right; but if you go to the right, then I will go to the left.”+ 10 So Lot raised his eyes and saw the whole District* of the Jordan,+ that all of it was a well-watered region before Jehovah brought Sod′om and Go·mor′rah to ruin, like the garden* of Jehovah,+ like the land of Egypt as far as Zo′ar.*+ 11 Then Lot chose for himself the whole District of the Jordan, and Lot moved his camp to the east. So they separated the one from the other. 12 A′bram dwelt in the land of Ca′naan, but Lot dwelt among the cities of the District.+ Finally he pitched tent near Sod′om. 13 And the men of Sod′om were bad and were gross sinners against Jehovah.+

14 And Jehovah said to A′bram after Lot had separated from him: “Raise your eyes, please, and look from the place where you are, northward and southward* and eastward and westward,*+ 15 because all the land at which you are looking, to you and to your seed I am going to give it until time indefinite.+ 16 And I will constitute your seed like the dust particles of the earth, so that, if a man could be able to count the dust particles of the earth, then your seed could be numbered.+ 17 Get up, go about in the land through its length and through its breadth, because to you I am going to give it.”+ 18 So A′bram continued to live in tents.* Later on he came and dwelt among the big trees of Mam′re,+ which are in He′bron;+ and there he proceeded to build an altar to Jehovah.+

14 Now it came about in the days of* Am′ra·phel king* of Shi′nar,+ Ar′i·och king of El·la′sar, Ched·or·la·o′mer+ king of E′lam,+ and Ti′dal king of Goi′im,*+ that these made war with Be′ra king of Sod′om,+ and with Bir′sha king of Go·mor′rah,+ Shi′nab king of Ad′mah,+ and Shem·e′ber king of Ze·boi′im,+ and the king of Be′la (that is to say, Zo′ar).+ All these marched as allies+ to the Low Plain of Sid′dim,*+ that is, the Salt Sea.+

Twelve years they had served Ched·or·la·o′mer, but the thirteenth year they rebelled. And in the fourteenth year Ched·or·la·o′mer came, and also the kings who were with him, and they inflicted defeats on the Reph′a·im in Ash′te·roth-kar·na′im,+ and the Zu′zim in Ham, and the E′mim+ in Sha′veh-kir·i·a·tha′im, and the Hor′ites+ in their mountain of Se′ir,+ down to El-pa′ran,+ which is at the wilderness. Then they turned about and came to En-mish′pat, that is, Ka′desh,+ and defeated the whole field of the A·mal′ek·ites+ and also the Am′or·ites+ who were dwelling in Haz′a·zon-ta′mar.+

At this point the king of Sod′om went on the march, and also the king of Go·mor′rah and the king of Ad′mah and the king of Ze·boi′im and the king of Be′la (that is to say, Zo′ar), and they drew up in battle order against them in the Low Plain of Sid′dim,+ against Ched·or·la·o′mer king of E′lam and Ti′dal king of Goi′im and Am′ra·phel king of Shi′nar and Ar′i·och king of El·la′sar;+ four kings against the five. 10 Now the Low Plain of Sid′dim+ was pits upon pits of bitumen;+ and the kings of Sod′om and Go·mor′rah+ took to flight and went falling into them, and those who remained fled to the mountainous region.+ 11 Then the victors* took all the goods of Sod′om and Go·mor′rah and all their food and went on their way.+ 12 They also took Lot the son of A′bram’s brother and his goods and continued on their way. He was then dwelling in Sod′om.+

13 After that a man who had escaped came and told A′bram the Hebrew.*+ He was then tabernacling among the big trees of Mam′re the Am′or·ite,+ the brother of Esh′col and brother of A′ner;+ and they were confederates* of A′bram. 14 Thus A′bram got to hear that his brother had been taken captive.+ With that he mustered his trained men,+ three hundred and eighteen slaves born in his household,*+ and went in pursuit up to Dan.+ 15 And by night he resorted to dividing his forces,+ he and his slaves, against them, and thus he defeated them and kept in pursuit of them up to Ho′bah, which is north* of Damascus. 16 And he proceeded to recover all the goods,+ and he recovered also Lot his brother and his goods and also the women and the people.+

17 Then the king of Sod′om went out to meet him after he returned from defeating Ched·or·la·o′mer and the kings that were with him, to the Low Plain of Sha′veh,* that is, the king’s Low Plain.+ 18 And Mel·chiz′e·dek+ king of Sa′lem+ brought out bread and wine,+ and he was priest* of the Most High God.*+ 19 Then he blessed him and said:

“Blessed be A′bram of the Most High God,+

Producer* of heaven and earth;+

20 And blessed be the Most High God,+

Who has delivered your oppressors into your hand!”+

At that A′bram* gave him a tenth* of everything.+

21 After that the king of Sod′om said to A′bram: “Give me the souls,*+ but take the goods for yourself.” 22 At this A′bram said to the king of Sod′om: “I do lift up my hand [in an oath]+ to Jehovah the Most High God, Producer of heaven and earth, 23 that, from a thread to a sandal lace, no, I shall take nothing from anything that is yours,+ in order that you may not say, ‘It was I who made A′bram rich.’ 24 Nothing for me!+ Only what the young men have already eaten, and the share of the men who went with me, A′ner, Esh′col and Mam′re+—let them take their share.”+

15 After these things the word of Jehovah came to A′bram in a vision,+ saying: “Do not fear,+ A′bram. I am a shield for you.+ Your reward will be very great.”*+ At this A′bram said: “Sovereign Lord Jehovah,* what will you give me, seeing that I am going childless and the one who will possess my house is a man of Damascus, E·li·e′zer?”+ And A′bram added: “Look! You have given me no seed,+ and, look! a son+ of my household is succeeding me as heir.” But, look! the word of Jehovah to him was in these words: “This man will not succeed you as heir, but one who will come out of your own inward parts* will succeed you as heir.”+

He now brought him outside and said: “Look up, please, to the heavens and count the stars, if you are possibly able to count them.”+ And he went on to say to him: “So your seed will become.”+ And he put faith* in Jehovah;+ and he proceeded to count it to him as righteousness.+ Then he added to him: “I am Jehovah, who brought you out of Ur of the Chal·de′ans to give you this land to take it in possession.”+ To this he said: “Sovereign Lord Jehovah,* by what shall I know that I shall take it in possession?”+ In turn he said to him: “Take for me* a three-year-old heifer and a three-year-old she-goat and a three-year-old ram and a turtledove and a young pigeon.”+ 10 So he took all these to himself and cut them in two and put each part of them so as to match the other, but the birds he did not cut in pieces.+ 11 And the birds of prey began to descend upon the carcasses,+ but A′bram kept driving them away.

12 After a while the sun was about to set, and a deep sleep fell upon A′bram,+ and, look! a frightfully great darkness* was falling upon him. 13 And he began to say to A′bram: “You may know for sure that your seed will become an alien resident in a land not theirs,+ and they will have to serve them, and these will certainly afflict them for four hundred years.+ 14 But the nation that they will serve I am judging,+ and after that they will go out with many goods.+ 15 As for you, you will go to your forefathers in peace; you will be buried at a good old age.+ 16 But in the fourth generation they will return here,+ because the error of the Am′or·ites has not yet come to completion.”+

17 The sun was now setting and a dense darkness came and, look! a smoking furnace and a fiery torch that passed in between these pieces.+ 18 On that day Jehovah concluded* with A′bram a covenant,+ saying: “To your seed I will give this land,+ from the river of Egypt to the great river, the river Eu·phra′tes:+ 19 the Ken′ites+ and the Ken′iz·zites and the Kad′mon·ites 20 and the Hit′tites+ and the Per′iz·zites+ and the Reph′a·im+ 21 and the Am′or·ites and the Ca′naan·ites and the Gir′ga·shites and the Jeb′u·sites.”+

16 Now Sar′ai, A′bram’s wife, had borne him no children;+ but she had an Egyptian maidservant and her name was Ha′gar.+ Hence Sar′ai said to A′bram: “Please now! Jehovah has shut me off from bearing children.+ Please, have relations with my maidservant. Perhaps I may get children from her.”+ So A′bram listened to the voice of Sar′ai.+ Then Sar′ai, A′bram’s wife, took Ha′gar, her Egyptian maidservant, at the end of ten years of A′bram’s dwelling in the land of Ca′naan, and gave her to A′bram her husband as his wife.+ Accordingly he had relations with Ha′gar, and she became pregnant. When she became aware that she was pregnant, then her mistress began to be despised in her eyes.+

At this Sar′ai said to A′bram: “The violence done me be upon you. I myself gave my maidservant over to your bosom, and she became aware that she was pregnant, and I began to be despised in her eyes. May Jehovah judge between me and you.”*+ So A′bram said to Sar′ai:+ “Look! Your maidservant is at your disposal. Do to her what is good in your eyes.”+ Then Sar′ai began to humiliate* her so that she ran away from her.+

Later Jehovah’s angel*+ found her at a fountain of waters in the wilderness, at the fountain on the way to Shur.+ And he began to say: “Ha′gar, maidservant of Sar′ai, just where have you come from and where are you going?” To this she said: “Why, from Sar′ai my mistress I am running away.” And Jehovah’s angel went on to say to her: “Return to your mistress and humble yourself under her hand.”+ 10 Then Jehovah’s angel said to her: “I shall greatly multiply your seed,+ so that it will not be numbered for multitude.”+ 11 Further Jehovah’s angel added to her: “Here you are pregnant, and you shall give birth to a son and must call his name Ish′ma·el;*+ for Jehovah has heard your affliction.+ 12 As for him, he will become a zebra* of a man. His hand will be against everyone, and the hand of everyone will be against him;+ and before the face of all his brothers he will tabernacle.”+

13 Then she began to call the name of Jehovah, who was speaking to her: “You are a God* of sight,”*+ for she said: “Have I here actually* looked upon him* who sees me?” 14 That is why the well was called* Be′er-la′hai-roi.*+ Here it is between Ka′desh and Be′red. 15 Later on Ha′gar bore to A′bram a son and A′bram called the name of his son whom Ha′gar bore Ish′ma·el.+ 16 And A′bram was eighty-six years old at Ha′gar’s bearing Ish′ma·el to A′bram.

17 When A′bram got to be ninety-nine years old, then Jehovah appeared to A′bram and said to him:+ “I am God Almighty.*+ Walk before me and prove yourself faultless.+ And I will give my covenant between me and you,+ that I may multiply you very, very much.”+

At this A′bram fell upon his face,+ and God* continued to speak with him, saying: “As for me, look! my covenant is with you,+ and you will certainly become a father of a crowd of nations.+ And your name will not be called A′bram* anymore, and your name must become Abraham,* because a father of a crowd of nations I will make you. And I will make you very, very fruitful and will make you become nations, and kings will come out of you.+

“And I will carry out my covenant between me and you+ and your seed after you according to their generations for a covenant to time indefinite,+ to prove myself God* to you and to your seed after you.+ And I will give to you and to your seed after you the land of your alien residences,+ even the entire land of Ca′naan, for a possession to time indefinite; and I will prove myself God to them.”+

And God said further to Abraham: “As for you, you are to keep my covenant, you and your seed after you according to their generations.+ 10 This is my covenant that YOU men will keep, between me and YOU men, even your seed after you:+ Every male of YOURS must get circumcised.+ 11 And YOU must get circumcised in the flesh of YOUR foreskins, and it must serve as a sign of the covenant between me and YOU.+ 12 And every male of YOURS eight days old must be circumcised,+ according to your generations, anyone born in the house* and anyone purchased with money* from any foreigner who is not from your seed. 13 Every man born in your house and every man purchased with money of yours must without fail get circumcised;+ and my covenant in the flesh of YOU men must serve as a covenant to time indefinite.+ 14 And an uncircumcised male who will not get the flesh of his foreskin circumcised, even that soul must be cut off from his people.+ He has broken my covenant.”

15 And God went on to say to Abraham: “As for Sar′ai your wife, you must not call her name Sar′ai,* because Sarah* is her name.+ 16 And I will bless her and also give you a son from her;+ and I will bless her and she shall become nations;+ kings of peoples will come from her.”+ 17 At this Abraham fell upon his face and began to laugh and to say in his heart:+ “Will a man a hundred years old have a child born, and will Sarah, yes, will a woman ninety years old give birth?”+

18 After that Abraham said to the [true] God:* “O that Ish′ma·el might live before you!”+ 19 To this God said: “Sarah your wife is indeed bearing you a son, and you must call his name Isaac.*+ And I will establish my covenant with him for a covenant to time indefinite to his seed after him.+ 20 But as regards Ish′ma·el I have heard you. Look! I will bless him and will make him fruitful and will multiply him very, very much.+ He will certainly produce twelve chieftains,* and I will make him become a great nation.+ 21 However, my covenant I shall establish with Isaac,+ whom Sarah will bear to you at this appointed time next year.”+

22 With that God finished speaking with him and went up from Abraham.+ 23 Abraham then proceeded to take Ish′ma·el his son and all the men born in his house and everyone purchased with money of his, every male among the men of the household of Abraham, and he went to circumcising the flesh of their foreskins in this very day, just as God had spoken with him.+ 24 And Abraham was ninety-nine years old when he had the flesh of his foreskin circumcised.+ 25 And Ish′ma·el his son was thirteen years old when he had the flesh of his foreskin circumcised.+ 26 In this very day Abraham got circumcised, and also Ish′ma·el his son.+ 27 And all the men of his household, anyone born in the house and anyone purchased with money from a foreigner, got circumcised with him.+

18 Afterward Jehovah appeared+ to him among the big trees of Mam′re,+ while he was sitting at the entrance of the tent about the heat of the day.+ When he raised his eyes,+ then he looked and there three men were standing some distance from him. When he caught sight of them he began running to meet them from the entrance of the tent and proceeded to bow down to the earth.+ Then he said: “Jehovah,* if, now, I have found favor in your eyes, please do not pass by your servant.+ Let a little water be taken, please, and YOU must have YOUR feet washed.+ Then recline under the tree.+ And let me get a piece of bread, and refresh YOUR hearts.+ Following that, YOU can pass on, because that is why YOU have passed this way to YOUR servant.” At this they said: “All right. You may do just as you have spoken.”

So Abraham went hurrying to the tent to Sarah and said: “Hurry! Get three seah* measures of fine flour, knead the dough and make round cakes.”+ Next Abraham ran to the herd and proceeded to get a tender and good young bull and to give it to the attendant, and he went hurrying to get it ready.+ He then took butter and milk and the young bull that he had got ready and set it before them.+ Then he himself kept standing by them under the tree as they were eating.+

They now said to him:* “Where is Sarah your wife?”+ To this he said: “Here in the tent!”+ 10 So he continued: “I am surely going to return to you next year at this time,* and, look! Sarah your wife will have a son.”+ Now Sarah was listening at the tent entrance, and it was behind the man. 11 And Abraham and Sarah were old, being advanced in years.+ Sarah had stopped having menstruation.*+ 12 Hence Sarah began to laugh inside herself,+ saying: “After I am worn out, shall I really have pleasure, my lord* being old besides?”+ 13 Then Jehovah said to Abraham: “Why was it that Sarah laughed, saying, ‘Shall I really and truly give birth although I have become old?’+ 14 Is anything too extraordinary for Jehovah?+ At the appointed time I shall return to you, next year at this time, and Sarah will have a son.” 15 But Sarah began to deny it, saying: “I did not laugh!” For she was afraid. At this he said: “No! but you did laugh.”+

16 Later the men got up from there and looked down toward Sod′om,+ and Abraham was walking with them to escort them.+ 17 And Jehovah* said: “Am I keeping covered from Abraham what I am doing?+ 18 Why, Abraham is surely going to become a nation great and mighty, and all the nations of the earth must bless themselves by means of him.+ 19 For I have become acquainted with him in order that he may command his sons and his household after him so that they shall keep Jehovah’s way to do righteousness and judgment;+ in order that Jehovah may certainly bring upon Abraham what he has spoken about him.”+

20 Consequently Jehovah said: “The cry of complaint about Sod′om and Go·mor′rah,+ yes, it is loud, and their sin, yes, it is very heavy.+ 21 I am quite determined to go down that I may see whether they act altogether according to the outcry over it that has come to me, and, if not, I can get to know it.”+

22 At this point the men turned from there and got on their way to Sod′om; but as for Jehovah,+ he was still standing before Abraham.*+ 23 Then Abraham approached and began to say: “Will you really sweep away the righteous with the wicked?+ 24 Suppose there are fifty righteous men in the midst of the city. Will you, then, sweep them away and not pardon the place for the sake of the fifty righteous who are inside it?+ 25 It is unthinkable of you that you are acting in this manner to put to death the righteous man with the wicked one so that it has to occur with the righteous man as it does with the wicked!+ It is unthinkable of you.+ Is the Judge of all the earth not going to do what is right?”+ 26 Then Jehovah said: “If I shall find in Sod′om fifty righteous men in the midst of the city I will pardon the whole place on their account.”+ 27 But Abraham went on to answer and say: “Please, here I have taken upon myself to speak to Jehovah,* whereas I am dust and ashes.+ 28 Suppose the fifty righteous should be lacking five. Will you for the five bring the whole city to ruin?” To this he said: “I shall not bring it to ruin if I find there forty-five.”+

29 But yet again he spoke further to him and said: “Suppose forty are found there.” In turn he said: “I shall not do it on account of the forty.” 30 But he continued: “May Jehovah,* please, not grow hot with anger,+ but let me go on speaking:+ Suppose thirty are found there.” In turn he said: “I shall not do it if I find thirty there.” 31 But he continued on: “Please, here I have taken upon myself to speak to Jehovah:*+ Suppose twenty are found there.” In turn he said: “I shall not bring it to ruin on account of the twenty.”+ 32 Finally he said: “May Jehovah,* please, not grow hot with anger,+ but let me speak just this once:+ Suppose ten are found there.” In turn he said: “I shall not bring it to ruin on account of the ten.”+ 33 Then Jehovah+ went his way when he had finished speaking to Abraham, and Abraham returned to his place.

19 Now the two angels arrived at Sod′om by evening, and Lot was sitting in the gate of Sod′om.+ When Lot caught sight of them, then he got up to meet them and bowed down with his face to the earth.+ And he proceeded to say: “Please, now, my lords, turn aside, please, into the house of YOUR servant and stay overnight and have YOUR feet washed.+ Then YOU must get up early and travel on YOUR way.”+ To this they said: “No, but in the public square is where we shall stay overnight.”+ But he was very insistent with them,+ so that they turned aside to him and came into his house. Then he made a feast for them,+ and he baked unfermented cakes,+ and they went to eating.

Before they could lie down, the men of the city, the men of Sod′om, surrounded the house,+ from boy to old man, all the people in one mob.*+ And they kept calling out to Lot and saying to him: “Where are the men who came in to you tonight? Bring them out to us that we may have intercourse with them.”+

Finally Lot went out to them to the entrance, but he shut the door behind him. Then he said: “Please, my brothers, do not act badly.+ Please, here I have two daughters who have never had intercourse with a man.+ Please, let me bring them out to YOU. Then do to them as is good in YOUR eyes.+ Only to these men do not do a thing,+ because that is why they have come under the shadow of my roof.”+ At this they said: “Stand back there!” And they added: “This lone man came here to reside as an alien+ and yet he would actually play the judge.+ Now we are going to do worse to you than to them.” And they came pressing heavily in on the man,+ on Lot, and were getting near to break in the door.+ 10 So the men thrust out their hands and brought Lot in to them, into the house, and they shut the door. 11 But they struck with blindness the men who were at the entrance of the house,+ from the least to the greatest,+ so that they were wearing themselves out trying to find the entrance.+

12 Then the men said to Lot: “Do you have anyone else here? Son-in-law and your sons and your daughters and all who are yours in the city, bring out of the place!+ 13 For we are bringing this place to ruin, because the outcry against them has grown loud before Jehovah,+ so that Jehovah sent us to bring the city* to ruin.”+ 14 Hence Lot went on out and began to speak to his sons-in-law who were to take* his daughters, and he kept on saying: “Get up! Get out of this place, because Jehovah is bringing the city to ruin!”+ But in the eyes of his sons-in-law he seemed like a man who was joking.+

15 However, when the dawn ascended, then the angels became urgent with Lot, saying: “Get up! Take your wife and your two daughters who are found here,+ for fear you may be swept away in the error of the city!”+ 16 When he kept lingering,+ then in the compassion of Jehovah upon him,+ the men seized hold of his hand and of the hand of his wife and of the hands of his two daughters and they proceeded to bring him out and to station him outside the city.+ 17 And it came about that, as soon as they had brought them forth to the outskirts, he* began to say: “Escape for your soul!+ Do not look behind you+ and do not stand still in all the District!*+ Escape to the mountainous region for fear you may be swept away!”+

18 Then Lot said to them: “Not that, please, Jehovah!* 19 Please, now, your servant has found favor in your eyes+ so that you are magnifying your loving-kindness,*+ which you have exercised with me to preserve my soul alive,+ but I—I am not able to escape to the mountainous region for fear calamity may keep close to me and I certainly die.+ 20 Please, now, this city is nearby to flee there and it is a small thing.+ May I, please, escape there—is it not a small thing?—and my soul will live on.”+ 21 So he said to him: “Here I do show you consideration to this extent* also,+ by my not overthrowing the city of which you have spoken.+ 22 Hurry! Escape there, because I am not able to do a thing until your arriving there!”+ That is why he called the name of the city Zo′ar.*+

23 The sun had gone forth over the land when Lot arrived at Zo′ar.+ 24 Then Jehovah made it rain sulphur and fire from Jehovah, from the heavens, upon Sod′om and upon Go·mor′rah.+ 25 So he went ahead overthrowing these cities, even the entire District and all the inhabitants of the cities and the plants of the ground.+ 26 And his wife began to look around from behind him,* and she became a pillar of salt.+

27 Now Abraham made his way early in the morning to the place where he had stood before Jehovah.+ 28 Then he looked down toward Sod′om and Go·mor′rah and toward all the land of the District and saw a sight. Why, here thick smoke ascended from the land like the thick smoke of a kiln!+ 29 And it came about that when God brought the cities of the District to ruin God kept Abraham in mind in that he took steps to send Lot out of the midst of the overthrow when overthrowing the cities among which Lot had been dwelling.+

30 Later Lot went up from Zo′ar and began dwelling in the mountainous region, and his two daughters along with him,+ because he got afraid of dwelling in Zo′ar.+ So he began dwelling in a cave, he and his two daughters. 31 And the firstborn proceeded to say to the younger woman: “Our father is old and there is not a man in the land to have relations with us according to the way of the whole earth.+ 32 Come, let us give our father wine to drink+ and let us lie down with him and preserve offspring from our father.”+

33 So they kept giving their father wine to drink during that night;+ then the firstborn went in and lay down with her father, but he did not know when she lay down and when she got up.* 34 And it came about on the next day that the firstborn then said to the younger: “Here I lay down with my father last night. Let us give him wine to drink tonight also. Then you go in, lie down with him, and let us preserve offspring from our father.” 35 So they repeatedly gave their father wine to drink during that night also; then the younger got up and lay down with him, but he did not know when she lay down and when she got up. 36 And both the daughters of Lot became pregnant from their father.+ 37 In time the firstborn became mother to a son and called his name Mo′ab.*+ He is the father of Mo′ab, to this day.+ 38 As for the younger, she too gave birth to a son and then called his name Ben-am′mi.* He is the father of the sons of Am′mon,+ to this day.

20 Now Abraham moved camp from there+ to the land of the Neg′eb and took up dwelling between Ka′desh+ and Shur+ and residing as an alien at Ge′rar.+ And Abraham repeated concerning Sarah his wife: “She is my sister.”+ With that A·bim′e·lech* king of Ge′rar sent and took Sarah.+ Afterward God came to A·bim′e·lech in a dream by night and said to him: “Here you are as good as dead because of the woman whom you have taken,+ since she is owned by another owner as his wife.”+ However, A·bim′e·lech had not gone near her.+ Hence he said: “Jehovah,* will you kill a nation that is really righteous?+ Did not he say to me, ‘She is my sister’? and she—did not she too say, ‘He is my brother’? In the honesty of my heart and with innocency of my hands I have done this.”+ At that the [true] God said to him in the dream: “I too have known that in the honesty of your heart you have done this,+ and I was also holding you back from sinning against me.+ That is why I did not allow you to touch her.+ But now return the man’s wife, for he is a prophet,*+ and he will make supplication for you.+ So keep living. But if you are not returning her, know that you will positively die, you and all who are yours.”+

So A·bim′e·lech got up early in the morning and proceeded to call all his servants and to speak of all these things in their ears. And the men got very much afraid. Then A·bim′e·lech called Abraham and said to him: “What have you done to us, and what sin have I committed against you, in that you have brought upon me and my kingdom a great sin?+ Deeds that should not have been done you have done in connection with me.”+ 10 And A·bim′e·lech went on to say to Abraham: “What did you have in view in that you have done this thing?”+ 11 To this Abraham said: “It was because I said to myself, ‘Doubtless there is no fear of God* in this place,+ and they will certainly kill me because of my wife.’+ 12 And, besides, she is truly my sister, the daughter of my father, only not the daughter of my mother; and she became my wife.+ 13 And it came about that, when God caused me to wander* from the house of my father,+ then I said to her, ‘This is your loving-kindness*+ which you may exercise toward me: At every place where we shall come say of me: “He is my brother.”’”+

14 Following that A·bim′e·lech took sheep and cattle and menservants and maidservants and gave them to Abraham and returned to him Sarah his wife.+ 15 Further A·bim′e·lech said: “Here my land is available to you.* Dwell where it is good in your eyes.”+ 16 And to Sarah he said: “Here I do give a thousand silver pieces of money* to your brother.+ Here it* is for you a covering+ of the eyes* to all who are with you, and before everybody, and you are cleared of reproach.”* 17 And Abraham began to make supplication to the [true] God;+ and God* proceeded to heal A·bim′e·lech and his wife and his slave girls, and they began bearing children. 18 For Jehovah had tightly shut up every womb of the house of A·bim′e·lech because of Sarah, Abraham’s wife.+

21 And Jehovah turned his attention to Sarah just as he had said, and Jehovah now did to Sarah just as he had spoken.+ And Sarah became pregnant+ and then bore a son to Abraham in his old age at the appointed time of which God had spoken to him.+ Accordingly Abraham called the name of his son who had been born to him, whom Sarah had borne to him, Isaac.+ And Abraham proceeded to circumcise Isaac his son when eight days old, just as God had commanded him.+ And Abraham was a hundred years old when Isaac his son was born to him. Then Sarah said: “God has prepared laughter for me: everybody hearing of it will laugh at me.”+ And she added: “Who would have uttered to Abraham, ‘Sarah will certainly suckle children,’ whereas I have given birth to a son in his old age?”

Now the child kept growing and came to be weaned;+ and Abraham then prepared a big feast on the day of Isaac’s being weaned. And Sarah kept noticing the son of Ha′gar the Egyptian,+ whom she had borne to Abraham, poking fun.+ 10 So she began to say to Abraham: “Drive out this slave girl and her son, for the son of this slave girl is not going to be an heir with my son, with Isaac!”+ 11 But the thing proved to be very displeasing to Abraham as regards his son.+ 12 Then God said to Abraham: “Do not let anything that Sarah keeps saying to you be displeasing to you about the boy and about your slave girl. Listen to her voice, because it is by means of Isaac that what will be called your seed will be.+ 13 And as for the son of the slave girl,+ I shall also constitute him a nation, because he is your offspring.”+

14 So Abraham got up early in the morning and took bread and a skin water bottle and gave it to Ha′gar,+ setting it upon her shoulder, and the child,+ and then dismissed her. And she went her way and wandered about in the wilderness of Be′er-she′ba.*+ 15 Finally the water became exhausted+ in the skin bottle and she threw+ the child under one of the bushes. 16 Then she went on and sat down by herself, about the distance of a bowshot away, because she said: “Let me not see it when the child dies.”+ So she sat down at a distance and began to raise her voice and weep.*+

17 At that God heard the voice of the boy,+ and God’s angel called to Ha′gar out of the heavens and said to her:+ “What is the matter with you, Ha′gar? Do not be afraid, because God has listened to the voice of the boy there where he is. 18 Get up, lift up the boy and take hold of him with your hand, because I shall constitute him a great nation.”+ 19 Then God opened her eyes so that she caught sight of a well of water;+ and she went and began to fill the skin bottle with water and to give the boy a drink. 20 And God continued to be with the boy,+ and he kept growing and dwelling in the wilderness; and he became an archer.*+ 21 And he took up dwelling in the wilderness of Pa′ran,+ and his mother proceeded to take a wife for him from the land of Egypt.

22 Now it came about at that time that A·bim′e·lech together with Phi′col the chief of his army said to Abraham: “God* is with you in everything you are doing.+ 23 So now swear to me here by God+ that you will not prove false to me and to my offspring and to my posterity;+ that, according to the loyal love with which I have dealt with you,+ you will deal with me and with the land in which you have been residing as an alien.”+ 24 So Abraham said: “I shall swear.”+

25 When Abraham criticized A·bim′e·lech severely as regards the well of water that the servants of A·bim′e·lech had seized by violence,+ 26 then A·bim′e·lech said: “I do not know who did this thing, neither did you yourself tell it to me, and I myself have also not heard of it except today.”+ 27 With that Abraham took sheep and cattle and gave them to A·bim′e·lech,+ and both of them proceeded to conclude* a covenant.+ 28 When Abraham set seven female lambs of the flock by themselves, 29 A·bim′e·lech went on to say to Abraham: “What is the meaning here of these seven female lambs that you have set by themselves?” 30 Then he said: “You are to accept the seven female lambs at my hand, that it may serve as a witness+ for me that I have dug this well.” 31 That is why he called that place Be′er-she′ba,+ because there both of them had taken an oath. 32 So they concluded a covenant+ at Be′er-she′ba, after which A·bim′e·lech got up together with Phi′col the chief of his army and they returned to the land of the Phi·lis′tines.+ 33 After that he planted a tamarisk tree at Be′er-she′ba and called there upon the name of Jehovah+ the indefinitely lasting God.*+ 34 And Abraham extended his residence as an alien in the land of the Phi·lis′tines many days.+

22 Now after these things it came about that the [true] God put Abraham to the test.+ Accordingly he said to him: “Abraham!” to which he said: “Here I am!”+ And he went on to say: “Take, please, your son, your only son whom you so love,+ Isaac,+ and make a trip to the land of Mo·ri′ah+ and there offer him up as a burnt offering on one of the mountains that I shall designate to you.”+

So Abraham got up early in the morning and saddled his ass and took two of his attendants* with him and Isaac his son;+ and he split the wood for the burnt offering. Then he rose and went on the trip to the place that the [true] God designated to him. It was first on the third day that Abraham raised his eyes and began to see the place from a distance. Abraham now said to his attendants:+ “YOU stay here with the ass, but I and the boy want to go on over there and worship+ and return to YOU.”

After that Abraham took the wood of the burnt offering and put it upon Isaac his son+ and took in his hands the fire and the slaughtering knife, and both of them went on together.+ And Isaac began to say to Abraham his father:* “My father!”+ In turn he said: “Here I am, my son!”+ So he continued: “Here are the fire and the wood, but where is the sheep for the burnt offering?”+ To this Abraham said: “God will provide himself the sheep for the burnt offering,+ my son.” And both of them walked on together.

Finally they reached the place that the [true] God had designated to him, and Abraham built an altar+ there and set the wood in order and bound Isaac his son hand and foot and put him upon the altar on top of the wood.+ 10 Then Abraham put out his hand and took the slaughtering knife to kill his son.+ 11 But Jehovah’s angel began calling to him out of the heavens and saying:+ “Abraham, Abraham!” to which he answered: “Here I am!” 12 And he went on to say: “Do not put out your hand against the boy and do not do anything at all to him,+ for now I do know that you are God-fearing* in that you have not withheld your son, your only one, from me.”+ 13 At that Abraham raised his eyes and looked and there, deep in the foreground, there was a ram caught by its horns in a thicket. So Abraham went and took the ram and offered it up for a burnt offering in place of his son.+ 14 And Abraham began to call the name of that place Je·ho′vah-ji′reh.* This is why it is customarily said today: “In the mountain of Jehovah it will be provided.”*+

15 And Jehovah’s angel proceeded to call to Abraham the second time out of the heavens 16 and to say: “‘By myself I do swear,’ is the utterance of Jehovah,+ ‘that by reason of the fact that you have done this thing and you have not withheld your son, your only one,+ 17 I shall surely bless you and I shall surely multiply your seed like the stars of the heavens and like the grains of sand that are on the seashore;+ and your seed will take possession of the gate* of his enemies.+ 18 And by means of your seed+ all nations of the earth will certainly bless themselves* due to the fact that you have listened to my voice.’”+

19 After that Abraham returned to his attendants, and they got up and went their way together to Be′er-she′ba;+ and Abraham continued to dwell at Be′er-she′ba.

20 Now it came about after these things that the report got through to Abraham: “Here Mil′cah+ herself has also borne sons to Na′hor+ your brother: 21 Uz his firstborn and Buz+ his brother and Kem·u′el the father of A′ram, 22 and Che′sed and Ha′zo and Pil′dash and Jid′laph and Be·thu′el.”+ 23 And Be·thu′el became the father of Re·bek′ah.+ These eight Mil′cah bore to Na′hor the brother of Abraham. 24 There was his concubine too, whose name was Reu′mah. In time she herself also gave birth to Te′bah and Ga′ham and Ta′hash and Ma′a·cah.+

23 And Sarah’s life got to be a hundred and twenty-seven years long. They were the years of Sarah’s life.+ So Sarah died in Kir′i·ath-ar′ba,+ that is to say, He′bron,+ in the land of Ca′naan,+ and Abraham came in to bewail Sarah and to weep over her. Then Abraham got up from before his dead and proceeded to speak to the sons of Heth,*+ saying: “An alien resident and settler I am among YOU.+ Give me the possession of a burial place among YOU that I may bury my dead out of my sight.”+ At this the sons of Heth answered Abraham, saying to him: “Hear us, my lord.*+ A chieftain of God* you are in the midst of us.+ In the choicest* of our burial places bury your dead.+ None of us will hold back his burial place from you to prevent burying your dead.”+

Thereupon Abraham got up and bowed down to the natives,*+ to the sons of Heth,+ and spoke with them, saying: “If YOUR souls agree* to bury my dead out of my sight, listen to me and urge E′phron the son of Zo′har for me,+ that he may give me the cave of Mach·pe′lah,*+ which is his, which is at the extremity of his field. For the full amount of silver let him give it to me in the midst of YOU for the possession of a burial place.”+

10 As it was, E′phron was sitting among the sons of Heth. So E′phron the Hit′tite+ answered Abraham in the hearing* of the sons of Heth with all those entering the gate of his city, saying:+ 11 “No, my lord! Listen to me. The field I do give to you, and the cave that is in it to you I do give it. Before the eyes of the sons of my people I do give it to you.+ Bury your dead.” 12 At that Abraham bowed down before the natives 13 and spoke to E′phron in the hearing of the natives, saying: “Only if you—no, listen to me! I will give you the amount of silver for the field. Take it from me,+ that I may bury my dead there.”

14 Then E′phron answered Abraham, saying to him: 15 “My lord, listen to me. A land plot worth four hundred silver shekels,* what is that between me and you? So bury your dead.”+ 16 Accordingly Abraham listened to E′phron, and Abraham weighed out to E′phron the amount of silver that he had spoken in the hearing of the sons of Heth, four hundred silver shekels current with the merchants.+ 17 Thus the field of E′phron that was in Mach·pe′lah, which is in front of Mam′re, the field and the cave that was in it and all the trees that were in the field,+ which were within all its boundaries round about, became confirmed+ 18 to Abraham as his purchased property before the eyes of the sons of Heth among all those entering the gate of his city.+ 19 And after that Abraham buried Sarah his wife in the cave of the field of Mach·pe′lah in front of Mam′re, that is to say, He′bron, in the land of Ca′naan.+ 20 Thus the field and the cave that was in it became confirmed to Abraham for the possession of a burial place at the hands of the sons of Heth.+

24 Now Abraham was old, advanced in years;* and Jehovah had blessed Abraham in everything.+ Hence Abraham said to his servant, the oldest one of his household, who was managing* all he had:+ “Put your hand, please, under my thigh,+ as I must have you swear by Jehovah,+ the God of the heavens and the God of the earth, that you will not take a wife for my son from the daughters of the Ca′naan·ites in among whom I am dwelling,+ but you will go to my country and to my relatives,+ and you will certainly take a wife for my son, for Isaac.”

However, the servant said to him: “What if the woman does not wish to come with me to this land? Must I be sure to return your son to the land from where you went out?”+ At this Abraham said to him: “Be on your guard that you do not return my son there.+ Jehovah the God of the heavens, who took me from my father’s house and from the land of my relatives*+ and who spoke to me and who swore to me,+ saying, ‘To your seed+ I am going to give this land,’+ he will send his angel ahead of you,+ and you will certainly take a wife for my son from there.+ But if the woman should not wish to come with you, you also will have become free from this oath you gave me.+ Only you must not return my son there.” With that the servant put his hand under the thigh of Abraham his master and swore to him concerning this matter.+

10 So the servant took ten camels from the camels of his master and proceeded to go with every sort of good thing of his master’s in his hand.+ Then he rose and got on his way to Mes·o·po·ta′mi·a* to the city of Na′hor. 11 Eventually he had the camels kneel down outside the city at a well of water about evening time,+ about the time that the women who draw water were accustomed to go out.+ 12 And he went on to say: “Jehovah the God of my master Abraham,+ cause it to happen, please, before me this day and perform loving-kindness+ with my master Abraham.+ 13 Here I am stationed at a fountain of water, and the daughters of the men of the city are coming out to draw water.+ 14 What must occur is that the young woman to whom I shall say, ‘Let your water jar down, please, that I may take a drink,’ and who will indeed say, ‘Take a drink, and I shall also water your camels,’ this is the one you must assign to your servant,+ to Isaac; and by this let me know that you have performed loyal love with my master.”+

15 Well, it came about that before he had finished speaking,+ why, here coming out was Re·bek′ah, who had been born to Be·thu′el+ the son of Mil′cah+ the wife of Na′hor,+ Abraham’s brother, and her water jar was upon her shoulder.+ 16 Now the young woman* was very attractive in appearance,+ a virgin,* and no man had had sexual intercourse with her;+ and she made her way down to the fountain and began to fill her water jar and then came up. 17 At once the servant ran to meet her and said: “Give me, please, a little sip of water from your jar.”+ 18 In turn she said: “Drink, my lord.” With that she quickly lowered her jar upon her hand and gave him a drink.+ 19 When she was finished giving him a drink, then she said: “For your camels too I shall draw water until they are done drinking.”+ 20 So she quickly emptied her jar into the drinking trough and ran yet again and again to the well to draw water,+ and kept drawing for all his camels. 21 All the while the man was gazing at her in wonder, keeping silent to know whether Jehovah had made his trip successful or not.+

22 Consequently it came about that, when the camels had finished drinking, then the man took a gold nose ring+ of a half shekel* in weight and two bracelets+ for her hands, ten shekels of gold was their weight, 23 and he went on to say: “Whose daughter are you? Tell me, please. Is there any room at the house of your father for us to spend the night?”+ 24 At that she said to him: “I am the daughter of Be·thu′el+ the son of Mil′cah, whom she bore to Na′hor.”+ 25 And she said further to him: “There is both straw and much fodder with us, also a place to spend the night.”+ 26 And the man proceeded to bow down and prostrate himself before Jehovah+ 27 and say: “Blessed be Jehovah+ the God of my master Abraham, who has not left his loving-kindness and his trustworthiness toward my master. I being on the way, Jehovah has led me to the house of the brothers of my master.”+

28 And the young woman went running and telling the household of her mother about these things. 29 Now Re·bek′ah had a brother and his name was La′ban.+ So La′ban went running to the man who was outside at the fountain. 30 And it came about that on seeing the nose ring and the bracelets+ on the hands of his sister and on hearing the words of Re·bek′ah his sister, saying: “This is the way the man spoke to me,” then he came to the man and there he was, standing by the camels at the fountain. 31 At once he said: “Come, you blessed one of Jehovah.+ Why do you keep standing out here, when I myself have made the house ready and room for the camels?” 32 With that the man came on into the house, and he went unharnessing the camels and giving straw and fodder to the camels and water to wash his feet and the feet of the men who were with him.+ 33 Then something to eat was set before him, but he said: “I shall not eat until I have spoken about my matters.” Hence he said: “Speak!”+

34 Then he went on to say: “I am Abraham’s servant.+ 35 And Jehovah has blessed my master very much in that he goes on making him greater and giving him sheep and cattle and silver and gold and menservants and maidservants and camels and asses.+ 36 Further, Sarah the wife of my master bore a son to my master after her growing old;+ and he will give him everything he has.+ 37 So my master made me swear, saying, ‘You must not take a wife for my son from the daughters of the Ca′naan·ites in whose land I am dwelling.+ 38 No, but you will go to the house of my father and to my family+ and you must take a wife for my son.’+ 39 But I said to my master, ‘What if the woman will not come with me?’+ 40 Then he said to me, ‘Jehovah, before whom I have walked,+ will send his angel+ with you and will certainly give success to your way;+ and you must take a wife for my son from my family and from the house of my father.+ 41 At that time you will be cleared of obligation to me by oath* when you get to my family, and if they will not give her to you, then you shall become free of obligation to me by oath.’+

42 “When I got to the fountain today, then I said, ‘Jehovah the God of my master Abraham, if you are really giving success to my way on which I am going,+ 43 here I am stationed at a fountain of water. What must occur is that the maiden*+ coming out to draw water to whom I shall actually say: “Please, let me drink a little water from your jar,” 44 and who will indeed say to me: “Both you take a drink, and I shall also draw water for your camels,” she is the woman whom Jehovah has assigned for the son of my master.’+

45 “Before I was finished speaking+ in my heart,+ why, there was Re·bek′ah coming out, with her jar upon her shoulder; and she made her way down to the fountain and began to draw water.+ Then I said to her, ‘Give me a drink, please.’+ 46 So she quickly lowered her jar from off her and said, ‘Take a drink,+ and I shall also water your camels.’ Then I took a drink, and she also watered the camels. 47 After that I asked her and said, ‘Whose daughter are you?’+ to which she said, ‘The daughter of Be·thu′el the son of Na′hor, whom Mil′cah bore to him.’ Accordingly I put the nose ring on her nostril and the bracelets on her hands.+ 48 And I proceeded to bow down and prostrate myself before Jehovah and bless Jehovah the God of my master Abraham,+ who had led me in the true way+ to take the daughter of the brother of my master for his son. 49 And now if YOU are actually exercising loving-kindness and trustworthiness toward my master,+ tell me; but if not, tell me, that I may turn to the right hand or to the left.”+

50 Then La′ban and Be·thu′el answered and said: “From Jehovah this thing has issued.+ We are unable to speak bad or good to you.+ 51 Here is Re·bek′ah before you. Take her and go, and let her become a wife to the son of your master, just as Jehovah has spoken.”+ 52 And it came about that when Abraham’s servant had heard their words, he at once prostrated himself on the earth before Jehovah.+ 53 And the servant began to bring out articles of silver and articles of gold and garments and to give them to Re·bek′ah; and he gave choice things to her brother and to her mother.+ 54 After that they ate and drank, he and the men who were with him, and they spent the night there and got up in the morning.

Then he said: “SEND me off to my master.”+ 55 To this her brother and her mother said: “Let the young woman* stay with us at least ten days.* Afterward she can go.” 56 But he said to them: “Do not detain me, seeing that Jehovah has given success to my way.+ Send me off, that I may go to my master.”+ 57 So they said: “Let us call the young woman and inquire at her mouth.”+ 58 Then they called Re·bek′ah and said to her: “Will you go with this man?” In turn she said: “I am willing to go.”+

59 At that they sent off Re·bek′ah+ their sister and her nurse+ and Abraham’s servant and his men. 60 And they began to bless Re·bek′ah and say to her: “O you, our sister, may you become thousands times ten thousand,* and let your seed take possession of the gate* of those who hate it.”*+ 61 After that Re·bek′ah and her lady attendants*+ rose and they went riding on the camels+ and following the man; and the servant took Re·bek′ah and got on his way.

62 Now Isaac had come from the way that goes to Be′er-la′hai-roi,+ for he was dwelling in the land of the Neg′eb.+ 63 And Isaac was out walking in order to meditate*+ in the field at about the falling of evening. When he raised his eyes and looked, why, there camels were coming! 64 When Re·bek′ah raised her eyes, she caught sight of Isaac and she swung herself down from off the camel. 65 Then she said to the servant: “Who is that man there walking in the field to meet us?” and the servant said: “It is my master.” And she proceeded to take a headcloth and to cover herself.+ 66 And the servant went relating to Isaac all the things he had done. 67 After that Isaac brought her into the tent of Sarah his mother.+ Thus he took Re·bek′ah and she became his wife;+ and he fell in love with her,+ and Isaac found comfort after the loss of his mother.*+

25 Furthermore, Abraham again took a wife, and her name was Ke·tu′rah.+ In time she bore him Zim′ran and Jok′shan and Me′dan and Mid′i·an+ and Ish′bak and Shu′ah.+

And Jok′shan became father to She′ba+ and De′dan.+

And the sons of De′dan became As·shu′rim and Le·tu′shim and Le·um′mim.*

And the sons of Mid′i·an were E′phah+ and E′pher and Ha′noch and A·bi′da and El·da′ah.+

All these were the sons of Ke·tu′rah.

Later on Abraham gave everything he had to Isaac,+ but to the sons of the concubines that Abraham had Abraham gave gifts.+ Then he sent them away from Isaac his son,+ while he was still alive, eastward, to the land of the East.+ And these are the days of the years of Abraham’s life which he lived, a hundred and seventy-five years. Then Abraham expired and died in a good old age, old and satisfied,* and was gathered to his people.+ So Isaac and Ish′ma·el his sons buried him in the cave of Mach·pe′lah in the field of E′phron the son of Zo′har the Hit′tite that is in front of Mam′re,+ 10 the field that Abraham had purchased from the sons of Heth. There Abraham was buried, and also Sarah his wife.+ 11 And it developed that after Abraham’s death God continued to bless Isaac his son,+ and Isaac was dwelling close by Be′er-la′hai-roi.+

12 And this is the history of Ish′ma·el+ the son of Abraham whom Ha′gar the Egyptian the maidservant of Sarah bore to Abraham.+

13 Now these are the names of the sons of Ish′ma·el, by their names, according to their family origins: Ish′ma·el’s firstborn Ne·ba′ioth+ and Ke′dar+ and Ad′be·el and Mib′sam+ 14 and Mish′ma and Du′mah and Mas′sa, 15 Ha′dad+ and Te′ma,+ Je′tur, Na′phish and Ked′e·mah.+ 16 These are the sons of Ish′ma·el, and these are their names by their courtyards and by their walled camps:+ twelve chieftains according to their clans.+ 17 And these are the years of Ish′ma·el’s life, a hundred and thirty-seven years. Then he expired and died and was gathered to his people.+ 18 And they took up tabernacling from Hav′i·lah+ near Shur,+ which is in front* of Egypt, as far as As·syr′i·a. In front of all his brothers he settled down.*+

19 And this is the history of Isaac the son of Abraham.+

Abraham became father to Isaac. 20 And Isaac happened to be forty years old at his taking Re·bek′ah the daughter of Be·thu′el+ the Syrian*+ of Pad′dan-a′ram,* the sister of La′ban the Syrian, as his wife. 21 And Isaac kept on entreating Jehovah especially for his wife,+ because she was barren;+ so Jehovah let himself be entreated for him,+ and Re·bek′ah his wife became pregnant. 22 And the sons within her began to struggle with each other,+ so that she said: “If this is the way it is, just why am I alive?”* With that she went to inquire of Jehovah.+ 23 And Jehovah proceeded to say to her: “Two nations are in your belly,+ and two national groups will be separated from your inward parts;+ and the one national group will be stronger than the other national group,+ and the older will serve the younger.”*+

24 Gradually her days came to the full for giving birth, and, look! twins were in her belly.+ 25 Then the first came out red all over like an official garment of hair;+ so they called his name E′sau.*+ 26 And after that his brother came out and his hand was holding onto the heel of E′sau;+ so he called his name Jacob.*+ And Isaac was sixty years old at her giving them birth.

27 And the boys got bigger, and E′sau became a man knowing how to hunt,+ a man of the field,* but Jacob a blameless man,+ dwelling in tents.+ 28 And Isaac had love for E′sau, because it meant game in his mouth,* whereas Re·bek′ah was a lover of Jacob.+ 29 Once Jacob was boiling up some stew,* when E′sau came along from the field and he was tired. 30 So E′sau said to Jacob: “Quick, please, give me a swallow of the red—the red* there, for I am tired!” That is why his name was called E′dom.*+ 31 To this Jacob said: “Sell me, first of all, your right as firstborn!”+ 32 And E′sau continued: “Here I am simply going to die, and of what benefit to me is a birthright?”* 33 And Jacob added: “Swear to me first of all!”+ And he proceeded to swear to him and to sell his right as firstborn to Jacob.+ 34 And Jacob gave E′sau bread and lentil stew, and he went to eating and drinking.+ Then he got up and went his way. So E′sau despised the birthright.+

26 Now there arose a famine in the land, besides the first famine that occurred in the days of Abraham,+ so that Isaac directed himself to A·bim′e·lech, king of the Phi·lis′tines, to Ge′rar.+ Then Jehovah appeared to him and said:+ “Do not go down to Egypt. Tabernacle in the land that I designate to you.+ Reside as an alien in this land,+ and I shall continue with you and bless you, because to you and to your seed I shall give all these lands,+ and I will carry out the sworn statement that I swore to Abraham your father,+ ‘And I will multiply your seed like the stars of the heavens and I will give to your seed all these lands;+ and by means of your seed all nations of the earth will certainly bless themselves,’*+ due to the fact that Abraham listened to* my voice and continued to keep his obligations to me, my commands, my statutes, and my laws.”+ So Isaac went on dwelling at Ge′rar.+

Well, the men of the place kept asking with respect to his wife, and he would say: “She is my sister.”+ For he was afraid to say “My wife” for fear that, to quote him, “the men of the place should kill me because of Re·bek′ah,” because she was attractive in appearance.+ So it came about that as his days there extended themselves A·bim′e·lech, king of the Phi·lis′tines, was looking out of the window and taking in the sight, and there was Isaac having a good time with Re·bek′ah his wife.+ At once A·bim′e·lech called Isaac and said: “Why, she is no other than your wife! So how is it that you said, ‘She is my sister’?” At this Isaac said to him: “I said it for fear I should die on her account.”+ 10 But A·bim′e·lech continued: “What is this you have done to us?+ A little more and certainly one of the people would have lain down with your wife, and you would have brought guilt upon us!”+ 11 Then A·bim′e·lech commanded all the people, saying: “Anybody touching this man and his wife will surely be put to death!”

12 Afterward Isaac began to sow seed in that land,+ and in that year he was getting up to a hundred measures to one,+ as Jehovah was blessing him.+ 13 Consequently the man became great and went on advancing more and more and growing great until he got very great.+ 14 And he came to have flocks of sheep and herds of cattle and a large body of servants,+ so that the Phi·lis′tines began to envy him.+

15 As for all the wells that the servants of his father had dug in the days of Abraham his father,+ these the Phi·lis′tines stopped up and they would fill them with dry earth.+ 16 Finally A·bim′e·lech said to Isaac: “Move from our neighborhood, because you have grown far stronger than we are.”+ 17 So Isaac moved from there and encamped in the torrent valley* of Ge′rar+ and took up dwelling there. 18 And Isaac proceeded to dig again the wells of water that they had dug in the days of Abraham his father* but which the Phi·lis′tines went stopping up after Abraham’s death;+ and he resumed calling their names by the names that his father had called them.+

19 And the servants of Isaac went on digging in the torrent valley and so they found there a well of fresh* water. 20 And the shepherds of Ge′rar fell to quarreling with the shepherds of Isaac,+ saying: “The water is ours!” Hence he called the name of the well E′sek,* because they had contended with him. 21 And they went digging another well, and they fell to quarreling over it also. Hence he called its name Sit′nah.* 22 Later he moved away from there and dug another well,+ but they did not quarrel over it. Hence he called its name Re·ho′both* and said: “It is because now Jehovah has given us ample room+ and has made us fruitful in the earth.”*+

23 Then he went up from there to Be′er-she′ba.+ 24 And Jehovah proceeded to appear to him during that night and to say: “I am the God of Abraham your father.+ Do not be afraid,+ because I am with you, and I will bless you and multiply your seed on account of Abraham my servant.”+ 25 Accordingly he built an altar there and called on* the name of Jehovah+ and pitched his tent there,+ and the servants of Isaac went excavating a well there.

26 Later on A·bim′e·lech came to him from Ge′rar with A·huz′zath his confidential friend and Phi′col the chief of his army.+ 27 At this Isaac said to them: “Why have YOU come to me, seeing that YOU yourselves hated me and so sent me away from YOUR neighborhood?”+ 28 To this they said: “We have unmistakably seen that Jehovah has proved to be with you.+ Hence we said, ‘Let, please, an oath of obligation occur between us,+ between us and you, and let us conclude a covenant with you,+ 29 that you will do nothing bad toward us just as we have not touched you and just as we have done only good toward you in that* we sent you away in peace.+ You now are the blessed of Jehovah.’”+ 30 Then he made a feast for them and they ate and drank.+ 31 Next morning they were early in rising and they made sworn statements one to the other.+ After that Isaac sent them away and they went from him in peace.+

32 Now on that day it occurred that the servants of Isaac proceeded to come and report to him regarding the well that they had dug,+ and to say to him: “We have found water!” 33 Hence he called its name Shi′bah. That is why the name of the city is Be′er-she′ba,+ down to this day.

34 And E′sau grew to be forty years old. Then he took as wife Ju′dith the daughter of Be·e′ri the Hit′tite and also Bas′e·math the daughter of E′lon the Hit′tite.+ 35 And they were a source of bitterness of spirit* to Isaac and Re·bek′ah.+

27 Now it came about that when Isaac was old and his eyes were too dim to see+ he then called E′sau his older son and said to him:+ “My son!” at which he said to him: “Here I am!” And he went on to say: “Here, now, I have become old.+ I do not know the day of my death.+ So at this time take, please, your implements, your quiver and your bow, and go out to the field and hunt some venison for me.+ Then make me a tasty dish such as I am fond of and bring it to me and, ah, let me eat, in order that my soul may bless you before I die.”+

However, Re·bek′ah was listening while Isaac spoke to E′sau his son. And E′sau went on out into the field to hunt game and to bring it in.+ And Re·bek′ah said to Jacob her son:+ “Here I just heard your father speaking to E′sau your brother, saying, ‘Bring me some game and make me a tasty dish and, ah, let me eat, that I may bless you before Jehovah before my death.’+ And now, my son, listen to my voice in what I am commanding you.+ Go, please, to the herd and get me from there two kids of the goats, good ones, that I may make them up into a tasty dish for your father such as he is fond of. 10 Then you must bring it to your father and he must eat it, in order that he may bless you before his death.”

11 And Jacob proceeded to say to Re·bek′ah his mother: “But E′sau my brother is a hairy man and I am a smooth man.+ 12 What if my father feels me?+ Then I shall certainly become in his eyes like one making a mockery,+ and I shall certainly bring upon myself a malediction and not a blessing.”+ 13 At this his mother said to him: “Upon me be the malediction meant for you, my son.+ Only listen to my voice and go, get them for me.”+ 14 Accordingly he went and got them and brought them to his mother, and his mother made a tasty dish such as his father was fond of. 15 After that Re·bek′ah took garments of E′sau her older son,+ the most desirable ones which were with her in the house,+ and put them on Jacob her younger son.+ 16 And the skins of the kids of the goats she put upon his hands and upon the hairless part of his neck.+ 17 Then she gave the tasty dish and the bread that she had made into the hand of Jacob her son.+

18 So he went on in to his father and said: “My father!” to which he said: “Here I am! Who are you, my son?” 19 And Jacob went on to say to his father: “I am E′sau your firstborn.+ I have done just as you have spoken to me. Raise yourself up, please. Sit down and eat some of my game, in order that your soul may bless me.”+ 20 At that Isaac said to his son: “How is it that you have been so quick in finding it, my son?” In turn he said: “Because Jehovah your God caused it to meet up with me.” 21 Then Isaac said to Jacob: “Come near, please, that I may feel you, my son, to know whether you are really my son E′sau or not.”+ 22 So Jacob came near to Isaac his father, and he went feeling him, after which he said: “The voice is the voice of Jacob, but the hands are the hands of E′sau.”+ 23 And he did not recognize him, because his hands proved to be hairy like the hands of E′sau his brother. Hence he blessed him.+

24 After that he said: “You are really my son E′sau?” to which he said: “I am.”+ 25 Then he said: “Bring it near to me that I may eat some of the game of my son, to the end that my soul may bless you.”+ With that he brought it near to him and he began to eat, and he brought him wine and he began to drink. 26 Then Isaac his father said to him: “Come near, please, and kiss me, my son.”+ 27 So he came near and kissed him, and he could smell the scent of his garments.+ And he proceeded to bless him and to say:

“See, the scent of my son is like the scent of the field which Jehovah has blessed. 28 And may the [true] God give you the dews of the heavens+ and the fertile soils* of the earth+ and an abundance of grain and new wine.+ 29 Let peoples serve you and let national groups bow low to you.+ Become master over your brothers, and let the sons of your mother bow low to you.+ Cursed be each one of those cursing you, and blessed be each one of those blessing you.”+

30 Now it came about as soon as Isaac had finished blessing Jacob, yes, it indeed came about when Jacob had barely come out from before the face of Isaac his father, that E′sau his brother came back from his hunting.+ 31 And he too went about making a tasty dish. Then he brought it to his father and said to his father: “Let my father get up and eat some of his son’s game, in order that your soul may bless me.”+ 32 At this Isaac his father said to him: “Who are you?” to which he said: “I am your son, your firstborn, E′sau.”+ 33 And Isaac began to shake with a great trembling in extreme measure, and so he said: “Who, then, was it that hunted for game and came bringing it to me, so that I ate of everything before you could come in and I blessed him? Blessed too he will become!”*+

34 On hearing his father’s words E′sau began to cry out in an extremely loud and bitter manner and to say to his father:+ “Bless me, even me too, my father!”+ 35 But he went on to say: “Your brother came with deception that he might get the blessing meant for you.”+ 36 At this he said: “Is that not why his name is called Jacob,* in that he should supplant me these two times?+ My birthright he has already taken,+ and here at this time he has taken my blessing!”+ Then he added: “Have you not reserved a blessing for me?” 37 But in answer to E′sau Isaac continued: “Here I have appointed him master over you,+ and all his brothers I have given to him as servants,+ and grain and new wine I have bestowed for his support,+ and where is there anything I can do for you, my son?”

38 Then E′sau said to his father: “Is there just one blessing that you have, my father? Bless me, even me too, my father!”+ With that E′sau raised his voice and burst into tears.+ 39 So in answer Isaac his father said to him:

“Behold, away from the fertile soils of the earth your dwelling will be found, and away from the dew of the heavens above.+ 40 And by your sword you will live,+ and your brother you will serve.+ But it will certainly occur that, when you grow restless, you will indeed break his yoke off your neck.”+

41 However, E′sau harbored animosity for Jacob on account of the blessing with which his father had blessed him,+ and E′sau kept saying in his heart:+ “The days of the period of mourning for my father are getting closer.+ After that I am going to kill Jacob my brother.”+ 42 When the words of E′sau her older son were told to Re·bek′ah, she at once sent and called Jacob her younger son and said to him: “Look! E′sau your brother is comforting himself* in regard to you—to kill you.+ 43 Now, then, my son, listen to my voice and get up,+ run away to La′ban my brother at Ha′ran.+ 44 And you must dwell with him for some days until the rage of your brother calms down,+ 45 until the anger of your brother turns away from you and he has forgotten what you have done to him.+ And I shall certainly send and get you from there. Why should I be bereaved also of both of YOU in one day?”

46 After that Re·bek′ah kept saying to Isaac: “I have come to abhor this life of mine because of the daughters of Heth.+ If Jacob ever takes a wife from the daughters of Heth like these from the daughters of the land, of what good* is life to me?”+

28 Consequently Isaac called Jacob and blessed him and commanded him and said to him: “You must not take a wife from the daughters of Ca′naan.*+ Get up, go to Pad′dan-a′ram* to the house of Be·thu′el the father of your mother and from there take yourself a wife from the daughters of La′ban the brother of your mother.+ And God Almighty will bless you and make you fruitful and multiply you, and you will certainly become a congregation of peoples.+ And he will give to you the blessing of Abraham,+ to you and to your seed with you,+ that you may take possession of the land of your alien residences,+ which God has given to Abraham.”+

So Isaac sent Jacob away, and he struck out for Pad′dan-a′ram, for La′ban the son of Be·thu′el the Syrian,*+ the brother of Re·bek′ah,+ mother of Jacob and E′sau.*+

When E′sau saw that Isaac had blessed Jacob and had sent him away to Pad′dan-a′ram to take from there a wife for himself, and that when he blessed him he laid the command upon him, saying: “Do not take a wife from the daughters of Ca′naan”;+ and that Jacob was obeying his father and his mother and was on his way to Pad′dan-a′ram;+ then E′sau saw that the daughters of Ca′naan were displeasing* in the eyes of Isaac his father.+ Hence E′sau went to Ish′ma·el* and took as wife Ma′ha·lath the daughter of Ish′ma·el the son of Abraham, the sister of Ne·ba′ioth, besides his other wives.+

10 And Jacob continued on his way out from Be′er-she′ba and kept going to Ha′ran.+ 11 In time he came across a place and set about spending the night there because the sun had set. So he took one of the stones of the place and set it as his head supporter* and lay down in that place.+ 12 And he began to dream,+ and, look! there was a ladder* stationed upon the earth and its top reaching up to the heavens; and, look! there were God’s angels ascending and descending on it.+ 13 And, look! there was Jehovah stationed above it, and he proceeded to say:+

“I am Jehovah the God of Abraham your father and the God of Isaac.+ The land upon which you are lying, to you I am going to give it and to your seed.+ 14 And your seed will certainly become like the dust particles of the earth,+ and you will certainly spread abroad to the west and to the east and to the north and to the south,+ and by means of you and by means of your seed all the families of the ground will certainly bless themselves.*+ 15 And here I am with you and I will keep you in all the way you are going and I will return you to this ground,+ because I am not going to leave you until I have actually done what I have spoken to you.”+

16 Then Jacob awoke from his sleep and said: “Truly Jehovah is in this place and I myself did not know it.” 17 And he grew fearful and added:+ “How fear-inspiring this place is!+ This is nothing else but the house of God+ and this is the gate of the heavens.” 18 So Jacob got up early in the morning and took the stone that was there as his head supporter and he set it up as a pillar and poured oil on the top of it.+ 19 Further, he called the name of that place Beth′el;*+ but the fact is, Luz was the city’s name formerly.+

20 And Jacob went on to vow a vow,+ saying: “If God will continue with me and will certainly keep me on this way on which I am going and will certainly give me bread to eat and garments to wear+ 21 and I shall certainly return in peace to the house of my father, then Jehovah will have proved to be my God.*+ 22 And this stone that I have set up as a pillar will become a house of God,+ and as for everything that you will give me I shall without fail give the tenth of it to you.”+

29 After that Jacob set his feet in motion and traveled on to the land of the Orientals.*+ Now he looked, and here there was a well in the field and here three droves of sheep* were lying down there by it, because from that well they were accustomed to water the droves;+ and there was a great stone over the mouth of the well.+ When all the droves had been gathered there, they rolled away the stone from off the mouth of the well, and they watered the flocks, after which they returned the stone over the mouth of the well to its place.

So Jacob said to them: “My brothers, from what place are YOU?” to which they said: “We are from Ha′ran.”+ Then he said to them: “Do YOU know La′ban+ the grandson of Na′hor?”+ to which they said: “We know him.” At this he said to them: “Is it all right with him?”*+ In turn they said: “It is all right.* And here is Rachel+ his daughter coming with the sheep!”+ And he went on to say: “Why, it is yet full day.* It is not the time for gathering the herds. WATER the sheep, then go feed them.”+ To this they said: “We are not allowed to do so until all the droves are gathered and they actually roll away the stone from off the mouth of the well. Then we must water the sheep.”

While he was yet speaking with them, Rachel+ came with the sheep that belonged to her father, for she was a shepherdess.+ 10 And it came about that when Jacob saw Rachel the daughter of La′ban his mother’s brother and the sheep of La′ban his mother’s brother, Jacob immediately approached and rolled away the stone from off the mouth of the well and watered the sheep of La′ban his mother’s brother.+ 11 Then Jacob kissed+ Rachel and raised his voice and burst into tears.+ 12 And Jacob began to tell Rachel that he was the brother*+ of her father and that he was the son of Re·bek′ah. And she went running and telling her father.+

13 Now it came about that as soon as La′ban heard the report about Jacob the son of his sister, he went running to meet him.+ Then he embraced him and kissed him and brought him on into his house.+ And he began to relate to La′ban all these things. 14 After that La′ban said to him: “You are indeed my bone and my flesh.”+ So he dwelt with him a full month.*

15 After that La′ban said to Jacob: “Are you my brother,+ and must you serve me for nothing?+ Tell me, What are your wages to be?”+ 16 As it was, La′ban had two daughters. The name of the older was Le′ah+ and the name of the younger Rachel. 17 But the eyes of Le′ah had no luster,* whereas Rachel+ had become beautiful in form and beautiful of countenance.+ 18 And Jacob was in love with Rachel. So he said: “I am willing to serve you seven years for Rachel your younger daughter.”+ 19 To this La′ban said: “It is better for me to give her to you than for me to give her to another man.+ Keep dwelling with me.” 20 And Jacob proceeded to serve seven years for Rachel,+ but in his eyes they proved to be like some few days because of his love for her.+

21 Then Jacob said to La′ban: “Give over my wife, because my days are up,* and let me have relations with her.”+ 22 With that La′ban gathered all the men of the place and made a feast.+ 23 But it turned out that during the evening he resorted to taking Le′ah his daughter and bringing her to him that he might have relations with her. 24 Moreover, La′ban gave to her Zil′pah+ his maidservant, even to Le′ah his daughter, as a maidservant. 25 So it followed in the morning that here it was Le′ah! Consequently he said to La′ban: “What is this you have done to me? Was it not for Rachel that I served with you? So why have you tricked me?”+ 26 To this La′ban said: “It is not customary to do this way in our place, to give the younger woman before the firstborn. 27 Celebrate+ to the full* the week of this woman.* After that there shall be given to you also this other woman* for the service that you can serve with me for seven years more.”+ 28 Accordingly Jacob did so and celebrated fully the week of this woman, after which he gave him Rachel his daughter as his wife. 29 Besides, La′ban gave Bil′hah+ his maidservant to Rachel his daughter as her maidservant.

30 Then he had relations also with Rachel and also expressed more love for Rachel than for Le′ah,+ and he went serving with him for yet seven years more.+ 31 When Jehovah came to see that Le′ah was hated, he then opened her womb,+ but Rachel was barren.+ 32 And Le′ah became pregnant and brought a son to birth and then called his name Reu′ben,*+ for she said: “It is because Jehovah has looked upon my wretchedness,+ in that now my husband will begin to love me.” 33 And she became pregnant again and brought a son to birth and then said: “It is because Jehovah has listened,+ in that I was hated and so he gave me also this one.” Hence she called his name Sim′e·on.*+ 34 And she became pregnant yet again and brought a son to birth and then said: “Now this time my husband will join himself to me, because I have borne him three sons.” His name was therefore called Le′vi.*+ 35 And she became pregnant once more and brought a son to birth and then said: “This time I shall laud Jehovah.” She therefore called his name Judah.*+ After that she left off giving birth.

30 When Rachel came to see that she had borne nothing to Jacob, Rachel got jealous of her sister and began to say to Jacob:+ “Give me children or otherwise I shall be a dead woman.”+ At this Jacob’s anger burned against Rachel and he said:+ “Am I in the place of God, who has held back the fruit of the belly from you?”+ So she said: “Here is my slave girl Bil′hah.+ Have relations with her, that she may give birth upon my knees and that I, even I, may get children from her.”+ With that she gave him Bil′hah her maidservant as wife, and Jacob had relations with her.+ And Bil′hah became pregnant and in time bore Jacob a son.+ Then Rachel said: “God has acted as my judge+ and has also listened to my voice, so that he gave me a son.” That is why she called his name Dan.*+ And Bil′hah, Rachel’s maidservant, became pregnant once more and in time bore a second son to Jacob. Then Rachel said: “With strenuous* wrestlings I have wrestled with my sister. I have also come off winner!” So she called his name Naph′ta·li.*+

When Le′ah came to see that she had left off giving birth, she proceeded to take Zil′pah her maidservant and to give her to Jacob as wife.+ 10 In time Zil′pah, Le′ah’s maidservant, bore a son to Jacob. 11 Then Le′ah said: “With good fortune!”* So she called his name Gad.*+ 12 After that Zil′pah, Le′ah’s maidservant, bore a second son to Jacob. 13 Then Le′ah said: “With my happiness! For the daughters will certainly pronounce me happy.”+ So she called his name Ash′er.*+

14 Now Reu′ben+ went walking in the days of the wheat harvest+ and got to find mandrakes in the field. So he brought them to Le′ah his mother. Then Rachel said to Le′ah: “Give me, please, some of your son’s mandrakes.”+ 15 At this she said to her: “Is this a little thing, your having taken my husband,+ with your now taking also my son’s mandrakes?” So Rachel said: “For that reason he is going to lie down with you tonight in exchange for your son’s mandrakes.”

16 When Jacob was coming from the field in the evening,+ Le′ah went on out to meet him and then said: “It is with me you are going to have relations, because I have hired you outright with my son’s mandrakes.” Accordingly he lay down with her that night.+ 17 And God heard and answered Le′ah and she became pregnant and in time bore to Jacob a fifth son.+ 18 Then Le′ah said: “God has given me a hireling’s wages,* because I have given my maidservant to my husband.” So she called his name Is′sa·char.*+ 19 And Le′ah became pregnant once more and in time bore a sixth son to Jacob.+ 20 Then Le′ah said: “God has endowed me, yes, me, with a good endowment. At last my husband will tolerate* me,*+ because I have borne him six sons.”+ So she called his name Zeb′u·lun.*+ 21 And afterward she bore a daughter and then called her name Di′nah.*+

22 Finally God remembered Rachel, and God heard and answered her in that he opened her womb.+ 23 And she became pregnant and brought a son to birth. Then she said: “God has taken away my reproach!”+ 24 So she called his name Joseph,*+ saying: “Jehovah is adding another son to me.”

25 And it followed that when Rachel had given birth to Joseph, Jacob immediately said to La′ban: “Send me away that I may go to my place and to my country.+ 26 Give over my wives and my children, for whom I have served with you, that I may go; for you yourself must know my service which I have rendered you.”+ 27 Then La′ban said to him: “If, now, I have found favor in your eyes,—I have taken the omens to the effect that Jehovah is blessing me due to you.”+ 28 And he added: “Stipulate your wages to me and I shall give them.”+ 29 So he said to him: “You yourself must know how I have served you and how your herd has fared with me;+ 30 that it was little that you actually had before my coming, and it went expanding to a multitude, in that Jehovah blessed you since I stepped in.+ So now when am I to do something also for my own house?”+

31 Then he said: “What shall I give you?” And Jacob went on to say: “You will give me nothing whatsoever!+ If you will do this thing for me, I shall resume shepherding your flock.+ I shall continue guarding it.+ 32 I will pass among your whole flock today. You set aside from there every sheep speckled and with color patches, and every dark-brown sheep among the young rams and any color-patched and speckled one among the she-goats. Hereafter such must be my wages.+ 33 And my right-doing must answer for me on whatever future day you may come to look over my wages;+ every one that is not speckled and color-patched among the she-goats and dark brown among the young rams is something stolen if it is with me.”+

34 To this La′ban said: “Why, that is fine!* Let it be according to your word.”+ 35 Then he set aside on that day the he-goats striped and color-patched and all the she-goats speckled and color-patched, every one in which there was any white and every one dark brown among the young rams, but he gave them over into the hands of his sons. 36 After that he set a distance of three days’ journey between himself and Jacob, and Jacob was shepherding the flocks of La′ban that remained over.

37 Then Jacob took for his use staffs* still moist of the storax tree+ and of the almond tree+ and of the plane tree+ and peeled in them white peeled spots by laying bare white places which were upon the staffs.+ 38 Finally the staffs that he had peeled he placed in front of the flock, in the gutters, in the water drinking troughs,+ where the flocks would come to drink, that they might get into a heat* before them when they came to drink.

39 Consequently the flocks would get in heat before the staffs, and the flocks would produce striped, speckled and color-patched ones.+ 40 And Jacob separated the young rams and then turned the faces of the flocks to the striped ones and all the dark-brown ones among the flocks of La′ban. Then he set his own droves by themselves and did not set them by the flocks of La′ban. 41 And it always occurred that whenever the robust+ flocks would get in heat, Jacob would locate the staffs in the gutters+ before the eyes of the flocks, that they might get in heat by the staffs. 42 But when the flocks showed feebleness he would not locate them there. So the feeble ones always came to be La′ban’s, but the robust ones Jacob’s.+

43 And the man went on increasing more and more, and great flocks and maidservants and menservants and camels and asses came to be his.+

31 In time he got to hear the words of the sons of La′ban, saying: “Jacob has taken everything that belonged to our father; and from what belonged to our father he has amassed all this wealth.”+ When Jacob would look at the face of La′ban, here it was not with him as formerly.+ Finally Jehovah said to Jacob: “Return to the land of your fathers and to your relatives,*+ and I shall continue with you.”+ Then Jacob sent and called Rachel and Le′ah out to the field to his flock, and he said to them:

“I am seeing the face of YOUR father, that he is not the same toward me as formerly;+ but the God of my father has proved to be with me.+ And YOU yourselves certainly know that with all my power I have served YOUR father.+ And YOUR father has trifled with me* and he has changed my wages ten times, but God* has not allowed him to do me harm.+ If on the one hand he would say, ‘The speckled ones will become your wages,’ then the whole flock produced speckled ones; but if on the other hand he would say, ‘The striped ones will become your wages,’ then the whole flock produced striped ones.+ So God kept taking the herd of YOUR father away and giving it to me.+ 10 At last it came about at the time when the flock got in heat that I raised my eyes and saw a sight in a dream+ and here the he-goats springing upon the flock were striped, speckled and spotty.+ 11 Then the angel of the [true] God said to me in the dream, ‘Jacob!’ to which I said, ‘Here I am.’+ 12 And he continued, ‘Raise your eyes, please, and see all the he-goats springing upon the flock are striped, speckled and spotty, for I have seen all that La′ban is doing to you.+ 13 I am the [true] God of Beth′el,*+ where you anointed a pillar+ and where you vowed a vow to me.+ Now get up, go out of this land and return to the land of your birth.’”*+

14 At this Rachel and Le′ah answered and said to him: “Is there a share of inheritance* for us anymore in the house of our father?+ 15 Are we not really considered as foreigners to him since he has sold us, so that he keeps eating continually even from the money given for us?+ 16 For all the riches that God* has taken away from our father are ours and our children’s.+ So now everything God has said to you do.”+

17 Then Jacob got up and lifted his children and his wives onto the camels;+ 18 and he began driving all his herd and all the goods that he had accumulated,+ the herd of his acquisition that he had accumulated in Pad′dan-a′ram, in order to go to Isaac his father to the land of Ca′naan.+

19 Now La′ban had gone to shear his sheep. Meantime Rachel stole the teraphim*+ that belonged to her father. 20 So Jacob outwitted* La′ban the Syrian, because he had not told him that he was running away. 21 And he proceeded to run away and to get up and cross the River,+ he and all he had. After that he directed his face to the mountainous region of Gil′e·ad.+ 22 Later, on the third day, it was told to La′ban that Jacob had run away. 23 With that he took his brothers with him and went chasing+ after him for a distance of seven days’ journey and caught up with him in the mountainous region of Gil′e·ad. 24 Then God came to La′ban the Syrian+ in a dream by night+ and said to him: “Watch yourself that you do not go speaking either good or bad* with Jacob.”+

25 So La′ban approached Jacob, as Jacob had pitched his tent in the mountain and La′ban had encamped his brothers* in the mountainous region of Gil′e·ad. 26 Then La′ban said to Jacob: “What have you done, in that you resorted to outwitting me and driving my daughters off like captives taken by the sword?+ 27 Why did you have to run away secretly and outwit me and not tell me, that I might send you away with rejoicing and with songs,+ with tambourine and with harp?+ 28 And you did not give me a chance to kiss my children* and my daughters.+ Now you have acted foolishly. 29 It is in the power of my hand to do harm to YOU people,+ but the God of YOUR father talked to me last night, saying, ‘Watch yourself against speaking either good or bad with Jacob.’+ 30 While you have actually gone now because you have been yearning intensely for the house of your father, why, though, have you stolen my gods?”*+

31 In answer Jacob proceeded to say to La′ban: “It was because I was afraid.+ For I said to myself, ‘You might tear your daughters away from me.’ 32 Whoever it is with whom you may find your gods,* let him not live.+ Before our brothers, examine for yourself what is with me and take them for yourself.”+ But Jacob did not know that Rachel had stolen them.+ 33 So La′ban went on into the tent of Jacob and into the tent of Le′ah and into the tent of the two slave girls,+ but did not find them. Finally he went out of Le′ah’s tent and went on into Rachel’s tent. 34 Now Rachel had taken the teraphim, and she resorted to putting them in the woman’s saddle basket of the camel, and she kept sitting upon them. So La′ban went feeling through the whole tent, but did not find them. 35 Then she said to her father: “Do not let anger gleam in the eyes of my lord,*+ because I am not able to get up before you, for the customary thing with women is upon me.”+ So he searched on carefully, but did not find the teraphim.+

36 And Jacob became angry+ and began to quarrel with La′ban, and in answer Jacob went on to say to La′ban: “What is the revolt on my part,+ what the sin of mine, as a reason why you have hotly pursued after me?+ 37 Now that you have felt through all my goods, what of all the goods of your house have you found?+ Put it here in front of my brothers and your brothers,+ and let them decide between us two.+ 38 These twenty years I have been with you. Your female sheep and your she-goats did not suffer abortions,+ and the rams of your flock I never ate. 39 Any animal torn to pieces I did not bring to you.+ I myself would stand the loss of it. Whether one was stolen by day or was stolen by night, you would put in a claim for it from my hand.+ 40 It has been my experience that by day the heat consumed me and the cold by night, and my sleep would flee from my eyes.+ 41 This makes twenty years for me in your house. I have served you* fourteen years for your two daughters and six years for your flock, and you kept changing my wages ten times.+ 42 If the God of my father,+ the God of Abraham and the Dread* of Isaac,+ had not proved on my side, you would now have sent me away empty-handed. My wretchedness and the toil of my hands God has seen, and so he reproved you* last night.”+

43 Then La′ban in answer said to Jacob: “The daughters are my daughters and the children my children and the flock my flock, and everything you are looking at is mine and my daughters’. What can I do against these today or against their children whom they have borne? 44 And now, come, let us conclude a covenant,+ I and you, and it must* serve as a witness between me and you.”+ 45 Accordingly Jacob took a stone and set it up as a pillar.+ 46 Then Jacob said to his brothers: “Pick up stones!” And they went taking stones and making a heap.+ After that they ate there on the heap. 47 And La′ban began calling it Je′gar-sa·ha·du′tha,* but Jacob called it Gal′e·ed.*

48 And La′ban proceeded to say: “This heap is a witness between me and you today.” That is why he called its name Gal′e·ed,+ 49 and The Watchtower,* because he said: “Let Jehovah keep watch between me and you when we are situated unseen* the one from the other.+ 50 If you go to afflicting my daughters+ and if you go to taking wives in addition to my daughters, there is no man with us. See!* God is a witness between me and you.”+ 51 And La′ban went on to say to Jacob: “Here is this heap and here is the pillar that I have erected between me and you. 52 This heap is a witness, and the pillar is something that bears witness,+ that I will not pass this heap against you and that you will not pass this heap and this pillar against me for harm.+ 53 Let the god* of Abraham+ and the god of Na′hor+ judge* between us, the god* of their father.” But Jacob swore by the Dread of his father Isaac.+

54 After that Jacob sacrificed a sacrifice in the mountain and invited his brothers to eat bread.+ Accordingly they ate bread and passed the night in the mountain.* 55 However, La′ban got up early in the morning and kissed+ his children* and his daughters and blessed them.+ Then La′ban got on his way that he might return to his own place.*+

32 And as for Jacob, he got on his way, and the angels* of God now met up with him.+ Immediately Jacob said, when he saw them: “The camp of God this is!”+ Hence he called the name of that place Ma·ha·na′im.*+

Then Jacob sent messengers+ ahead of him to E′sau his brother to the land of Se′ir,+ the field of E′dom,+ and he commanded them, saying: “This is what YOU will say to my lord,+ to E′sau, ‘This is what your servant Jacob has said: “With La′ban I have resided as an alien and I have stayed for a long time till now.+ And I have come to have bulls and asses, sheep, and menservants and maidservants,+ and I would like to send to notify my lord, that I may find favor in your eyes.”’”+

In time the messengers returned to Jacob, saying: “We got to your brother E′sau, and he is also on his way to meet you, and four hundred men with him.”+ And Jacob became very much afraid and grew anxious.+ So he divided the people who were with him, and the flocks and the cattle and the camels into two camps,+ and he said: “If E′sau should come to the one camp and assault it, then there is certain to be a camp remaining to make an escape.”+

After that Jacob said: “O God of my father Abraham and God of my father Isaac,+ O Jehovah, you who are saying to me, ‘Return to your land and to your relatives and I will deal well with you,’+ 10 I am unworthy of all the loving-kindnesses and of all the faithfulness* that you have exercised toward your servant,+ for with but my staff I crossed this Jordan and now I have become two camps.+ 11 Deliver me, I pray you,+ from my brother’s hand, from E′sau’s hand, because I am afraid of him that he may come and certainly assault me,+ mother together with children. 12 And you, you have said, ‘Unquestionably I shall deal well with you and I will constitute your seed* like the grains of sand of the sea, which cannot be numbered for multitude.’”+

13 And he kept lodging there on that night. And from what came to his hand he proceeded to take a gift for E′sau his brother:+ 14 two hundred she-goats and twenty he-goats, two hundred female sheep and twenty rams, 15 thirty camels giving suck and their young ones, forty cows and ten bulls, twenty she-asses and ten full-grown asses.+

16 Then he handed over to his servants one drove after another by itself and repeatedly said to his servants: “Cross over ahead of me, and YOU are to set an interval between drove and drove.”+ 17 Further he commanded the first one, saying: “In case that E′sau my brother should meet you and ask you, saying, ‘To whom do you belong, and where are you going and to whom do these ahead of you belong?’ 18 then you must say, ‘To your servant, to Jacob. A gift it is,+ sent to my lord,+ to E′sau, and look! he himself is also behind us.’” 19 And he went on to command also the second, also the third, also all those following the droves, saying: “According to this word YOU are to speak to E′sau on YOUR encountering him.+ 20 And YOU must say also, ‘Here is your servant Jacob behind us.’”+ For he said to himself: “I may appease him by the gift going ahead of me,+ and afterward I shall see his face. Perhaps he will give a kindly reception.”+ 21 So the gift went crossing over ahead of him, but he himself lodged that night in the camp.+

22 Later during that night he rose and took his two wives+ and his two maidservants+ and his eleven young sons+ and crossed over the ford of Jab′bok.+ 23 So he took them and brought them over the torrent valley,*+ and he brought over what he had.

24 Finally Jacob was left by himself. Then a man began to grapple with him until the dawn ascended.+ 25 When he got to see that he had not prevailed over him,+ then he touched the socket of his thigh joint;* and the socket of Jacob’s thigh joint got out of place during his grappling with him.+ 26 After that he said: “Let me go,* for the dawn has ascended.” To this he said: “I am not going to let you go until you first bless me.”+ 27 So he said to him: “What is your name?” to which he said: “Jacob.” 28 Then he said: “Your name will no longer be called Jacob but Israel,*+ for you have contended*+ with God and with men so that you at last prevailed.” 29 In turn Jacob inquired and said: “Tell me, please, your name.” However, he said: “Why is it that you inquire for my name?”+ With that he blessed him there. 30 Hence Jacob called the name of the place Pe·ni′el,*+ because, to quote him, “I have seen God face to face and yet my soul was delivered.”+

31 And the sun began to flash upon him as soon as he passed by Pe·nu′el, but he was limping upon his thigh.+ 32 That is why the sons of Israel are not accustomed to eat the sinew of the thigh nerve,* which is on the socket of the thigh joint, down to this day, because he touched the socket of Jacob’s thigh joint by the sinew of the thigh nerve.+

33 In time Jacob raised his eyes and looked, and here E′sau was coming and with him four hundred men.+ Consequently he divided off the children to Le′ah and to Rachel and to the two maidservants,+ and he put the maidservants and their children foremost+ and Le′ah and her children after them+ and Rachel and Joseph to the rear of them.+ And he himself passed on ahead of them and proceeded to bow down to the earth seven times until he got near to his brother.+

And E′sau went running to meet him,+ and he began to embrace him+ and fall upon his neck and kiss him,* and they burst into tears. Then he raised his eyes and saw the women and the children and said: “Who are these with you?” to which he said: “The children with whom God has favored your servant.”+ At that the maidservants came forward, they and their children, and bowed down; and Le′ah too came forward, and her children, and they bowed down, and afterward Joseph came forward, and Rachel, and they bowed down.+

He now said: “What do you mean by all* this camp of travelers that I have met?”+ To this he said: “In order to find favor in the eyes of my lord.”+ Then E′sau said: “I have a great many, my brother.+ Let continue yours what is yours.” 10 However, Jacob said: “No, please. If, now, I have found favor in your eyes,+ then you must take my gift at my hand, because in harmony with its purpose I have seen your face as though seeing God’s face in that you received me with pleasure.+ 11 Take, please, the gift conveying my blessing which was brought to you,+ because God has favored me and because I have everything.”+ And he continued to urge him, so that he took it.+

12 Later on he said: “Let us pull out and go, and let me go in advance of you.” 13 But he said to him: “My lord is aware that the children are delicate and sheep and cattle that are giving suck are in my charge,+ and should they drive them too quickly for one day, then the whole flock will certainly die.+ 14 Let my lord, please, pass on ahead of his servant, but may I myself continue the journey at my leisure according to the pace of the livestock+ that is before me and according to the pace of the children+ until I shall come to my lord at Se′ir.”+ 15 Then E′sau said: “Let me, please, put at your disposal some of the people who are with me.” To this he said: “Why this? Let me find favor in the eyes of my lord.”+ 16 So on that day E′sau turned back on his way to Se′ir.

17 And Jacob pulled out for Suc′coth,*+ and he proceeded to build himself a house and for his herd he made booths.+ That was why he called the name of the place Suc′coth.

18 In time Jacob came safe and sound to the city of She′chem,+ which is in the land of Ca′naan,+ while he was coming from Pad′dan-a′ram;+ and he pitched camp in front of the city. 19 Then he acquired a tract of the field where he pitched his tent at the hand of the sons of Ha′mor the father of She′chem, for a hundred pieces of money.*+ 20 After that he set up there an altar and called it God the God of Israel.*+

34 Now Di′nah the daughter of Le′ah,+ whom she had borne to Jacob, used to go out to see+ the daughters of the land.+ And She′chem the son of Ha′mor the Hi′vite,+ a chieftain* of the land, got to see her and then took her and lay down with her and violated* her.+ And his soul began clinging to Di′nah* the daughter of Jacob, and he fell in love with the young woman and kept speaking persuasively to* the young woman. Finally She′chem said to Ha′mor his father:+ “Get me this young lady as a wife.”+

And Jacob heard that he had defiled Di′nah his daughter. And his sons happened to be with his herd in the field;+ and Jacob kept silent until they should come in.+ Later Ha′mor, She′chem’s father, went out to Jacob to speak with him.+ And the sons of Jacob came in from the field as soon as they heard of it; and the men became hurt in their feelings and they grew very angry,+ because he had committed a disgraceful folly against Israel in lying down with Jacob’s daughter,+ whereas nothing like that ought to be done.+

And Ha′mor proceeded to speak with them, saying: “As for She′chem my son, his soul is attached to YOUR daughter.+ Give her, please, to him as a wife,+ and form marriage alliances with us.+ YOUR daughters YOU are to give to us, and our daughters YOU are to take for yourselves.+ 10 And with us YOU may dwell, and the land will become available for YOU. Dwell and carry on business* in it and get settled in it.”+ 11 Then She′chem said to her father and to her brothers: “Let me find favor in YOUR eyes, and whatever YOU will say to me I shall give it. 12 Raise very high the marriage money* and gift imposed upon me,+ and I stand willing to give according to what YOU may say to me; only give me the young woman as a wife.”

13 And Jacob’s sons began to answer She′chem and Ha′mor his father with deceit and to speak so because he had defiled Di′nah their sister.+ 14 And they went on to say to them: “We cannot possibly do such a thing, to give our sister to a man who has a foreskin,+ because that is a reproach to us. 15 Only on this condition can we give consent to YOU, that YOU become like us, by every male of YOURS getting circumcised.+ 16 Then we shall certainly give our daughters to YOU, and YOUR daughters we shall take for ourselves, and we shall certainly dwell with YOU and become one people.+ 17 But if YOU do not listen to us to get circumcised, then we will take our daughter and go.”

18 And their words seemed good in the eyes of Ha′mor and in the eyes of She′chem, Ha′mor’s son,+ 19 and the young man did not delay to perform the condition,+ because he did find delight in Jacob’s daughter and he was the most honorable+ of the whole house of his father.+

20 So Ha′mor and She′chem his son went to the gate of their city and began to speak to the men of their city,+ saying: 21 “These men are peace-loving toward us.+ Hence let them dwell in the land and carry on business* in it, as the land is quite wide* before them.+ Their daughters we can take as wives for ourselves and our own daughters we can give to them.+ 22 Only on this condition will the men give us their consent to dwell with us so as to become one people, that every male of ours gets circumcised just the way they are circumcised.+ 23 Then their possessions and their wealth and all their livestock, will they not be ours?+ Only let us give them our consent that they may dwell with us.”+ 24 Then all those going out by the gate of his city listened to Ha′mor and to She′chem his son, and all the males got circumcised, all those going out by the gate of his city.

25 However, it came about that on the third day, when they got to be aching,+ the two sons of Jacob, Sim′e·on and Le′vi,+ brothers of Di′nah,+ proceeded to take each one his sword and to go unsuspectedly* to the city and to kill every male.+ 26 And Ha′mor and She′chem his son they killed with the edge of the sword.+ Then they took Di′nah from She′chem’s house and went on out.+ 27 The other sons of Jacob attacked* the fatally wounded men and went plundering the city, because they had defiled their sister.+ 28 Their flocks and their herds and their asses and what was in the city and what was in the field they took.+ 29 And all their means of maintenance and all their little children and their wives they carried off captive, so that they plundered all that was in the houses.+

30 At this Jacob said to Sim′e·on and to Le′vi:+ “YOU have brought ostracism upon me in making me a stench to the inhabitants of the land,+ with the Ca′naan·ites and the Per′iz·zites; whereas I am few in number,*+ and they will certainly gather together against me and assault me and I must be annihilated, I and my house.” 31 In turn they said: “Ought anyone to treat our sister like a prostitute?”*+

35 After that God said to Jacob: “Rise, go up to Beth′el and dwell there,+ and make an altar there to the [true] God who appeared to you when you were running away from E′sau your brother.”+

Then Jacob said to his household and to all who were with him: “Put away the foreign gods* that are in the midst of YOU+ and cleanse yourselves and change YOUR mantles,+ and let us rise and go up to Beth′el. And there I shall make an altar to the [true] God who answered me in the day of my distress+ in that he proved to be with me in the way that I have gone.”+ So they gave Jacob all the foreign gods+ that were in their hands and the earrings that were in their ears, and Jacob hid+ them under the big tree that was close by She′chem.

After that they pulled away, and the terror of God came to be upon the cities that were round about them,+ so that they did not chase after the sons of Jacob. Eventually Jacob came to Luz,+ which is in the land of Ca′naan, that is to say, Beth′el, he and all the people who were with him. Then he built an altar there and began to call the place El-beth′el,* because there the [true] God had revealed himself to him at the time of his running away from his brother.+ Later Deb′o·rah+ the nursing woman of Re·bek′ah died and was buried at the foot of Beth′el under a massive tree. Hence he called its name Al′lon-bac′uth.*

God now appeared to Jacob once again during his coming from Pad′dan-a′ram+ and blessed him.+ 10 And God went on to say to him: “Your name is Jacob.+ No longer is your name to be called Jacob, but Israel will your name become.” And he began to call his name Israel.+ 11 And God said further to him: “I am God Almighty.*+ Be fruitful and become many. Nations* and a congregation of nations will proceed out of you, and kings will come out of your loins.+ 12 As for the land that I have given to Abraham and to Isaac, to you I shall give it, and to your seed*+ after you I shall give the land.”+ 13 After that God went up from above him at the place where he had spoken with him.+

14 Consequently Jacob stationed a pillar in the place where he had spoken with him,+ a pillar of stone, and he poured a drink offering upon it and poured oil upon it.+ 15 And Jacob continued to call the name of the place where God had spoken with him Beth′el.+

16 Then they pulled away from Beth′el. And while there was yet a good stretch of land before coming to Eph′rath,+ Rachel proceeded to give birth, and it was going hard with her in making the delivery.+ 17 But so it was that while she had difficulty in making the delivery the midwife said to her: “Do not be afraid, for you will have this son also.”+ 18 And the result was that as her soul*+ was going out (because she died)+ she called his name Ben-o′ni;* but his father called him Benjamin.*+ 19 Thus Rachel died and was buried on the way to Eph′rath, that is to say, Beth′le·hem.+ 20 Hence Jacob stationed a pillar over her grave. This is the pillar of Rachel’s grave down to this day.+

21 After that Israel pulled away and pitched his tent a distance beyond the tower of E′der.+ 22 And it came about while Israel was tabernacling+ in that land that once Reu′ben went and lay down with Bil′hah his father’s concubine, and Israel got to hear of it.+

So there came to be twelve sons of Jacob. 23 The sons by Le′ah were Jacob’s firstborn Reu′ben+ and Sim′e·on and Le′vi and Judah and Is′sa·char and Zeb′u·lun. 24 The sons by Rachel were Joseph and Benjamin. 25 And the sons by Bil′hah, Rachel’s maidservant, were Dan and Naph′ta·li. 26 And the sons by Zil′pah, Le′ah’s maidservant, were Gad and Ash′er. These are Jacob’s sons who were born to him in Pad′dan-a′ram.

27 At length Jacob came to Isaac his father to Mam′re,+ to Kir′i·ath-ar′ba,+ that is to say, He′bron, where Abraham and also Isaac had resided as aliens.+ 28 And the days of Isaac came to be a hundred and eighty years.+ 29 After that Isaac expired and died and was gathered to his people, old and satisfied with days,*+ and E′sau and Jacob his sons buried him.+

36 And this is the history of E′sau, that is to say, E′dom.+

E′sau took his wives from the daughters of Ca′naan:+ A′dah+ the daughter of E′lon the Hit′tite+ and O·hol·i·ba′mah+ the daughter of A′nah, the granddaughter* of Zib′e·on the Hi′vite, and Bas′e·math,+ Ish′ma·el’s daughter, the sister of Ne·ba′ioth.+

And A′dah proceeded to bear El′i·phaz to E′sau, and Bas′e·math bore Reu′el, and O·hol·i·ba′mah bore Je′ush and Ja′lam and Ko′rah.+

These are the sons of E′sau who were born to him in the land of Ca′naan. After that E′sau took his wives and his sons and his daughters and all the souls of his house and his herd and all his other beasts and all his wealth,+ which he had accumulated in the land of Ca′naan, and went to a land* away from Jacob his brother,+ because their goods had become too great for them to dwell together and the land of their alien residences was not able to sustain them as a result of their herds.+ So E′sau took up dwelling in the mountainous region of Se′ir.+ E′sau is E′dom.+

And this is the history of E′sau the father of E′dom in the mountainous region of Se′ir.+

10 These are the names of the sons of E′sau: El′i·phaz the son of A′dah, E′sau’s wife; Reu′el the son of Bas′e·math, E′sau’s wife.+

11 And the sons of El′i·phaz came to be Te′man,+ O′mar, Ze′pho and Ga′tam and Ke′naz.+ 12 And Tim′na+ became the concubine of El′i·phaz, E′sau’s son. In time she bore to El′i·phaz Am′a·lek.+ These are the sons of A′dah, E′sau’s wife.

13 These are the sons of Reu′el: Na′hath and Ze′rah, Sham′mah and Miz′zah.+ These came to be the sons* of Bas′e·math,+ E′sau’s wife.

14 And these came to be the sons of O·hol·i·ba′mah the daughter of A′nah, the granddaughter of Zib′e·on, E′sau’s wife, in that she bore to E′sau Je′ush and Ja′lam and Ko′rah.+

15 These are the sheiks*+ of the sons of E′sau: The sons of El′i·phaz, E′sau’s firstborn: Sheik Te′man,+ sheik O′mar, sheik Ze′pho, sheik Ke′naz, 16 sheik Ko′rah,* sheik Ga′tam, sheik Am′a·lek. These are the sheiks of El′i·phaz+ in the land of E′dom. These are the sons by A′dah.

17 These are the sons of Reu′el, E′sau’s son: Sheik Na′hath, sheik Ze′rah, sheik Sham′mah, sheik Miz′zah. These are the sheiks of Reu′el in the land of E′dom.+ These are the sons by Bas′e·math, E′sau’s wife.

18 Finally these are the sons of O·hol·i·ba′mah, E′sau’s wife: Sheik Je′ush, sheik Ja′lam, sheik Ko′rah. These are the sheiks of O·hol·i·ba′mah the daughter of A′nah, E′sau’s wife.

19 These are the sons of E′sau, and these are their sheiks. He is E′dom.+

20 These are the sons of Se′ir the Hor′ite, the inhabitants of the land:+ Lo′tan and Sho′bal and Zib′e·on and A′nah+ 21 and Di′shon and E′zer and Di′shan.+ These are the sheiks of the Hor′ite, the sons of Se′ir, in the land of E′dom.

22 And the sons of Lo′tan came to be Ho′ri and He′mam; and Lo′tan’s sister was Tim′na.+

23 And these are the sons of Sho′bal: Al′van and Man′a·hath and E′bal, She′pho and O′nam.

24 And these are the sons of Zib′e·on: A′iah and A′nah. This is the A′nah who found the hot springs* in the wilderness while he was tending the asses for Zib′e·on his father.+

25 And these are the children of A′nah: Di′shon and O·hol·i·ba′mah the daughter of A′nah.

26 And these are the sons of Di′shon:* Hem′dan and Esh′ban and Ith′ran and Che′ran.+

27 These are the sons of E′zer: Bil′han and Za′a·van and A′kan.

28 These are the sons of Di′shan: Uz and A′ran.+

29 These are the sheiks of the Hor′ite: Sheik Lo′tan, sheik Sho′bal, sheik Zib′e·on, sheik A′nah, 30 sheik Di′shon, sheik E′zer, sheik Di′shan.+ These are the sheiks of the Hor′ite according to their sheiks in the land of Se′ir.

31 Now these are the kings who reigned in the land of E′dom+ before any king reigned over the sons of Israel.+ 32 And Be′la son of Be′or proceeded to reign in E′dom,+ and the name of his city was Din′ha·bah. 33 When Be′la died, Jo′bab son of Ze′rah from Boz′rah+ began to reign instead of him.+ 34 When Jo′bab died, Hu′sham from the land of the Te′man·ites+ began to reign instead of him.+ 35 When Hu′sham died, Ha′dad son of Be′dad, who defeated the Mid′i·an·ites+ in the field of Mo′ab,+ began to reign instead of him, and the name of his city was A′vith.+ 36 When Ha′dad died, Sam′lah from Mas·re′kah began to reign instead of him.+ 37 When Sam′lah died, Sha′ul from Re·ho′both by the River began to reign instead of him.+ 38 When Sha′ul died, Ba′al-ha′nan son of Ach′bor began to reign instead of him.+ 39 When Ba′al-ha′nan son of Ach′bor died, Ha′dar began to reign instead of him; and the name of his city was Pa′u, and the name of his wife was Me·het′a·bel the daughter of Ma′tred the daughter of Me′za·hab.+

40 So these are the names of the sheiks of E′sau according to their families, according to their places, by their names: Sheik Tim′na, sheik Al′vah, sheik Je′theth,+ 41 sheik O·hol·i·ba′mah, sheik E′lah, sheik Pi′non,+ 42 sheik Ke′naz, sheik Te′man, sheik Mib′zar,+ 43 sheik Mag′di·el, sheik I′ram. These are the sheiks of E′dom+ according to their dwellings in the land of their possession.+ This is E′sau the father of E′dom.+

37 And Jacob continued to dwell in the land of the alien residences of his father,+ in the land of Ca′naan.+

This is the history of Jacob.

Joseph,+ when seventeen years old, happened to be tending sheep* with his brothers among the flock,+ and, being but a boy, he was with the sons of Bil′hah+ and the sons of Zil′pah,+ the wives of his father. So Joseph brought a bad report about them to their father.+ And Israel loved Joseph more than all his other sons,+ because he was the son of his old age; and he had a long, striped shirtlike garment made for him.+ When his brothers came to see that their father loved him more than all his brothers, they began to hate him,+ and they were not able to speak peacefully to him.+

Later on Joseph had a dream and told it to his brothers,+ and they found further reason to hate him. And he went on to say to them: “Listen, please, to this dream that I have dreamed.+ Well, here we were binding sheaves in the middle of the field when here my sheaf got up and also stood erect and here YOUR sheaves proceeded to encircle and bow down to my sheaf.”+ And his brothers began to say to him: “Are you going to be king over us for certain?+ or, Are you going to dominate over us for certain?”+ So they found fresh reason to hate him over his dreams and over his words.

After that he had still another dream, and he related it to his brothers and said: “Here I have had a dream once more, and here the sun and the moon and eleven stars were bowing down to me.”+ 10 Then he related it to his father as well as his brothers, and his father began to rebuke him and say to him:+ “What does this dream that you have dreamed mean? Am I and also your mother and your brothers for certain going to come and bow down to the earth to you?” 11 And his brothers grew jealous of him,+ but his father observed the saying.*+

12 His brothers now went to feed the flock of their father* close by She′chem.+ 13 After a while Israel said to Joseph: “Your brothers are tending [flocks] close by She′chem, are they not? Come, and let me send you to them.” At this he said to him: “Here I am!”+ 14 So he said to him: “Go, please. See whether your brothers are safe and sound and whether the flock is safe and sound,* and bring me back word.”+ With that he sent him away from the low plain of He′bron,+ and he went on toward She′chem. 15 Later a man found him and here he was wandering in a field. Then the man inquired of him, saying: “What are you looking for?” 16 To this he said: “It is my brothers I am looking for. Tell me, please, Where are they tending flocks?” 17 And the man continued: “They have pulled away from here, because I heard them saying, ‘Let us go to Do′than.’” So Joseph kept on after his brothers and found them at Do′than.

18 Well, they caught sight of him from a distance, and before he could get close by them they began plotting cunningly against him to put him to death.+ 19 So they said to one another: “Look! Here comes that dreamer.*+ 20 And now come and let us kill him and pitch him into one of the waterpits;+ and we must say a vicious wild beast devoured him.+ Then let us see what will become of his dreams.” 21 When Reu′ben heard this he tried to deliver him out of their hand.+ So he said: “Let us not strike his soul fatally.”*+ 22 And Reu′ben went on to say to them: “Do not spill blood.+ Pitch him into this waterpit which is in the wilderness and do not lay a violent hand upon him.”+ His purpose was to deliver him out of their hand in order to return him to his father.

23 So it came about that as soon as Joseph came to his brothers, they went stripping Joseph of his long garment, even the long striped garment that was upon him;+ 24 after which they took him and pitched him into the waterpit.+ At the time the pit was empty; there was no water in it.

25 Then they sat down to eat bread.+ When they raised their eyes and took a look, why, here was a caravan of Ish′ma·el·ites+ that was coming from Gil′e·ad, and their camels were carrying labdanum and balsam* and resinous bark,+ on their way to take it down to Egypt. 26 At this Judah said to his brothers: “What profit would there be in case we killed our brother and did cover over his blood?+ 27 Come and let us sell him to the Ish′ma·el·ites,+ and do not let our hand be upon him.+ After all, he is our brother, our flesh.” So they listened to their brother.+ 28 Now men, Mid′i·an·ite merchants,+ went passing by. Hence they drew and lifted up Joseph out of the waterpit+ and then sold Joseph to the Ish′ma·el·ites for twenty silver pieces.+ Eventually these brought Joseph into Egypt.

29 Later Reu′ben returned to the waterpit and here Joseph was not in the waterpit. Consequently he ripped his garments apart.+ 30 When he returned to his other brothers he exclaimed: “The child is gone! And I—where am I really to go?”+

31 However, they took Joseph’s long garment and slaughtered a male goat and repeatedly dipped the long garment in the blood.+ 32 After that they sent the long striped garment and had it brought to their father and said: “This is what we found. Examine,+ please, whether it is your son’s long garment or not.”+ 33 And he went examining it and exclaimed: “It is my son’s long garment! A vicious wild beast must have devoured him!+ Joseph is surely torn to pieces!”+ 34 With that Jacob ripped his mantles apart and put sackcloth upon his hips and carried on mourning over his son for many days.+ 35 And all his sons and all his daughters kept rising up to comfort him,+ but he kept refusing to take comfort and saying:+ “For I shall go down mourning to my son into She′ol!”* And his father continued weeping for him.

36 However, the Mid′i·an·ites sold him into Egypt to Pot′i·phar a court official of Phar′aoh,*+ the chief of the bodyguard.+

38 Now in the meantime it came about that when Judah went down from his brothers he pitched [his tent] near a man, an A·dul′lam·ite,+ and his name was Hi′rah. And there Judah got to see a daughter of a certain Ca′naan·ite,+ and his* name was Shu′a. So he took her and had relations with her. And she became pregnant. Later she bore a son and he called his name Er.+ Again she became pregnant. In time she bore a son and called his name O′nan. Yet another time she went on to bear a son and then called his name She′lah. Now he* happened to be in Ach′zib* at the time she bore him.+

In time Judah took a wife for Er his firstborn, and her name was Ta′mar.+ But Er, Judah’s firstborn, proved to be bad in the eyes of Jehovah;+ hence Jehovah put him to death.+ In view of that Judah said to O′nan: “Have relations with* your brother’s wife and perform brother-in-law marriage* with her and raise up offspring for your brother.”+ But O′nan knew that the offspring would not become his;+ and it occurred that when he did have relations with his brother’s wife he wasted his semen on the earth* so as not to give offspring to his brother.+ 10 Now what he did was bad in the eyes of Jehovah;+ hence he put him also to death.+ 11 So Judah said to Ta′mar his daughter-in-law: “Dwell as a widow in the house of your father until She′lah my son grows up.”+ For he said to himself:* “He too may die like his brothers.”+ Accordingly Ta′mar went and continued to dwell at her own father’s house.+

12 Thus the days became many and the daughter of Shu′a, Judah’s wife,+ died; and Judah kept the period of mourning.+ After that he went up to the shearers of his sheep, he and Hi′rah his companion the A·dul′lam·ite,+ to Tim′nah.+ 13 Then it was told to Ta′mar: “Here your father-in-law is going up to Tim′nah to shear his sheep.”+ 14 With that she removed the garments of her widowhood from her and covered herself with a shawl and veiled herself and sat down at the entrance of E·na′im, which is along the road to Tim′nah. For she saw that She′lah had grown up and yet she had not been given as a wife to him.+

15 When Judah caught sight of her, he at once took her for a harlot,*+ because she had covered her face.+ 16 So he turned aside to her by the road and said: “Allow me, please, to have relations with you.”+ For he did not know that she was his daughter-in-law.+ However, she said: “What will you give me that you may have relations with me?”+ 17 To this he said: “I myself shall send a kid of the goats from the herd.” But she said: “Will you give a security until you send it?”+ 18 And he continued: “What is the security that I shall give you?” to which she said: “Your seal ring+ and your cord and your rod that is in your hand.” Then he gave them to her and had relations with her, so that she became pregnant by him. 19 After that she got up and went and removed her shawl off her and clothed herself with the garments of her widowhood.+

20 And Judah proceeded to send the kid of the goats by the hand of his companion the A·dul′lam·ite+ in order to get back the security from the hand of the woman, but he never found her. 21 And he went inquiring of the men of her place, saying: “Where is that temple prostitute in E·na′im along the road?” But they kept saying: “No temple prostitute+ has ever been in this place.” 22 Finally he returned to Judah and said: “I never found her and, besides, the men of the place said, ‘No temple prostitute has ever been in this place.’” 23 So Judah said: “Let her take them for herself, in order that we may not fall into contempt.+ At any rate, I have sent this kid, but you—you never found her.”

24 However, about three months later it happened that it was told to Judah: “Ta′mar your daughter-in-law has played the harlot,+ and here she is also pregnant+ by her harlotry.”* At that Judah said: “BRING her out and let her be burned.”+ 25 As she was being brought out she herself sent to her father-in-law, saying: “By the man to whom these belong I am pregnant.”+ And she added: “Examine,+ please, to whom these belong, the seal ring and the cord* and the rod.”+ 26 Then Judah examined them and said:+ “She is more righteous than I am,+ for the reason that I did not give her to She′lah my son.”+ And he had no further intercourse with her after that.+

27 Now it developed that in the time of her giving birth, why, here there were twins in her belly. 28 Further, it turned out that when she was giving birth one extended his hand, and the midwife at once took and tied a scarlet piece about his hand, saying: “This one came out first.” 29 Finally it developed that as soon as he drew back his hand, why, here his brother came out, so that she exclaimed: “What do you mean by this, that you have produced a perineal rupture for yourself?” Hence his name was called Pe′rez.*+ 30 And afterward his brother upon whose hand the scarlet piece was came out and his name came to be called Ze′rah.*+

39 As for Joseph, he was brought down to Egypt,+ and Pot′i·phar,+ a court official of Phar′aoh,* the chief of the bodyguard, an Egyptian, got to buy him from the hand of the Ish′ma·el·ites+ who had brought him down there. But Jehovah proved to be with Joseph, so that he turned out a successful man+ and came to be over the house of his master,* the Egyptian. And his master got to see that Jehovah was with him and that everything he was doing Jehovah was making turn out successful in his hand.

And Joseph kept finding favor in his eyes and waited upon him continually, so that he appointed him over his house,+ and all that was his he gave into his hand. And it followed that from the time he appointed him over his house and in charge of all that was his Jehovah kept blessing the house of the Egyptian due to Joseph, and Jehovah’s blessing came to be upon all that he had in the house and in the field.+ Finally he left everything that was his in Joseph’s hand;+ and he did not know what was with him at all except the bread he was eating. Moreover, Joseph grew to be beautiful in form and beautiful in appearance.

Now after these things it came about that the wife of his master began to raise her eyes+ toward Joseph and say: “Lie down with me.”+ But he would refuse+ and would say to his master’s wife: “Here my master does not know what is with me in the house, and everything he has he has given into my hand.+ There is no one greater in this house than I am, and he has not withheld from me anything at all except you, because you are his wife.+ So how could I commit this great badness and actually sin against God?”+

10 So it turned out that as she spoke to Joseph day after day he never listened to her to lie alongside her, to continue with her.+ 11 But it happened that on this day as other days* he went into the house to do his business, and there was none of the men of the house there in the house.+ 12 Then she grabbed hold of him by his garment,+ saying: “Lie down with me!”+ But he left his garment in her hand and took to flight and went on outside.+ 13 So it occurred that as soon as she saw that he had left his garment in her hand that he might flee outside, 14 she began to cry out to the men of her house and to say to them: “Look! He brought to us a man, a Hebrew, to make us a laughingstock. He came to me to lie down with me, but I began to cry out at the top of my voice.+ 15 And it followed that as soon as he heard that I raised my voice and began crying out, he then left his garment beside me and took to flight and went on outside.” 16 After that she kept his garment laid up beside her until his master came to his house.+

17 Then she spoke to him according to these words, saying: “The Hebrew servant whom you brought to us came to me to make me a laughingstock.* 18 But it followed that as soon as I raised my voice and began to cry out, he then left his garment beside me and went fleeing outside.”+ 19 The result was that as soon as his master heard the words of his wife which she spoke to him, saying: “Like this and this your servant did to me,” his anger blazed.+ 20 So Joseph’s master took him and gave him over to the prison house,* the place where the prisoners* of the king were kept under arrest,* and he continued there in the prison house.+

21 However, Jehovah continued with Joseph and kept extending loving-kindness to him and granting him to find favor in the eyes of the chief officer* of the prison house.+ 22 So the chief officer of the prison house gave over into Joseph’s hand all the prisoners who were in the prison house; and everything that they were doing there he proved to be the one having it done.+ 23 The chief officer of the prison house was looking after absolutely nothing that was in his hand, because Jehovah was with [Joseph]* and what he was doing Jehovah was making it turn out successful.+

40 Now after these things it came about that the cupbearer+ of the king of Egypt and the baker sinned against their lord* the king of Egypt.+ And Phar′aoh grew indignant at his two officers,+ at the chief* of the cupbearers and at the chief of the bakers.+ So he committed them to the jail of the house of the chief of the bodyguard,+ to the prison house,+ the place where Joseph was a prisoner. Then the chief of the bodyguard assigned Joseph to be with them that he might wait upon them;+ and they continued in jail for some days.

And both of them proceeded to dream a dream,+ each one his own dream in the one night,+ each one his dream with its own interpretation,+ the cupbearer and the baker who belonged to the king of Egypt who were prisoners in the prison house.+ When Joseph came in to them in the morning and saw them, why, here they were looking dejected.+ And he began to inquire of the officers of Phar′aoh who were with him in the jail of his master’s house, saying: “For what reason are YOUR faces gloomy today?”+ At this they said to him: “We have dreamed a dream, and there is no interpreter with us.” So Joseph said to them: “Do not interpretations belong to God?+ Relate it to me, please.”

And the chief of the cupbearers went on to relate his dream to Joseph and to say to him: “In my dream, why, here there was a vine before me. 10 And on the vine there were three twigs, and it was apparently sprouting shoots.+ Its blossoms pushed forth. Its clusters ripened their grapes. 11 And Phar′aoh’s cup was in my hand, and I proceeded to take the grapes and squeeze them out into Phar′aoh’s cup.+ After that I gave the cup into Phar′aoh’s hand.”+ 12 Then Joseph said to him: “This is its interpretation:+ The three twigs are three days. 13 In three days from now Phar′aoh will lift up your head and he will certainly return you to your office;+ and you will certainly give Phar′aoh’s cup into his hand, according to the former custom when you acted as his cupbearer.+ 14 Nevertheless, you must keep me in your remembrance as soon as it goes well with you,+ and you must, please, perform loving-kindness with me and mention me to Phar′aoh,+ and you must get me out of this house. 15 For I was in fact kidnapped from the land of the Hebrews;+ and here also I have done nothing at all for which they should put me in the prison hole.”*+

16 When the chief of the bakers saw that he had interpreted something good, he, in turn, said to Joseph: “I too was in my dream, and here there were three baskets of white bread upon my head, 17 and in the topmost basket there were all sorts of eatables for Phar′aoh,+ the product of a baker, and there were fowls+ eating them out of the basket on top of my head.” 18 Then Joseph answered and said: “This is its interpretation:+ The three baskets are three days. 19 In three days from now Phar′aoh will lift up your head from off you and will certainly hang you upon a stake;*+ and the fowls will certainly eat your flesh from off you.”+

20 Now on the third day it turned out to be Phar′aoh’s birthday,+ and he proceeded to make a feast for all his servants and to lift up the head of the chief of the cupbearers and the head of the chief of the bakers in the midst of his servants.+ 21 Accordingly he returned the chief of the cupbearers to his post of cupbearer,+ and he continued to give the cup into Phar′aoh’s hand. 22 But the chief of the bakers he hung up,+ just as Joseph had given them the interpretation.+ 23 However, the chief of the cupbearers did not remember Joseph and went on forgetting him.+

41 And it came about at the end of two full years* that Phar′aoh was dreaming+ and here he was standing by the river Nile. And here ascending out of the river Nile were seven cows beautiful in appearance and fat-fleshed, and they went feeding among the Nile grass.*+ And here there were seven other cows ascending after them out of the river Nile, ugly in appearance and thin-fleshed,+ and they took their stand alongside the cows by the bank of the river Nile. Then the cows that were ugly in appearance and thin-fleshed began to eat up the seven cows that were beautiful in appearance and fat.+ At this Phar′aoh woke up.+

However, he went back to sleep and dreamed a second time. And here there were seven ears of grain coming up on one stalk, fat and good.+ And here there were seven ears of grain, thin and scorched by the east wind,+ growing up after them.+ And the thin ears of grain began to swallow up the seven fat and full ears of grain.+ At this Phar′aoh woke up and here it was a dream.

And it developed in the morning that his spirit became agitated.+ So he sent and called all the magic-practicing priests of Egypt+ and all her wise men,+ and Phar′aoh went on to relate his dreams* to them.+ But there was no interpreter of them for Phar′aoh.

Then the chief of the cupbearers spoke with Phar′aoh,+ saying: “My sins I am mentioning today.+ 10 Phar′aoh was indignant at his servants.+ So he committed me to the jail of the house of the chief of the bodyguard,+ both me and the chief of the bakers. 11 After that we both dreamed a dream in the one night, both I and he. We dreamed each one his dream with its own interpretation.+ 12 And there was with us there a young man, a Hebrew,+ a servant of the chief of the bodyguard.+ When we related them to him,+ he proceeded to interpret our dreams to us. He interpreted to each according to his dream. 13 And it turned out that just as he had interpreted to us so it happened. Me he returned to my office,+ but him he hanged.”*+

14 And Phar′aoh proceeded to send and to call Joseph,+ that they might bring him quickly from the prison hole.+ Hence he shaved+ and changed his mantles+ and went in to Phar′aoh. 15 Then Phar′aoh said to Joseph: “I have dreamed a dream, but there is no interpreter of it. Now I myself have heard it said about you that you can hear a dream and interpret it.”+ 16 At this Joseph answered Phar′aoh, saying: “I need not be considered! God will announce* welfare to Phar′aoh.”+

17 And Phar′aoh went on to speak to Joseph: “In my dream here I was standing on the bank of the river Nile. 18 And here ascending out of the river Nile were seven cows fat-fleshed and beautiful in form, and they began to feed among the Nile grass.+ 19 And here there were seven other cows ascending after them, poor and very bad in form and thin-fleshed.+ For badness I have not seen the like of them in all the land of Egypt. 20 And the skinny and bad cows began to eat up the first seven fat cows.+ 21 So these came into their bellies, and yet it could not be known that they had come into their bellies, as their appearance was bad just as at the start.+ At that I woke up.

22 “After that I saw in my dream and here there were seven ears of grain coming up on one stalk, full and good.+ 23 And here there were seven ears of grain shriveled, thin, scorched by the east wind,+ growing up after them. 24 And the thin ears of grain began to swallow up the seven good ears of grain.+ So I stated it to the magic-practicing priests,+ but there was none telling me.”+

25 Then Joseph said to Phar′aoh: “The dream of Phar′aoh is but one. What the [true] God is doing he has told to Phar′aoh.+ 26 The seven good cows are seven years. Likewise the seven good ears of grain are seven years. The dream is but one. 27 And the seven skinny and bad cows that came up after them are seven years; and the seven empty ears of grain, scorched by the east wind,+ will prove to be seven years of famine.+ 28 This is the thing that I have spoken to Phar′aoh: What the [true] God is doing he has caused Phar′aoh to see.+

29 “Here there are seven years coming with great plenty in all the land of Egypt. 30 But seven years of famine will certainly arise after them, and all the plenty in the land of Egypt will certainly be forgotten and the famine will simply consume the land.+ 31 And the plenty once in the land will not be known as a result of that famine afterward, because it will certainly be very severe. 32 And the fact that the dream was repeated to Phar′aoh twice means that the thing is firmly established on the part of the [true] God,+ and the [true] God is speeding to do it.+

33 “So now let Phar′aoh look for a man discreet and wise and set him over the land of Egypt.+ 34 Let Phar′aoh act and appoint overseers over the land,+ and he must take up one fifth of the land of Egypt during the seven years of plenty.+ 35 And let them collect all the foodstuffs of these coming good years, and let them pile up grain under Phar′aoh’s hand as foodstuffs in the cities,+ and they must safeguard it. 36 And the foodstuffs must serve as a supply for the land for the seven famine years, which will develop in the land of Egypt,+ in order that the land may not be cut off by the famine.”+

37 Well, the thing proved to be good in the eyes of Phar′aoh and of all his servants.+ 38 So Phar′aoh said to his servants: “Can another man be found like this one in whom the spirit of God is?”+ 39 After that Phar′aoh said to Joseph: “Since God has caused you to know all this,+ there is no one as discreet and wise as you are.+ 40 You will personally be over my house,+ and all my people will obey you implicitly.*+ Only as to the throne shall I be greater than you.”+ 41 And Phar′aoh added to Joseph: “See, I do place you over all the land of Egypt.”+ 42 With that Phar′aoh removed his signet ring+ from his own hand and put it upon Joseph’s hand and clothed him with garments of fine linen* and placed a necklace of gold about his neck.+ 43 Moreover, he had him ride in the second chariot of honor that he had,+ so that they should call out ahead of him, “A·vrékh!”* thus putting him over all the land of Egypt.

44 And Phar′aoh further said to Joseph: “I am Phar′aoh, but without your authorization no man may lift up his hand or his foot in all the land of Egypt.”+ 45 After that Phar′aoh called Joseph’s name Zaph′e·nath-pa·ne′ah* and gave him As′e·nath+ the daughter of Pot·i′phe·ra* the priest of On*+ as a wife. And Joseph began to go out over the land of Egypt.+ 46 And Joseph was thirty years old+ when he stood before Phar′aoh the king of Egypt.

Then Joseph went out from before Phar′aoh and toured about in all the land of Egypt. 47 And during the seven years of plenty the land went on producing by the handfuls.+ 48 And he kept collecting all the foodstuffs of the seven years that came upon the land of Egypt and he would put the foodstuffs in the cities.+ The foodstuffs of the field that was round about a city he put in the midst of it.+ 49 And Joseph continued piling up grain in very great quantity,+ like the sand of the sea, until finally they gave up counting it, because it was without number.+

50 And before the year of the famine arrived there were born to Joseph two sons,+ whom As′e·nath the daughter of Pot·i′phe·ra the priest of On bore to him. 51 So Joseph called the name of the firstborn Ma·nas′seh,*+ because, to quote him, “God* has made me forget all my trouble and all the house of my father.”+ 52 And the name of the second he called E′phra·im,*+ because, to quote him, “God has made me fruitful in the land of my wretchedness.”+

53 And the seven years of the plenty that had obtained in the land of Egypt gradually ended,+ 54 and, in turn, the seven years of the famine started to come, just as Joseph had said.+ And the famine developed in all the lands, but in all the land of Egypt there was found bread.+ 55 Finally all the land of Egypt became famished and the people began to cry to Phar′aoh for bread.+ Then Phar′aoh said to all the Egyptians: “Go to Joseph. Whatever he says to YOU, YOU are to do.”+ 56 And the famine obtained over all the surface of the earth.+ Then Joseph began to open up all the grain depositories that were among them* and to sell to the Egyptians,*+ as the famine got a strong grip on the land of Egypt. 57 Moreover, people of all the earth* came to Egypt to buy from Joseph, because the famine had a strong grip on all the earth.+

42 Eventually Jacob got to see that there were cereals in Egypt.+ Then Jacob said to his sons: “Why do YOU keep looking at one another?” And he added: “Here I have heard that there are cereals in Egypt.+ Go down there and buy for us from there, that we may keep alive and not die off.” Accordingly ten brothers+ of Joseph went down to buy grain from Egypt. But Jacob did not send Benjamin,+ Joseph’s brother, with his other brothers, because he said: “Otherwise a fatal accident* may befall him.”+

So Israel’s sons came along with the others who were coming to buy, because the famine existed in the land of Ca′naan.+ And Joseph was the man in power over the land.+ He was the one that did the selling to all people of the earth.+ Consequently Joseph’s brothers came and bowed low to him with their faces to the earth.+ When Joseph got to see his brothers, he at once recognized them, but he made himself unrecognizable to them.+ So he spoke harshly with them and said to them: “Where have YOU come from?” to which they said: “From the land of Ca′naan to buy foodstuffs.”+

Thus Joseph recognized his brothers, but they themselves did not recognize him. Immediately Joseph remembered the dreams that he had dreamed respecting them,+ and he went on to say to them: “YOU are spies! YOU have come to see the exposed condition* of the land!”+ 10 Then they said to him: “No, my lord,+ but your servants+ have come to buy foodstuffs. 11 We are all of us sons of but one man. We are upright men. Your servants do not act as spies.”+ 12 But he said to them: “Not so! Because YOU have come to see the exposed condition of the land!”+ 13 At this they said: “Your servants are twelve brothers.+ We are the sons of but one man+ in the land of Ca′naan; and here the youngest is with our father today,+ whereas the other one is no more.”+

14 However, Joseph said to them: “It is what I have spoken to YOU, saying, ‘YOU are spies!’ 15 By this YOU will be tested out. As Phar′aoh lives, YOU will not go out of here except when YOUR youngest brother comes here.+ 16 Send one of YOU that he may get YOUR brother while YOU have been bound, that YOUR words may be tested out as the truth in YOUR case.+ And if not, then, as Phar′aoh lives, YOU are spies.” 17 With that he put them together in custody for three days.

18 After that Joseph said to them on the third day: “Do this and keep alive. I fear+ the [true] God. 19 If YOU are upright, let one of YOUR brothers be kept bound in YOUR house of custody,+ but the rest of YOU go, take cereals for the famine in YOUR houses.+ 20 Then YOU will bring YOUR youngest brother to me, that YOUR words may be found trustworthy; and YOU will not die.”+ And they proceeded to do so.

21 And they began to say one to the other: “Unquestionably we are guilty with regard to our brother,+ because we saw the distress of his soul when he implored compassion on our part, but we did not listen. That is why this distress has come upon us.”+ 22 Then Reu′ben answered them, saying: “Did not I say to YOU, ‘Do not sin against the child,’ but YOU did not listen?+ And now his blood, here it is certainly asked back.”+ 23 As for them, they did not know that Joseph was listening, because there was an interpreter between them. 24 Consequently he turned away from them and began to weep.+ Then he returned to them and spoke to them and took Sim′e·on+ from them and bound him before their eyes.+ 25 After that Joseph gave the command, and they went filling up their receptacles with grain. Also, they were to return the money of the men to each one’s individual sack+ and to give them provisions for the journey.+ Accordingly it was done so to them.

26 So they loaded their cereals upon their asses and got on their way from there. 27 When one opened his sack to give fodder to his ass at the lodging place,+ he got to see his money, and here it was in the mouth of his bag.+ 28 At that he said to his brothers: “My money has been returned and now here it is in my bag!” Then their hearts sank, so that they turned trembling to one another,+ saying: “What is this God has done to us?”+

29 At length they came to Jacob their father to the land of Ca′naan and told him all the things that had befallen them, saying: 30 “The man who is the lord* of the country spoke harshly with us,+ since he took us for men spying on the country.+ 31 But we said to him, ‘We are upright men.+ We do not act as spies. 32 We are twelve brothers,+ the sons of our father.+ One is no more,+ and the youngest is today with our father in the land of Ca′naan.’+ 33 But the man who is the lord of the country said to us,+ ‘By this I am going to know YOU are upright:+ Have one brother of YOURS stay with me.+ Then YOU take something for the famine in YOUR houses and go.+ 34 And bring YOUR youngest brother to me, that I may know that YOU are no spies but YOU are upright. Your brother I shall give back to YOU, and YOU may carry on business in the land.’”+

35 And it came about that when they were emptying their sacks here was each one’s bundle of money in his sack. And they as well as their father got to see their bundles of money, and they became afraid. 36 Then Jacob their father exclaimed to them: “It is I YOU have bereaved!+ Joseph is no more and Sim′e·on is no more,+ and Benjamin YOU are going to take! It is upon me that all these things have come!” 37 But Reu′ben said to his father: “My own two sons you may put to death if I do not bring him back to you.+ Give him over to my care, and I shall be the one to return him to you.”+ 38 However, he said: “My son will not go down with YOU men, because his brother is dead and he has been left by himself.+ If a fatal accident* should befall him on the way on which YOU would go, then YOU would certainly bring down my gray hairs with grief to She′ol.”*+

43 And the famine was severe in the land.+ And it came about that as soon as they had finished eating up the cereals they had brought from Egypt,+ their father proceeded to say to them: “Return, buy a little food for us.”+ Then Judah said to him:+ “The man unmistakably bore witness to us, saying, ‘YOU must not see my face again unless YOUR brother is with YOU.’+ If you are sending our brother with us,+ we are willing to go down and buy food for you. But if you are not sending him, we shall not go down, because the man did say to us, ‘YOU must not see my face again unless YOUR brother is with YOU.’”+ And Israel exclaimed:+ “Why did YOU have to do harm to me by telling the man YOU had another brother?” At this they said: “The man directly inquired concerning us and our relatives, saying, ‘Is YOUR father yet alive?+ Do YOU have another brother?’ and we went on to tell him according to these facts.+ How could we know for certain that he would say, ‘Bring YOUR brother down’?”+

Finally Judah said to Israel his father: “Send the boy with me,+ that we may get up and go and that we may keep alive and not die off,+ both we and you and our little children.+ I shall be the one to be surety for him.+ Out of my hand you may exact the penalty for him.+ If I fail to bring him to you and present him to you, then I shall have sinned against you for all time.* 10 But if we had not lingered around, we should by now have been there and back these two times.”+

11 So Israel their father said to them: “If, then, that is the case,+ do this: Take the finest products of the land in YOUR receptacles and carry them down to the man as a gift:+ a little balsam,*+ and a little honey,+ labdanum and resinous bark,+ pistachio nuts and almonds.+ 12 Also, take double the money* in YOUR hand; and the money that was returned in the mouth of YOUR bags YOU will take back in YOUR hand.+ Maybe it was a mistake.+ 13 And take YOUR brother and get up, return to the man. 14 And may God Almighty* give YOU pity before the man,+ that he may certainly release to YOU YOUR other brother and Benjamin. But I, in case I must be bereaved, I shall certainly be bereaved!”+

15 Accordingly the men took this gift, and they took double the money in their hand and Benjamin. Then they rose and went their way down to Egypt and got to stand before Joseph.+ 16 When Joseph saw Benjamin with them, he at once said to the man who was over his house: “Take the men to the house and slaughter animals and make preparation,+ because the men are to eat with me at noon.” 17 Immediately the man did just as Joseph had said.+ So the man took the men to Joseph’s house. 18 But the men got afraid because they had been taken to Joseph’s house,+ and they began to say: “It is because of the money that went back with us in our bags at the start that we are being brought here for them to fall upon us and attack us and to take us for slaves and also our asses!”+

19 Hence they approached the man who was over Joseph’s house and spoke to him at the entrance of the house, 20 and they said: “Excuse us, my lord! We surely did come down at the start to buy food.+ 21 But what occurred was that when we came to the lodging place+ and began opening our bags, why, here was the money of each one in the mouth of his bag, our money in full weight. So we would like to return it with our own hands.+ 22 And more money we have brought down in our hands to buy food. We certainly do not know who placed our money in our bags.”+ 23 Then he said: “It is all right with YOU. Do not be afraid.+ YOUR God and the God of YOUR father gave YOU treasure in YOUR bags.+ YOUR money came first to me.” After that he brought out Sim′e·on to them.+

24 Then the man brought the men into Joseph’s house and gave water that they might have their feet washed,+ and he gave fodder for their asses.+ 25 And they proceeded to get the gift+ ready for Joseph’s coming at noon, because they had heard that it was there they were going to eat bread.+ 26 When Joseph went on into the house, then they brought the gift that was in their hand to him into the house, and prostrated themselves to him to the earth.+ 27 After this he inquired whether they were getting along well* and said:+ “Is YOUR father, the aged man of whom YOU have spoken, getting along well?* Is he still alive?”+ 28 To this they said: “Your servant our father is getting along well. He is still alive.” Then they bowed down and prostrated themselves.+

29 When he raised his eyes and saw Benjamin his brother, the son of his mother,+ he went on to say: “Is this YOUR brother, the youngest one of whom YOU have spoken to me?”+ And he added: “May God show you his favor,+ my son.” 30 Joseph was now in a hurry, because his inward emotions were excited toward his brother,+ so that he looked for a place to weep and he went into an interior room and gave way to tears there.+ 31 After that he washed his face and went out and kept control of himself and said:+ “SET on the meal.”+ 32 And they proceeded to set it on for him by himself and for them by themselves and for the Egyptians who were eating with him by themselves; for the Egyptians were not able to eat a meal with the Hebrews, because that is a detestable thing to the Egyptians.+

33 And they were seated before him, the firstborn according to his right as firstborn+ and the youngest according to his youngness; and the men kept looking at one another in amazement. 34 And he kept having portions carried from before him to them, but he would increase Benjamin’s portion five times the size of the portions of all the others.+ So they continued banqueting and drinking with him to the full.+

44 Later on he commanded the man who was over his house,+ saying: “Fill the bags of the men with food to the extent they are able to carry it and place the money of each one in the mouth of his bag.+ But you must place my cup, the silver cup, in the mouth of the bag of the youngest and the money for his cereals.” So he did according to the word of Joseph which he had spoken.+

The morning had become light when the men were sent away,+ both they and their asses. They went out of the city. They had not gone far when Joseph said to the man who was over his house: “Get up! Chase after the men and be certain to overtake them and to say to them, ‘Why have YOU repaid bad for good?+ Is not this the thing that my master drinks from and by means of which he expertly reads omens?+ It is a bad deed YOU have committed.’”

Eventually he overtook them and spoke these words to them. But they said to him: “Why does my lord speak with such words as these? It is unthinkable that your servants should do anything like this. Why, the money that we found in the mouth of our bags we brought back to you from the land of Ca′naan.+ How, then, could we steal silver or gold from the house of your master?+ Let the one of your slaves* with whom it may be found die and let us ourselves also become slaves to my master.”+ 10 So he said: “Let it be now exactly according to YOUR words.+ Thus the one with whom it may be found will become a slave to me,+ but YOU yourselves will be proved innocent.” 11 With that they quickly let down each one his bag to the earth and they opened each one his own bag. 12 And he went searching carefully. He started with the oldest and finished with the youngest. At last the cup was found in Benjamin’s bag.+

13 Then they ripped their mantles+ apart and lifted each one his load back onto his ass and returned to the city. 14 And Judah+ and his brothers went on into Joseph’s house, and he was still there; and they proceeded to fall before him to the earth.+ 15 Joseph now said to them: “What sort of deed is this that YOU have done? Did YOU not know that such a man as I am can expertly read omens?”+ 16 At this Judah exclaimed: “What can we say to my master? What can we speak? And how can we prove ourselves righteous?+ The [true] God has found out the error of your slaves.+ Here we are slaves to my master,+ both we and the one in whose hand the cup was found!” 17 However, he said: “It is unthinkable for me to do this!+ The man in whose hand the cup was found is the one who will become a slave to me.+ As for the rest of YOU, go up in peace to YOUR father.”+

18 Judah now came near to him and said: “I pray you, my master, please let your slave speak a word in the hearing of my master,+ and do not let your anger+ grow hot against your slave, because it is the same with you as with Phar′aoh.*+ 19 My master* asked his slaves, saying, ‘Do YOU have a father or a brother?’ 20 So we said to my master, ‘We do have an aged father and a child of his old age, the youngest.+ But his brother is dead so that he alone is left of his mother,+ and his father does love him.’ 21 After that you said to your slaves, ‘Bring him down to me that I may set my eye upon him.’+ 22 But we said to my master, ‘The boy is not able to leave his father. If he did leave his father, he would certainly die.’+ 23 Then you said to your slaves, ‘Unless YOUR youngest brother comes down with YOU, YOU may not see my face anymore.’+

24 “And it came about that we went up to your slave my father and then told him the words of my master. 25 Later our father said, ‘Return, buy a little food for us.’+ 26 But we said, ‘We are not able to go down. If our youngest brother is with us we will go down, because we are not able to see the man’s face in case our youngest brother is not with us.’+ 27 Then your slave my father said to us, ‘YOU yourselves well know that my wife bore but two sons to me.+ 28 Later the one went out from my company and I exclaimed: “Ah, he must surely be torn to pieces!”+ and I have not seen him till now. 29 If YOU were to take this one also out of my sight and a fatal accident were to befall him, YOU would certainly bring down my gray hairs with calamity to She′ol.’+

30 “And now, as soon as I should come to your slave my father without the boy along with us, when that one’s soul is bound up with this one’s soul,+ 31 then it is certain to occur that as soon as he sees that the boy is not there he will simply die, and your slaves will indeed bring down the gray hairs of your slave our father with grief to She′ol.* 32 For your slave became surety+ for the boy when away from his father, saying, ‘If I fail to bring him back to you, then I shall have sinned against my father forever.’*+ 33 So now, please, let your slave stay instead of the boy as a slave to my master, that the boy may go up with his brothers.+ 34 For how can I go up to my father without the boy along with me, for fear that then I may look upon the calamity that will find out my father?”+

45 At this Joseph was no longer able to control himself before all those who were stationed by him.+ So he cried out: “HAVE everybody go out from me!” And no one else stood with him while Joseph made himself known to his brothers.+

And he began to raise his voice in weeping,+ so that the Egyptians got to hear it and Phar′aoh’s house got to hear it. Finally Joseph said to his brothers: “I am Joseph. Is my father still alive?” But his brothers were unable to answer him at all, because they were disturbed by reason of him.+ So Joseph said to his brothers: “Come close to me, please.” With that they came close to him.

Then he said: “I am Joseph YOUR brother, whom YOU sold into Egypt.+ But now do not feel hurt+ and do not be angry with yourselves because YOU sold me here; because for the preservation of life God has sent me ahead of YOU.+ For this is the second year of the famine in the midst of the earth,+ and there are yet five years in which there will be no plowing time or harvest.+ Consequently God sent me ahead of YOU in order to place a remnant*+ for YOU men in the earth and to keep YOU alive by a great escape. So now it was not YOU who sent me here,+ but it was the [true] God, that he might appoint me a father+ to Phar′aoh and a lord for all his house and as one dominating over all the land of Egypt.

“Go up quickly to my father, and YOU must say to him, ‘This is what your son Joseph has said: “God has appointed me lord for all Egypt.+ Come down to me. Do not delay. 10 And you must dwell in the land of Go′shen,+ and you must continue near me, you and your sons and the sons of your sons and your flocks and your herds and everything you have. 11 And I will supply you with food there, for there are yet five years of famine;+ for fear you and your house and everything you have may come to poverty.”’ 12 And here YOUR eyes and the eyes of my brother Benjamin are seeing that it is my mouth that is speaking to YOU.+ 13 So YOU must tell my father about all my glory in Egypt and everything YOU have seen; and YOU must hurry and bring my father down here.”

14 Then he fell upon the neck of Benjamin his brother and gave way to weeping, and Benjamin wept upon his neck.+ 15 And he proceeded to kiss all his brothers and to weep over them,+ and after that his brothers spoke with him.

16 And the news was heard at the house of Phar′aoh, saying: “Joseph’s brothers have come!” And it proved to be good in the eyes of Phar′aoh and of his servants.+ 17 Accordingly Phar′aoh said to Joseph: “Say to your brothers, ‘Do this: Load YOUR beasts of burden and go enter the land of Ca′naan,+ 18 and take YOUR father and YOUR households and come here to me, that I may give YOU the good of the land of Egypt; and eat the fat part of the land.+ 19 And you yourself are commanded:*+ “Do this: TAKE for yourselves wagons+ from the land of Egypt for YOUR little ones and YOUR wives, and YOU must lift YOUR father on one and come here.+ 20 And do not let YOUR eye feel sorry over YOUR equipment,+ because the good of all the land of Egypt is YOURS.”’”+

21 Following that the sons of Israel did so, and Joseph gave them wagons according to Phar′aoh’s orders and gave them provisions+ for the way. 22 To each of them he gave individual changes of mantles,+ but to Benjamin he gave three hundred silver pieces and five changes of mantles.+ 23 And to his father he sent as follows: ten asses carrying good things of Egypt and ten she-asses carrying grain and bread and sustenance for his father for the way. 24 Thus he sent his brothers off, and they proceeded to go. However, he said to them: “Do not get exasperated at one another on the way.”+

25 And they began going up out of Egypt and at length came into the land of Ca′naan to Jacob their father. 26 Then they reported to him, saying: “Joseph is still alive, and he is the one dominating over all the land of Egypt!”+ But his heart grew numb, because he did not believe them.+ 27 When they went on speaking to him all of Joseph’s words that he had spoken to them and he got to see the wagons that Joseph had sent to carry him, the spirit of Jacob their father began to revive.+ 28 Then Israel exclaimed: “It is enough! Joseph my son is still alive! Ah, let me go and see him before I die!”+

46 Accordingly Israel and all who were his pulled out and came to Be′er-she′ba,+ and he proceeded to sacrifice sacrifices to the God of his father Isaac.+ Then God talked to Israel in visions of the night and said:+ “Jacob, Jacob!” to which he said: “Here I am!”+ And he went on to say: “I am the [true] God,+ the God of your father.*+ Do not be afraid to go down to Egypt, for I shall constitute you there into a great nation.+ I myself shall go down with you to Egypt and I myself shall surely bring you up also;+ and Joseph will lay his hand upon your eyes.”*+

After that Jacob got up out of Be′er-she′ba, and the sons of Israel continued transporting Jacob their father and their little ones and their wives in the wagons that Phar′aoh had sent to transport him.+ Further, they took along their herds and their goods, which they had accumulated in the land of Ca′naan.+ Eventually they came into Egypt, Jacob and all his offspring with him. He brought his sons and his sons’ sons with him, his daughters and his sons’ daughters, even all his offspring, with him into Egypt.+

Now these are the names of Israel’s sons who came into Egypt:+ Jacob and his sons: Jacob’s firstborn was Reu′ben.+

And the sons of Reu′ben were Ha′noch and Pal′lu and Hez′ron and Car′mi.+

10 And the sons of Sim′e·on+ were Jem·u′el and Ja′min and O′had and Ja′chin+ and Zo′har and Sha′ul+ the son of a Ca′naan·ite woman.

11 And the sons of Le′vi+ were Ger′shon,+ Ko′hath+ and Me·rar′i.+

12 And the sons of Judah+ were Er+ and O′nan+ and She′lah+ and Pe′rez+ and Ze′rah.+ However, Er and O′nan died in the land of Ca′naan.+

And the sons of Pe′rez came to be Hez′ron+ and Ha′mul.+

13 And the sons of Is′sa·char+ were To′la+ and Pu′vah+ and Iob and Shim′ron.+

14 And the sons of Zeb′u·lun+ were Se′red and E′lon and Jah′le·el.+

15 These are the sons of Le′ah,+ whom she bore to Jacob in Pad′dan-a′ram, together with his daughter Di′nah.+ All the souls of his sons and of his daughters were thirty-three.

16 And the sons of Gad+ were Ziph′i·on and Hag′gi, Shu′ni and Ez′bon, E′ri and Ar·o′di and A·re′li.+

17 And the sons of Ash′er+ were Im′nah and Ish′vah and Ish′vi and Be·ri′ah,+ and there was Se′rah their sister.

And the sons of Be·ri′ah were He′ber and Mal′chi·el.+

18 These are the sons of Zil′pah,+ whom La′ban gave to his daughter Le′ah. In time she bore these to Jacob: sixteen souls.

19 The sons of Rachel,+ Jacob’s wife, were Joseph+ and Benjamin.+

20 And there came to be born to Joseph in the land of Egypt Ma·nas′seh+ and E′phra·im,*+ whom As′e·nath+ the daughter of Pot·i′phe·ra the priest of On bore to him.

21 And the sons of Benjamin were Be′la+ and Be′cher+ and Ash′bel, Ge′ra+ and Na′a·man,+ E′hi and Rosh, Mup′pim+ and Hup′pim+ and Ard.

22 These are the sons of Rachel who were born to Jacob. All the souls were fourteen.

23 And the sons of Dan+ were Hu′shim.+

24 And the sons of Naph′ta·li+ were Jah′ze·el and Gu′ni+ and Je′zer and Shil′lem.+

25 These are the sons of Bil′hah,+ whom La′ban gave to his daughter Rachel. In time she bore these to Jacob; all the souls were seven.

26 All the souls who came to Jacob into Egypt were those who issued out of his upper thigh,+ aside from the wives of Jacob’s sons. All the souls were sixty-six. 27 And Joseph’s sons who were born to him in Egypt were two souls. All the souls of the house of Jacob who came into Egypt were seventy.*+

28 And he sent Judah+ in advance of him to Joseph to impart information ahead of him* to Go′shen. After that they came into the land of Go′shen.*+ 29 Then Joseph had his chariot made ready and went up to meet Israel his father at Go′shen.+ When he appeared to him he at once fell upon his neck and gave way to tears upon his neck again and again.+ 30 Finally Israel said to Joseph: “This time I am willing to die,+ now that I have seen your face, since you are still alive.”

31 Then Joseph said to his brothers and to his father’s household: “Let me go up and report to Phar′aoh and say to him,+ ‘My brothers and my father’s household who were in the land of Ca′naan have come here to me.+ 32 And the men are shepherds,+ because they became stock raisers;+ and their flocks and their herds and all they have they have brought here.’+ 33 And what must occur is that when Phar′aoh will call YOU and actually say, ‘What is YOUR occupation?’ 34 YOU must say, ‘Your servants have continued to be stock raisers from our youth until now, both we and our forefathers,’+ in order that YOU may dwell in the land of Go′shen,+ because every herder of sheep is a detestable thing to Egypt.”+

47 Accordingly Joseph came and reported to Phar′aoh and said:+ “My father and my brothers and their flocks and their herds and all they have have come from the land of Ca′naan, and here they are in the land of Go′shen.”+ And from the whole number of his brothers he took five men, that he might present them to Phar′aoh.+

Then Phar′aoh said to his brothers: “What is YOUR occupation?”+ So they said to Phar′aoh: “Your servants are herders of sheep,+ both we and our forefathers.”+ After that they said to Phar′aoh: “We have come to reside as aliens in the land,+ because there is no pasturage for the flock that your servants have,+ for the famine is severe in the land of Ca′naan.+ And now let your servants dwell, please, in the land of Go′shen.”+ At that Phar′aoh said to Joseph: “Your father and your brothers have come here to you. The land of Egypt is at your disposal.+ Have your father and your brothers dwell in the very best of the land.+ Let them dwell in the land of Go′shen,+ and if you know that there are among them courageous men,*+ you must appoint them cattle chiefs* over what is mine.”+

Then Joseph brought in Jacob his father and introduced him to Phar′aoh, and Jacob proceeded to bless Phar′aoh.+ Phar′aoh now said to Jacob: “How many are the days of the years of your life?” So Jacob said to Phar′aoh: “The days of the years of my alien residences are a hundred and thirty years.+ Few and distressing the days of the years of my life have proved,+ and they have not reached the days of the years of the lives of my fathers in the days of their alien residences.”+ 10 After that Jacob blessed Phar′aoh and went out from before Phar′aoh.+

11 Thus Joseph had his father and his brothers dwell and he gave them a possession in the land of Egypt, in the very best of the land, in the land of Ram′e·ses,+ just as Phar′aoh had commanded. 12 And Joseph kept supplying his father and his brothers and the entire household of his father with bread,+ according to the number of the little ones.*+

13 Now there was no bread in all the land, because the famine was very severe;+ and the land of Egypt and the land of Ca′naan became exhausted as a result of the famine.+ 14 And Joseph went on picking up all the money that was to be found in the land of Egypt and in the land of Ca′naan for the cereals which people were buying;+ and Joseph kept bringing the money into Phar′aoh’s house. 15 In time the money from the land of Egypt and the land of Ca′naan was spent, and all the Egyptians began coming to Joseph, saying: “Give us bread!+ And why should we die in front of you because money has run out?”+ 16 Then Joseph said: “Hand over YOUR livestock and I shall give YOU bread in exchange for YOUR livestock, if money has run out.” 17 And they began bringing their livestock to Joseph; and Joseph kept giving them bread in exchange for their horses* and the livestock of the flock and the livestock of the herd and the asses,+ and he kept providing them with bread in exchange for all their livestock during that year.

18 Gradually that year came to its close, and they began coming to him in the next* year and saying to him: “We shall not hide it from my lord but the money and the stock of domestic animals have been spent to my lord.+ There remains nothing before my lord but our bodies and our land.+ 19 Why should we die before your eyes,+ both we and our land? Buy us and our land for bread,+ and we together with our land will become slaves to Phar′aoh; and give us seed that we may live and not die and our land not be laid desolate.”+ 20 So Joseph bought all the land of the Egyptians for Phar′aoh,+ because the Egyptians sold each one his field, for the famine had got a strong grip on them; and the land came to be Phar′aoh’s.

21 As for the people, he removed them into cities from one end of the territory of Egypt to its other end.+ 22 Only the land of the priests he did not buy,+ because the rations for the priests were from Phar′aoh and they ate their rations that Phar′aoh gave them.+ That is why they did not sell their land.+ 23 Then Joseph said to the people: “See, I have today bought YOU and YOUR land for Phar′aoh. Here is seed for YOU, and YOU must sow the land with it.+ 24 When it has resulted in produce,+ then YOU must give a fifth to Phar′aoh,+ but four parts will become YOURS as seed for the field and as food for YOU and for those who are in YOUR houses and for YOUR little ones to eat.”+ 25 Consequently they said: “You have preserved our lives.+ Let us find favor in the eyes of my lord, and we will become slaves to Phar′aoh.”+ 26 And Joseph proceeded to make it a decree down to this day over the landed estate of Egypt for Phar′aoh to have to the amount of a fifth. Only the land of the priests as a distinct group did not become Phar′aoh’s.+

27 And Israel continued to dwell in the land of Egypt, in the land of Go′shen;+ and they became settled in it and were fruitful and grew to be very many.+ 28 And Jacob lived on in the land of Egypt for seventeen years, so that Jacob’s days, the years of his life, came to be a hundred and forty-seven years.+

29 Gradually the days approached for Israel to die.+ So he called his son Joseph and said to him: “If, now, I have found favor in your eyes, place your hand, please, under my thigh,+ and you must exercise loving-kindness and trustworthiness* toward me.+ (Please, do not bury me in Egypt.)+ 30 And I must lie with my fathers,+ and you must carry me out of Egypt and bury me in their grave.”+ Accordingly he said: “I myself shall do in keeping with your word.” 31 Then he said: “Swear to me.” So he swore to him.+ At that Israel prostrated himself over the head of the couch.*+

48 And it came about after these things that it was said to Joseph: “Look, your father is becoming weak.” At that he took with him his two sons Ma·nas′seh and E′phra·im.+ Then it was reported to Jacob and said: “Here your son Joseph has come to you.” So Israel exerted his strength and sat up on his couch. And Jacob proceeded to say to Joseph:

“God Almighty* appeared to me at Luz+ in the land of Ca′naan that he might bless me.+ And he went on to say to me, ‘Here I am making you fruitful,+ and I will make you many and I will transform you into a congregation of peoples+ and I will give this land to your seed after you for a possession to time indefinite.’+ And now your two sons who were born to you in the land of Egypt before I came here to you into Egypt, they are mine.+ E′phra·im and Ma·nas′seh will become mine like Reu′ben and Sim′e·on.+ But your progeny to which you shall* become father after them will become yours. Together with the name of their brothers they will be called in their inheritance.+ And as for me, when I was coming from Pad′dan,+ Rachel died+ alongside me in the land of Ca′naan on the way while there was yet a good stretch of land before coming to Eph′rath,+ so that I buried her there on the way to Eph′rath, that is to say, Beth′le·hem.”+

Then Israel saw Joseph’s sons and said: “Who are these?”+ So Joseph said to his father: “They are my sons whom God has given me in this place.”+ At this he said: “Bring them, please, to me that I may bless them.”+ 10 Now the eyes of Israel were dull from old age.+ He was unable to see. Accordingly he brought them close to him, and he then kissed them and embraced them.+ 11 And Israel went on to say to Joseph: “I had no idea of seeing your face,+ but here God has let me see also your offspring.” 12 After that Joseph brought them out away from his knees, and he bowed down with his face to the earth.+

13 Joseph now took the two of them, E′phra·im by his right hand to Israel’s left,+ and Ma·nas′seh by his left hand to Israel’s right,+ and brought them close to him. 14 However, Israel put out his right hand and placed it on E′phra·im’s head,+ although he was the younger,+ and his left hand upon Ma·nas′seh’s head.+ He purposely laid his hands so,* since Ma·nas′seh was the firstborn.+ 15 And he proceeded to bless Joseph and to say:+

“The [true] God before whom my fathers Abraham and Isaac walked,+

The [true] God who has been shepherding me during all my existence until this day,+

16 The angel who has been recovering* me from all calamity,+ bless the boys.+

And let my name be called upon them and the name of my fathers, Abraham and Isaac,+

And let them increase to a multitude in the midst of the earth.”+

17 When Joseph saw that his father kept his right hand placed on E′phra·im’s head, it was displeasing to him,+ and he tried to take hold of his father’s hand to remove it from E′phra·im’s head to Ma·nas′seh’s head.+ 18 Hence Joseph said to his father: “Not so, my father, because this is the firstborn.+ Put your right hand on his head.” 19 But his father kept refusing and said: “I know it, my son, I know it. He too will become a people and he too will become great.+ But, just the same, his younger brother will become greater than he will,+ and his offspring will become the full equivalent* of nations.”+ 20 And he continued to bless them on that day,+ saying:

“By means of you* let Israel repeatedly pronounce blessing, saying,

‘May God constitute you like E′phra·im and like Ma·nas′seh.’”+

Thus he kept putting E′phra·im before Ma·nas′seh.+

21 After that Israel said to Joseph: “Look, I am dying,+ but God will certainly continue with YOU people and return YOU to the land of YOUR forefathers.+ 22 As for me, I do give you one shoulder [of land] more than to your brothers,+ which I took from the hand of the Am′or·ites by my sword and by my bow.”

49 Later on Jacob called his sons and said: “Gather yourselves together that I may tell YOU what will happen to YOU in the final part of the days. Assemble yourselves and listen, YOU sons of Jacob, yes, listen to Israel YOUR father.+

“Reu′ben, you are my firstborn,+ my vigor and the beginning of my generative power,+ the excellence of dignity and the excellence of strength. With reckless license like waters,* do not you excel,+ because you have gone up to your father’s bed.+ At that time you profaned my lounge.+ He went up to it!

“Sim′e·on and Le′vi are brothers.*+ Instruments of violence are their slaughter weapons.*+ Into their intimate group do not come,+ O my soul. With their congregation do not become united,+ O my disposition,* because in their anger they killed men,*+ and in their arbitrariness they hamstrung bulls. Cursed be their anger,+ because it is cruel,+ and their fury, because it acts harshly.+ Let me parcel them out in Jacob and let me scatter them in Israel.+

“As for you, Judah,+ your brothers will laud you.+ Your hand will be on the back of the neck of your enemies.+ The sons of your father will prostrate themselves to you.+ A lion cub Judah is.+ From the prey, my son, you will certainly go up. He bowed down, he stretched himself out like a lion* and, like a lion,* who dares rouse him?+ 10 The scepter* will not turn aside from Judah,+ neither the commander’s staff* from between his feet,* until Shi′loh* comes;+ and to him the obedience of the peoples will belong.*+ 11 Tying his full-grown ass to a vine and the descendant of his own she-ass to a choice vine,* he will certainly wash his clothing in wine and his garment in the blood of grapes.+ 12 Dark red are his eyes from wine, and the whiteness of his teeth is from milk.

13 “Zeb′u·lun will reside by the seashore,+ and he will be by the shore where the ships lie anchored;*+ and his remote side will be toward Si′don.+

14 “Is′sa·char+ is a strong-boned ass, lying down between the two saddlebags. 15 And he will see that the resting-place is good and that the land is pleasant; and he will bend down his shoulder to bear burdens and he will become subject to slavish forced labor.*

16 “Dan will judge his people as one of the tribes of Israel.+ 17 Let Dan prove to be a serpent by the roadside, a horned snake at the wayside, that bites the heels of the horse so that its rider falls backward.+ 18 I shall indeed wait* for salvation from you,* O Jehovah.+

19 “As for Gad, a marauder band will raid him, but he will raid the extreme rear.+

20 “Out of Ash′er his bread will be fat,+ and he will give the dainties of a king.+

21 “Naph′ta·li+ is a slender* hind. He is giving words of elegance.*+

22 “Offshoot* of a fruit-bearing tree,+ Joseph is the offshoot of a fruit-bearing tree by the fountain,+ that propels its branches* up over a wall.+ 23 But the archers kept harassing him and shot at him and kept harboring animosity against him.+ 24 And yet his bow was dwelling in a permanent place,+ and the strength* of his hands was supple.*+ From the hands of the powerful one of Jacob,+ from there is the shepherd, the stone of Israel.+ 25 He is from the God* of your father,+ and he will help you;+ and he is with the Almighty,+ and he will bless you with the blessings of the heavens above,+ with the blessings of the watery deep* lying down below,+ with the blessings of the breasts and womb.+ 26 The blessings of your father will indeed be superior to the blessings of the eternal mountains,+ to the ornament* of the indefinitely lasting hills.+ They will continue upon the head of Joseph, even upon the crown of the head of the one singled out* from his brothers.+

27 “Benjamin will keep on tearing like a wolf.+ In the morning he will eat the animal seized and at evening he will divide spoil.”+

28 All these are the twelve tribes of Israel, and this is what their father spoke to them when he was blessing them. He blessed them each one according to his own blessing.+

29 After that he commanded them and said to them: “I am being gathered to my people.+ Bury me with my fathers in the cave that is in the field of E′phron the Hit′tite,+ 30 in the cave that is in the field of Mach·pe′lah that is in front of Mam′re in the land of Ca′naan, the field that Abraham purchased from E′phron the Hit′tite for the possession of a burial place.+ 31 There they buried Abraham and Sarah his wife.+ There they buried Isaac and Re·bek′ah his wife,+ and there I buried Le′ah. 32 The field purchased* and the cave that is in it were from the sons of Heth.”+

33 Thus Jacob finished giving commands to his sons. Then he gathered his feet up onto the couch and expired and was gathered to his people.+

50 Then Joseph fell upon the face of his father+ and burst into tears over him and kissed him.+ After that Joseph commanded his servants, the physicians, to embalm+ his father. So the physicians embalmed Israel, and they took fully forty days for him, for this many days they customarily take for the embalming, and the Egyptians continued to shed tears for him seventy days.+

Finally the days of weeping for him passed, and Joseph spoke to Phar′aoh’s household, saying: “If, now, I have found favor in YOUR eyes,+ speak, please, in the hearing of Phar′aoh, saying, ‘My father made me swear,+ saying: “Look! I am dying.+ In my burial place which I have excavated for myself in the land of Ca′naan+ is where you are to bury me.”+ And now, please, let me go up and bury my father, after which I am willing to return.’” Accordingly Phar′aoh said: “Go up and bury your father just as he made you swear.”+

So Joseph went up to bury his father, and there went up with him all of Phar′aoh’s servants, the older men*+ of his household and all the older men of the land of Egypt, and all of Joseph’s household and his brothers and the household of his father.+ Only their little children and their flocks and their herds they left in the land of Go′shen. There also went up with him both chariots+ and horsemen, and the camp came to be very numerous. 10 Then they came to the threshing floor+ of A′tad,* which is in the region of the Jordan,+ and there they carried on a very great and heavy wailing and he kept up the mourning rites for his father seven days.+ 11 And the inhabitants of the land, the Ca′naan·ites, got to see the mourning rites in the threshing floor of A′tad, and they exclaimed: “This is a heavy mourning for the Egyptians!” That is why its name was called A′bel-miz′ra·im,* which is in the region of the Jordan.+

12 And his sons proceeded to do for him exactly as he had commanded them.+ 13 So his sons carried him into the land of Ca′naan and buried him in the cave of the field of Mach·pe′lah, the field that Abraham had purchased for the possession of a burial place from E′phron the Hit′tite in front of Mam′re.+ 14 Afterward Joseph returned to Egypt, he and his brothers and all those who went up with him to bury his father, after he had buried his father.

15 When the brothers of Joseph saw that their father was dead,* they began to say: “It may be that Joseph is harboring animosity against us+ and he will be sure to repay us for all the evil that we have rendered him.”+ 16 So they expressed a command to Joseph in these words: “Your father gave the command before his death, saying, 17 ‘This is what YOU are to say to Joseph: “I beseech you, pardon,+ please, the revolt of your brothers and their sin in that they have rendered evil to you.”’+ And now pardon, please, the revolt of the servants of your father’s God.”+ And Joseph burst into tears when they spoke to him. 18 Following that his brothers also came and fell down before him and said: “Here we are as slaves* to you!”+ 19 Then Joseph said to them: “Do not be afraid, for am I in the place of God?+ 20 As for YOU, YOU had evil in mind against me. God had it in mind for good for the purpose of acting as at this day to preserve many people alive.+ 21 So now do not be afraid. I myself shall keep supplying YOU and YOUR little children with food.”+ Thus he comforted them and spoke reassuringly to them.*

22 And Joseph continued to dwell in Egypt, he and the house of his father; and Joseph lived for a hundred and ten years. 23 And Joseph got to see E′phra·im’s sons of the third generation,*+ also the sons of Ma′chir,+ Ma·nas′seh’s son. They were born upon Joseph’s knees.+ 24 At length Joseph said to his brothers: “I am dying; but God will without fail turn his attention to YOU,+ and he will certainly bring YOU up out of this land to the land about which he swore* to Abraham, to Isaac and to Jacob.”+ 25 Hence Joseph made the sons of Israel swear, saying: “God will without fail turn his attention to YOU. Accordingly YOU must take my bones up out of here.”+ 26 After that Joseph died at the age of a hundred and ten years; and they had him embalmed,+ and he was put in a coffin in Egypt.

[Footnotes]

“In the beginning.” Heb., Bereʼ·shith′. This first book of the Bible is named in Heb. after this opening word. LXXVg name the book “Genesis.”

“God.” Heb., אֱלֹהִים (ʼElo·him′), without the definite article. ʼElo·him′, “God,” with the definite article is first found in 5:22. The title ʼElo·him′ is pl. to denote excellence or majesty and not a multiple personality or a number of gods. Gr., ὁ θεός (ho The·os′), sing. to denote an individual “God.” Compare Jg 16:23 ftn.

Or, “surging waters; primeval ocean.” Heb., thehohm′; Gr., a·bys′sou, “abyss”; Lat., a·bys′si. See 7:11 ftn, “Deep.” Compare 6:17 ftn, “Deluge.”

“And . . . active force (spirit).” Heb., weru′ach. Besides being translated “spirit,” ru′ach is also translated “wind” and by other words that denote an invisible active force. See 3:8 ftn, “Breezy part”; 8:1 ftn.

“And . . . proceeded to say.” Heb., wai·yoʼ′mer. The first of more than 40 cases in Genesis chapter 1 of progressive action indicated by a Heb. verb in the imperfect state. See App 3C.

Lit., “according to its kind (genus).” Heb., lemi·noh′; Gr., ge′nos; Lat., ge′nus. The term “kind” here means a created or family kind, its older meaning or definition and not as present-day evolutionists use it.

“And . . . proceeded to make.” Heb., wai·ya′ʽas (from ʽa·sah′). Different from “create” (ba·raʼ′) found in vss 1, 21, 27; 2:3. Progressive action indicated by the imperfect state. See App 3C.

“Of living souls.” Gr., ψυχῶν ζωσῶν (psy·khon′ zo·son′, pl.); Heb., ne′phesh chai·yah′, sing., referring to marine animals. In Heb. the same expression is used with reference to man in 2:7. See App 4A.

“And . . . proceeded to create.” Heb., wai·yiv·raʼ′ (from ba·raʼ′). Progressive action indicated by the imperfect state. See App 3C.

Or, “great reptiles.”

“Living soul.” Heb., ne′phesh ha·chai·yah′, sing.; Gr., ψυχὴν ζῴων (psy·khen′ [sing.] zoi′on [pl.], “soul of living ones”).

Or, “tame animal.” Heb., behe·mah′, sing. Compare Job 40:15 ftn.

Or, “and living creature.” Heb., wecha·yethoh′. Also “living creature” in vs 28.

“God.” Heb., ʼElo·him′. See vs 1 ftn, “God.”

“Let us make.” Heb., na·ʽaseh′. See vs 16 ftn.

Or, “earthling man.” Heb., ʼa·dham′, without the definite article.

“In our image (shadow; semblance).” Heb., betsal·me′nu.

Or, “that is creeping.” Heb., ha·ro·me′seth; Lat., quae mo·ven′tur.

Or, “Look.” Heb., hin·neh′.

Lit., “living soul.” Heb., ne′phesh chai·yah′, also rendered “living soul(s)” in vs 20; 2:7.

“And he proceeded to rest.” Heb., wai·yish·both′. The verb is in the imperfect state denoting incomplete or continuous action, or action in progress. See App 3C.

“And make it sacred.” Or, “and proceeded to sanctify it (treat it as holy).” Heb., wai·qad·desh′ ʼo·thoh′; Lat., et sanc·ti·fi·ca′vit il′lum. See Ex 31:13 ftn.

Or, “he does rest (desist).” Heb., sha·vath′, perfect state. It shows the characteristic of an individual, namely, God, on the seventh day of his creative week. This rendering of sha·vath′ agrees with the inspired writer’s argument in Heb 4:3-11. See vs 2 ftn.

“Making,” that is, all definite things in heaven and earth.

Or, “These are the historical origins.” Heb., ʼel′leh thoh·ledhohth′, “These are the begettings of”; Gr., hau′te he bi′blos ge·ne′se·os, “This is the book of origin (source)”; Lat., i′stae ge·ne·ra·ti·o′nes, “These are the generations.” Compare Mt 1:1 ftn.

“Jehovah.” Heb., יְהוָה (YHWH, here vowel-pointed as Yehwah′), meaning “He Causes to Become” (from Heb., הָוָה [ha·wah′, “to become”]); LXXA(Gr.), Ky′ri·os; Syr., Mar·yaʼ; Lat., Do′mi·nus. The first occurrence of God’s distinctive personal name, יהוה (YHWH); these four Heb. letters are referred to as the Tetragrammaton. The divine name identifies Jehovah as the Purposer. Only the true God could rightly and authentically bear this name. See App 1A.

“Jehovah God.” Heb., Yehwah′ ʼElo·him′. This expression, without the definite Heb. article ha before ʼElo·him′, is used 20 times in Ge 1–3. The first occurrence of the expression Yehwah′ ha·ʼElo·him′ is in 1Ch 22:1, where it is rendered “Jehovah the [true] God.” See App 1A.

Or, “But a vapor.” Heb., weʼedh′; LXX(Gr., pe·ge′)Vg(Lat., fons)Sy, “fountain,” suggesting an underground fresh-water stream; T, “cloud.”

Or, “clay,” according to the later usage of the Heb. word in pottery making. Heb., ʽa·phar′.

Breath of life.” Heb., nish·math′ (from nesha·mah′) chai·yim′.

“A living soul [breathing creature].” Heb., lene′phesh chai·yah′; Gr., ψυχὴν ζῶσαν (psy·khen′ zo′san, “living soul”); Lat., a′ni·mam vi·ven′tem. See 1:20, 21, 30; 1Co 15:45; App 4A.

“Jehovah.” Heb., Yehwah′; LXXP. Oxy. VII.1007, . This vellum leaf of the third cent. C.E. abbreviated the Tetragrammaton in vss 8 and 18 by doubling the first letter Yohdh, which was written as a “Z,” with a horizontal line extended through the center of both letters. See App 1C §6.

“A garden [or, park] in Eden.” Heb., gan-beʽE′dhen (“Eden,” meaning “Pleasure; Delight”); LXXBagster(Gr.), pa·ra′dei·son en E·dem′; Lat., pa·ra·di′sum vo·lu·pta′tis, “paradise of pleasure.”

“From the beginning,” Vg.

This Heb. participle denotes a continuous stream.

Heb., Kush; LXXVg, “Ethiopia.”

Heb., Chid·de′qel; LXXVg, “Tigris.”

“Assyria.” Heb., ʼAsh·shur′; LXXVg, “Assyrians.”

“Euphrates,” LXXVg; Heb., Pherath′.

“You will positively die.” Lit., “dying you [sing.] will die.” Heb., mohth ta·muth′; the first reference to death in the Bible. See Eze 3:18 ftn.

See App 1C §6.

Or, “counterpart,” something fitting for him.

In point of time it was still the sixth creative day. The verb “form” in the imperfect here denotes continued, progressive action. See App 3C.

Lit., “he did not find a helper.”

Heb., Yehwah′.

Lit., “a female man.” Heb., ʼish·shah′.

“From man.” Heb., me·ʼish′.

Or, “woman.”

Lit., “tree,” sing. but in a collective sense, denoting a grove or wood.

“You positively will not die.” Lit., “not dying you [pl.] will die.” Heb., loʼ-mohth′ temu·thun′. Compare 2:17.

“Like God.” Heb., kEʼ·lo·him′, without the definite article. This title is pl. to denote majesty or excellence.

“To look upon,” LXXSyVg. Lit., “to impart wisdom (intelligence; prudence).”

Or, “to her man.” Heb., leʼi·shah′.

Or, “sound.”

Lit., “about the breeze of.” Heb., leru′ach, the same basic word translated “active force” in 1:2.

Or, “the earthling man.” Heb., ha·ʼa·dham′; LXXSyVg, “and Adam.”

Or, “whom you put.”

Heb., Yeho·wah′. The first of quite a few occurrences in BHK and BHS where the divine name is vowel-pointed with the additional vowel “o.” See 2:4 ftn, “Jehovah”; App 1A.

Or, “you are cursed as no other of.”

Or, “bite.”

Or, “offspring; posterity.”

“He,” M(Heb., huʼ)LXXSyVgmss.

This rendering agrees with the reference to this divine utterance in Ro 16:20, where the Gr. word used means “crush” or “bruise.”

“Him,” MLXXSy; that is, the woman’s “seed,” masc.

Lit., “increase your pain and your pregnancy.” This is a figure of hendiadys in which two words are connected by “and,” but one thing is meant.

Meaning “Living One,” fem. Heb., Chaw·wah′; Gr., Zo·e′, “Life”; Vgc(Lat.), He′va.

See 2:4 ftn, “God.”

Lit., “caused to reside.” See Ps 7:5; 78:55; Eze 32:4.

Meaning “Something Produced.” Eve explains why she gave him this name.

“I have produced.” Heb., qa·ni·thi′ (from qa·nah′, “to produce”).

Lit., “of days.”

SamLXXItSy insert these bracketed words; Vg, “Let us go outdoors”; M omits; some mss and editions have an interval here.

Lit., “The voice of.”

Lit., “bloods,” modified by “crying.”

Or, “produce.” Heb., ko·chah′.

“For that reason.” Heb., la·khen′; LXXSyVg take the original Heb. text to read loʼ khen and hence translate it, “Not so!”

Or, “Nod.”

Lit., “father.”

Or, “flute.” Possibly a combination of musical pipes.

Lit., “hammerer.”

“Consequently . . . composed.” Lit., “And . . . proceeded to say,” in the imperfect. (See App 3C.) The verb “compose” is appropriate in this instance because what he proceeded to produce was poetic.

Or, “my song (poem).” Heb., ʼim·ra·thi′. In the Scriptures this word is used in poetic compositions.

The Heb. particle ki preceding the word ʼish, “a man,” is merely introductory to the poem and hence does not need to be translated.

Lit., “for my wound.”

Lit., “for my blow.”

Meaning “Appointed; Put; Set,” in the sense of replacing or substituting.

Or, “offspring; posterity.”

Lit., “At that time it was started.”

Or, “historical origins.” See 2:4 and Mt 1:1 ftns, “History.”

Or, “Adam”; or, “Mankind.” Heb., ʼa·dham′.

Or, “came to be.”

Meaning “Dedicated; Initiated.” Heb., Chanohkh′.

“And Enoch was well pleasing to,” LXX. Compare Heb 11:5.

“The [true] God.” Heb., ha·ʼElo·him′, the first instance where ʼElo·him′, “God,” is preceded by the definite article ha, hence, rendered “the [true] God.” GK, § 126 e, states: “הָאֱלֹהִים or הָאֵל ὁ θεός, the one true God.” See App 1F.

“God.” Heb., ʼElo·him′, without the definite article.

“Because God transferred him,” LXX. Compare Heb 11:5.

Meaning “Rest; Consolation.”

“Angels,” LXXA.

“He,” referring to “man,” and not to “my spirit.”

Or, “The Fellers.” Heb., han·Nephi·lim′, “those who cause others to fall down.”

“The mighty ones.” Heb., hag·gib·bo·rim′.

Lit., “name.”

Lit., “day.”

“Among his contemporaries.” Lit., “among his generations.” Heb., bedho·ro·thav′.

Lit., “a chest.” Heb., te·vath′. See Ex 2:3, 5.

Lit., “trees of gopher,” a resinous wood, possibly cypress.

Or, “cells; chambers; cabins.”

A cubit equaled 44.5 cm (17.5 in.).

Or, “opening for illumination.” Heb., tso′har.

Lit., “from above.”

Or, “the heavenly ocean.” Heb., ham·mab·bul′; Lat., di·lu′vi·i (root of “diluvial”). See 7:6 ftn.

Lit., “in which the active force (spirit) of life [is].” Heb., ʼasher-boh′ ru′ach chai·yim′. Here ru′ach means “active force; spirit.” See 1:2 ftn, “Force.”

Lit., “according to its kind.” Heb., lemi·ne′hu. See 1:11 ftn.

Lit., “seven seven.”

Lit., “a man and his wife.”

Lit., “seed.”

Or, “heavenly ocean.” See vs 17 ftn; 6:17 ftn, “Deluge”; Ps 29:10 ftn.

See vs 6 ftn.

“God,” MLXXSy; SamTJ,OVgmss, “Jehovah.” This is an instance where mss of Vg lend support to the use of the divine name. See BHK and BHS ftns on Ge 7:9; App 1A, 1D.

See vs 6 ftn.

“Second month.” Following the Exodus from Egypt, when Jehovah gave the Israelites the sacred calendar, this became the eighth month, known as Bul, corresponding to the latter half of October and first half of November. See App 8B.

“Watery deep.” Or, “surging waters; water canopy.” Heb., tehohm′; LXX, “the abyss”; Vg, “the great abyss.” See 1:2 ftn, “Deep.” According to 1:7 these must have been “the waters that should be above the expanse.” Compare 6:17 ftn, “Deluge.”

Lit., “the windows.” LXX, “the cataracts.”

See 6:17 ftn, “Active.”

Or, “heavenly ocean.” See 6:17 ftn, “Deluge.”

See 6:17 ftn, “Active.”

Heb., ru′ach; previously translated “active force; breezy part; spirit.”

Or, “water canopy.” See 7:11 ftn, “Deep.”

Or, “windows.”

“Progressively receding.” Lit., “going and receding.”

“Seventh month.” This corresponded to the month Abib (or, Nisan), the first month of the Jewish sacred calendar after the Exodus. Abib corresponded to the latter half of March and the first half of April. See App 8B.

Lit., “going and lessening.”

“Tenth month.” This corresponded to the month Tammuz, the fourth month of the Jewish sacred calendar after the Exodus. Tammuz corresponded to the latter half of June and the first half of July. See App 8B.

Lit., “continued going out.”

“First month.” This corresponded to the month Ethanim (or, Tishri), the seventh month of the Jewish sacred calendar after the Exodus. Ethanim corresponded to the latter half of September and the first half of October. See App 8B.

Or, “soothing; tranquilizing.”

Lit., “Until all the days of the earth.”

Or, “life.” See 1:30 ftn.

Or, “lives.”

Or, “mankind.” Heb., ha·ʼa·dham′.

Lit., “a man.” Heb., ʼish.

Heb., ne′phesh, as in 2:7; Gr., psy·khen′.

Lit., “seed.”

Or, “I will certainly give.”

Lit., “all the earth.”

Lit., “a man of the soil.”

Lit., “the.”

Lit., “were backward.”

Lit., “the slave of slaves.”

Heb., Yeho·wah′. See 3:14 ftn, “Jehovah.”

Or, “servant.”

Or, “tent; tabernacle.”

“Rodanim,” SamLXX. See 1Ch 1:7 ftn, “Rodanim.”

Lit., “From these the isles (coastlands).”

“A mighty one.” Heb., gib·bor′. This word occurs first in 6:4, next in this vs, then twice in vs 9.

Lit., “mighty one in hunting.”

Lit., “in front of,” but in the sense of defiance of and opposition to, as in the case of the same expression in Nu 16:2; Jos 7:12, 13; 1Ch 14:8; 2Ch 14:10; Job 23:4. Heb., liph·neh′; Gr., e·nan·ti′on, generally “against.”

“Babel,” MSamSy; LXXVg, “Babylon.”

“Lasha,” traditionally identified with Callirrhoe, on the eastern shore of the Dead Sea.

Meaning “Division; Stream.”

Or, “earth’s population.”

Lit., “of one lip,” MLXXVg.

Or, “of one vocabulary.”

“And also a tower.” Heb., migh·dal′; Gr., pyr′gon; Lat., tur′rem.

Or, “make a monument.”

Or, “understand.”

“Babel.” Heb., Ba·vel′. Moses derived “Babel” from the root verb ba·lal′, “to confuse; to confound,” so giving “Babel” the meaning “Confusion.” SyVg, “Babel”; Gr., Syg′khy·sis, “Confusion.” In Akkadian, Bab-ilu. Local citizens claimed that Bab meant “Gate” and ilu meant “God” (ʼEl in Heb.), thus “Gate of God.”

Or, “earth’s population.”

LXX vss 12 and 13 read: (12) “And Arpachshad lived a hundred and thirty-five years and became father to Cainan. (13) And after his producing Cainan Arpachshad lived four hundred and thirty years and became father to sons and daughters, and he died. And Cainan lived a hundred and thirty years and became father to Shelah. And after his producing Shelah Cainan lived three hundred and thirty years and became father to sons and daughters, and he died.” This source inserts the name Cainan between the names Shelah and Arpachshad. Compare Lu 3:36.

Or, “while Terah still lived.” Lit., “before the face of Terah.”

Or, “Ur of Chaldea.”

Lit., “they went out with them,” M; Sy, “he went out with them”; SamLXXVg, “he led them out.”

Or, “home.”

“Will be blessed,” LXXVg. See 22:18 ftn.

Now linked with Nablus, particularly with nearby Tell Balatah.

Or, “declare (preach) the name.” See Ex 34:5.

Or, “the south,” that is, the southern part of the Promised Land.

The title “Pharaoh” appears throughout M with no definite article.

SamLXX add, “and Lot with him.”

Or, “proceeded to declare (preach) there.”

Lit., “whole land before.”

Or, “Basin.” Heb., Kik·kar′. The roughly circular territory of the lower Jordan Valley around Jericho.

“Paradise,” LXXSyVg.

“Zoan,” Sy.

Lit., “toward the Negeb.”

Lit., “toward the [Mediterranean] sea.”

Or, “Abram went about pitching his tent.”

“Now it came about in the days of.” Heb., wai·hi′ bi·meh′. This phrase occurs six times in M; here, also in Ru 1:1; Es 1:1; Isa 7:1; Jer 1:3, and with an insert in 2Sa 21:1. It points to a period of trial ending in blessing.

“King.” Heb., me′lekh; the first occurrence of this title, and without the definite article but followed by a proper noun in the genitive case.

“Nations,” LXXVg.

Or, “Valley of the Fields.”

Lit., “Then they,” that is, the victors.

“The Hebrew.” Heb., ha·ʽIv·ri′; the first occurrence; next found in 39:14, 17.

Lit., “owners (masters) of the covenant of.” Heb., ba·ʽaleh′ verith′.

Lit., “born ones of his house.” They were children of slaves and not purchased.

Lit., “to the left,” that is, when facing east.

Or, “Valley of the Level (Plain).” This valley was near Salem, or Jerusalem.

“Priest of.” Heb., kho·hen′; the first occurrence of the word.

“Of the Most High God.” Heb., leʼEl′ ʽEl·yohn′. The Heb. word here is, not ʼElo·him′, but ʼEl without the definite article, even though ʼEl is followed by the adjective ʽEl·yohn′, “Most High.”

“Producer.” LXXVg, “who created”; but in vs 22 Vg reads, “Possessor.”

Lit., “he.”

Or, “tithe.” The first mention of the tithe, or tenth.

“The souls,” M(Heb., han·ne′phesh, sing. but used collectively)SyVg; LXX, “men.”

“I am a protector for you and your very great reward,” Vg.

“Sovereign Lord Jehovah.” Heb., ʼAdho·nai′ Yehwih′. Where God’s name follows the title ʼAdho·nai′, as occurs here, note that the vowel pointing for YHWH changes. Here BHK reads Yehwih′ instead of Yehwah′; whereas Gins. reads Yeho·wih′ instead of Yeho·wah′. See App 1E.

“Inward parts.” Lit., “bowels.”

“Put faith.” This is the first mention of exercising faith, and properly so, because Ro 4:11 pronounces Abraham “the father of all those having faith while in uncircumcision.”

Heb., Yehwih′; LXXP. Oxy. IV.656 originally left a blank space sufficient for four letters where the Tetragrammaton occurs in this vs in M. See The Oxyrhynchus Papyri, Part IV, edited by B. P. Grenfell and A. S. Hunt, London, 1904, pp. 30, 33.

“Me,” MLXXVg; Sy, “yourself.”

Lit., “a fright, great darkness.”

Lit., “cut.” LXX, “covenanted.”

“And you.” In M the expression thus translated is marked with extraordinary points by the Sopherim (scribes) to indicate that the reading “and you” is doubtful and should read, “and her.” See App 2A.

Or, “afflict.”

“Jehovah’s angel.” Heb., mal·ʼakh′ Yehwah′; the first occurrence of this expression.

Meaning “God Hears.”

Or, “onager.” See Job 39:5.

Heb., ʼEl.

Or, “a God who sees me”; or, “a God who lets himself be seen (who appears).”

Or, “also.”

“Looked upon him.” For this rendering see JTS, Vol. L, 1949, p. 179.

“That is why she called the well,” Sy.

Meaning “Well of the Living One Who Sees Me.”

“God Almighty.” Heb., ʼEl Shad·dai′.

Heb., ʼElo·him′, pl., without the definite article.

Meaning “Father of Exaltation.” Heb., ʼAv·ram′.

Meaning “Father of a Multitude.” Heb., ʼAv·ra·ham′.

“Myself God.” Lit., “for a God.” Heb., lEʼ·lo·him′, pl., without the definite article.

Or, “any son of a slave.”

Lit., “silver.” Heb., ke′seph.

Meaning “Contentious.” Heb., Sa·rai′.

Meaning “Princess.” Heb., Sa·rah′.

See App 1F.

Meaning “Laughter.” Heb., Yits·chaq′; an example of onomatopoeia, where the sound suggests the sense.

Or, “nasis.” Heb., nesi·ʼim′; Vg, “dukes; leaders”; LXX, “nations.”

This is the first of 134 places where the Jewish Sopherim changed YHWH to ʼAdho·nai′. This substitution was made out of misapplied reverence for God’s name. See App 1B.

A seah equaled 7.33 L (6.66 dry qt).

“To him.” This expression in M is marked with extraordinary points by the Sopherim but requires no change in the English translation. See App 2A.

Or, “at this time in spring.” Sy, “at this time next year”; Vg, “at this [same] time, life being a companion.” Compare Ro 4:17-20.

Lit., “the way according to women.” To this day, the common Heb. expression for the menstrual period.

Lit., “and my lord.” Heb., waʼ·dho·ni′. Sarah is commended for addressing her husband, “my lord.” See 1Pe 3:6.

“And Jehovah.” Heb., wa·Yho·wah′.

The first of the Eighteen Emendations of the Sopherim, the only one in Ge. M, “but as for Abraham, he was still standing before Jehovah.” See App 2B.

See vs 3 ftn.

See vs 3 ftn.

See vs 3 ftn.

See vs 3 ftn.

Or, “from every quarter.”

Lit., “it,” fem., referring to the “city,” fem.

Or, “who were intending to take.”

“They,” LXXSyVgc.

Or, “the Basin.” See 13:10 ftn, “District.”

One of 134 scribal changes from YHWH to ʼAdho·nai′. See App 1B.

Or, “your loyal love.” Heb., chas·dekha′.

Or, “consideration in this thing.”

Meaning “Smallness.”

“Look behind her,” SyVg.

“And when she got up.” In M the expression thus translated is marked with extraordinary points by the Sopherim to call attention to the original Heb. reading, “but he did know when she got up.” See App 2A.

Meaning “From Father.” Heb., Moh·ʼav′. LXX adds, “saying, ‘From my father.’ ”

Meaning “Son of My People,” that is, son of my relatives; not of foreigners like the Sodomites. Heb., Ben-ʽam·mi′.

Likely an official title.

One of 134 scribal changes from YHWH to ʼAdho·nai′. See App 1B.

“A prophet.” Heb., na·viʼ′; the first occurrence of the word.

Heb., ʼElo·him′, pl. to denote the excellence of Abraham’s God.

“Caused . . . to wander,” pl. to correspond with ʼElo·him′, “God”; Sam, “he caused to wander.”

Or, “your loyal love.” Heb., chas·dekh′.

Or, “open to you.” Lit., “before you.”

“Silver pieces of money,” that is, silver shekels. Heb., ke′seph.

Or, “he.” Heb., huʼ, masc.

“Covering of the eyes.” A Heb. idiom signifying a legal declaration of undamaged womanly reputation, clearing her from accusation in the eyes of others.

Or, “ ‘before everybody.’ And she [Sarah] was set in the right light.”

Heb., ʼElo·him′, without the definite article ha.

Meaning “Well of the Oath [or, of Seven].” Heb., Beʼer′ sha′vaʽ.

“And raising his voice the young child wept,” LXX.

Lit., “became an archer, a bowman.”

Heb., ʼElo·him′, pl. to denote excellence and without the definite article.

Or, “cut.”

Or, “God to time indefinite.” Heb., ʼEl ʽoh·lam′, “God of eternity.”

Or, “boys.”

M adds “and said,” but this is either an insertion by a scribe or stands as a sign of direct discourse, which we have indicated by using quotation marks.

Or, “you are a fearer of God.”

Meaning “Jehovah Will See to [It]; Jehovah Will Provide.” Heb., Yehwah′ yir·ʼeh′.

“In the mountain of Jehovah it will be provided.” Heb., behar′ Yehwah′ ye·ra·ʼeh′; LXX, “In the mountain the Lord has been seen”; Sy, “In this mountain the Lord will see”; Vg, “In the mountain the Lord will see.” Some would slightly emend the entire sentence to read: “As the mountain where Jehovah appears is called at the present day.”

That is, of the city.

“Will certainly bless themselves.” The Heb. verb is in the reflexive, or hith·pa·ʽel′ form, and so differs from the same verb in the niph′ʽal form in 12:3b, which at times has the passive meaning but more frequently has the reflexive meaning as it is rendered there. LXXSyVg, “will be blessed,” the same as in 12:3b. Compare De 29:19.

“The sons of Heth.” Heb., beneh-Cheth′. Or, “the Hittites.”

“My lord.” Heb., ʼadho·ni′, the word ʼa·dhohn′, “lord; master,” with the pronominal suffix i, “my.”

Or, “A mighty chieftain.”

Lit., “choice.”

Lit., “to the people of the land.” Heb., leʽam-ha·ʼa′rets.

Lit., “with your soul,” used collectively. Heb., ʼeth-naph·shekhem′; Gr., psy·khei′.

Lit., “the Doubling,” possibly from the double entrance or from the two recesses or receptacles. Heb., ham·Makh·pe·lah′.

Lit., “ears.”

To calculate value, see App 8A.

Lit., “days.”

“Who was managing.” Lit., “the one ruling.” Heb., ham·mo·shel′, that is, the one serving as a steward, a household manager. See Lu 12:42 ftn.

Or, “home.”

“Mesopotamia” (meaning “[Land] Between Rivers”), LXXVg; Heb., ʼAram′ Na·hara′yim, meaning “Aram of the Two Rivers.”

“Now the young woman.” Heb., wehan·na·ʽara′.

“Virgin.” Heb., bethu·lah′; Gr., par·the′nos; Lat., vir′go.

A shekel weighed 11.4 g (0.367 oz t).

Or, “cursing,” to which the swearer makes himself liable by transgressing his oath.

“The maiden (virgin).” Heb., ha·ʽal·mah′; Gr., par·the′nos; Lat., vir′go. See Isa 7:14 ftn, “Maiden.”

“The young woman (girl; virgin).” Heb., han·na·ʽara′; Gr., par·the′nos.

Lit., “with us days or ten [of them].” Sy, “with us a month of days.” Compare 29:14.

Lit., “thousands of myriads.”

That is, of the city.

Or, “them,” that is, the seed, offspring, posterity.

Or, “her girls.”

“Meditate,” LXXVg; that is, talk with himself.

Lit., “after his mother.” LXX, “concerning Sarah his mother.” Vg says in the closing part of this vs, “he loved [her] so greatly as to temper the grief that resulted from the death of [his] mother.”

Since each of these three names in Heb. has the pl. ending im, it is understood that the names represent tribes or peoples.

“Full of days,” LXXSyVg.

Or, “to the east.”

Lit., “he fell,” M; LXX, “he dwelt (settled)”; Vg, “he died.”

Lit., “the Aramaean.”

Meaning “Plain (Flatland) of Aram (Syria)”; a part of Mesopotamia. See 28:2.

“Alive,” inserted in agreement with Sy. Compare 27:46.

Or, “smaller.”

Meaning “Hairy.” Heb., ʽE·saw′.

Meaning “Taking Hold of the Heel; Supplanter.” Heb., Ya·ʽaqov′.

Or, “a wild man.”

Lit., “because game was in his mouth.”

Or, “pottage.”

“The red.” Heb., ha·ʼa·dhom′.

Meaning “Red; Ruddy.” Heb., ʼEdhohm′.

Or, “right as firstborn.”

See 22:18 ftn.

Or, “obeyed.”

Or, “in the wadi (arroyo).”

“That they had dug in the days of Abraham his father,” M; SamLXXVg, “that the servants of Abraham his father had dug.”

Or, “live; living.” Heb., chai·yim′.

Meaning “Contention; Strife.”

Meaning “Accusation.”

Meaning “Broad Places.”

Or, “land.”

Or, “and declared (preached).”

Or, “toward you and.”

Or, “grief of mind.”

“The fertile soils.” Lit., “the fatnesses,” referring to fertility.

Or, “continue.”

Meaning “Taking Hold of the Heel; Supplanter.”

Or, “is nursing revenge.”

Or, “use.”

Or, “the Canaanites.”

See 25:20 ftn, “Paddan-aram.”

Lit., “the Aramaean.”

“Jacob and Esau.” Jacob is put before his older twin brother, Esau, denoting preference.

Or, “bad; evil.”

Or, “the Ishmaelites.” By now Ishmael himself was dead and Esau was about 77 years old. See 25:17, 26.

Or, “his pillow.”

Or, “rising flight of stones.”

“Will be blessed,” LXXVg. See 22:18 ftn.

Meaning “House of God.” Heb., Behth-ʼEl′.

Or, “God to me.” Heb., li lEʼ·lo·him′.

Lit., “to the land of the sons of the East.”

Or, “small cattle,” including goats.

Lit., “[Is there] peace to him?” Heb., hasha·lohm′ loh?

Lit., “And they said: ‘Peace!’ ” Heb., wai·yoʼ·meru′ sha·lohm′.

Or, “Why, there is yet much of the day left.”

“Brother,” but actually the nephew.

Lit., “a month of days.”

Or, “were dull (weak).”

Or, “fulfilled.”

Or, “Fulfill.”

That is, Leah.

That is, Rachel.

Meaning “See, a Son!” Heb., Reʼu·ven′.

Meaning “Hearing,” that is, with acceptance. Heb., Shim·ʽohn′.

Meaning “Adherence; Joined.” Heb., Le·wi′.

Meaning “Lauded; [Object of] Laudation.” Heb., Yehu·dhah′.

Meaning “Judge.” Heb., Dan.

Or, “superhuman.” Lit., “God’s.” Heb., ʼElo·him′, without the definite article.

Meaning “My Wrestlings.” Heb., Naph·ta·li′.

“Good fortune has come!” Mmargin.

Meaning “Good Fortune.” Heb., Gadh.

Meaning “Happy; Happiness.” Heb., ʼA·sher′.

Lit., “given my wage [as a hireling].”

Meaning “He Is Wages; He Brings Wages.” Heb., Yis·sas·khar′.

Or, “dwell (live) with.”

Or, “At last my husband will make me his legitimate wife.” (For this possible rendering see VT, Vol. I, 1951, pp. 59, 60.) LXX, “In this time my husband will choose me [as wife].” The Assyrian verb zabalu, related to the Heb. verb za·val′ used here, means “to drag (draw); to carry loads” and has the marital significance of bringing the marriage gifts of the husband into the house of his father-in-law.

Meaning “Habitation; Dwelling”; possibly, “Toleration; Lordship.” Heb., Zevu·lun′.

Meaning “Judged; Acquitted; Vindicated.” Heb., Di·nah′.

Meaning “Increaser; Adder.” Heb., Yoh·seph′.

Lit., “Laban said: ‘Look! Would that [it were that way]!’ ”

Or, “rods; twigs.”

“They might conceive,” Vg.

Or, “home.” Lit., “place of birth.”

Or, “has deceived me.”

“God,” MLXXVg; Sam, “Jehovah.”

“The [true] God of Bethel.” Heb., ha·ʼEl′ Behth-ʼEl′; LXX, “the God who appeared to you in the place of God.” See App 1G.

Or, “home; relatives.”

Lit., “a share and an inheritance (possession),” in a figure of hendiadys. Compare 3:16 ftn.

“God,” MLXXVg; Sam, “Jehovah.”

“Teraphim,” M; LXXVg, “idols”; Sy, “images.”

Lit., “stole the heart of.”

Lit., “from good to bad.”

Apparently it should read, “Laban had pitched his tent.” “His tent” was meant originally instead of the similar Heb. word for “his brothers.”

Or, “sons.”

“My gods.” Heb., ʼelo·hai′, pl., referring to false gods; Gr., the·ous′; Lat., de′os.

“Your gods.” Heb., ʼelo·hey′kha, pl., referring to false gods.

“My lord.” Heb., ʼadho·ni′, the word ʼa·dhohn′, “lord; master,” with the pronominal suffix i, “my.”

“And thus for twenty years I have served you in your house,” Vg.

Or, “Dreaded One.”

Or, “and so he rendered a decision.”

Or, “that it may indeed.”

The Aramaic (Syrian) expression meaning “Witness Heap.”

The Heb. expression meaning “Witness Heap.”

“And The Watchtower (Lookout Point).” Heb., weham·Mits·pah′.

Lit., “when we lie concealed.”

“See, there is no man with us seeing,” LXXmss.

Or, “gods.” Heb., ʼelo·heh′, pl.; possibly used in the pl. sense because the Syrian Laban believed in teraphim.

“Let . . . judge.” This verb is pl. here. Compare 20:13 ftn, “Wander.”

Or, “gods.” Heb., ʼelo·heh′, pl. and may not refer to Jehovah only, because the verb “Let . . . judge” is also pl. SamLXXSyVg have “judge” in the sing. to indicate one God.

MLXX end chapter 31 here with only 54 vss.

Or, “sons.”

SyVg end chapter 31 here with 55 vss, so chapter 32 is one vs shorter than in M.

Or, “messengers,” as in vss 3, 6.

Meaning “Two Camps.”

Or, “the truth.” Heb., ha·ʼemeth′.

Or, “offspring; posterity.”

Or, “the wadi; the arroyo; the stream [the wadi running with water].”

Or, “touched the hollow of his hip.”

Lit., “Send me away.”

Meaning “God Contends; Contender (Perseverer) With God.” Heb., Yis·ra·ʼel′.

Or, “persisted; exerted yourself; persevered,” according to BDB, p. 975.

Meaning “Face of God.” Heb., Peni·ʼel′.

Or, “thigh vein.”

“And kiss him,” MSamLXXBagsterVg. In M this expression is marked with extraordinary points by the Sopherim, evidently to show that the Sopherim thought the words should be omitted. The ftns of BHK and BHS suggest that they were likely added to the text. See App 2A.

Lit., “Who to you is all?”

Meaning “Booths; Covered Stalls.”

Lit., “a hundred qesi·tah′. A money unit of unknown value.

“God the God of Israel.” Or, “God is the God of Israel.” Heb., ʼEl ʼElo·heh′ Yis·ra·ʼel′.

“Chieftain of.” Heb., nesiʼ′; LXX, “ruler (prince)”; Vg, “prince.”

“Humiliated,” LXX.

Or, “his mind (desire) kept fixed on Dinah.”

Lit., “to the heart of.”

Or, “travel about,” that is, for commercial purposes.

Or, “purchase price of a wife.”

“Carry on business.” See vs 10 ftn.

Lit., “wide on both sides,” that is, spacious.

Or, “undisturbed.”

Or, “came in upon.”

“Few in number.” Lit., “men of number.” See 1Ch 16:19; Ps 105:12.

Or, “harlot.”

Lit., “gods of.” Heb., ʼelo·heh′, pl. of ʼeloh′ah, indicating a plurality of gods.

Meaning “The God of Bethel.”

Meaning “Massive Tree of Weeping.”

See 17:1 ftn.

“Nations,” LXXVg; M, “A nation.”

Or, “offspring; posterity.”

“Her soul (life).” Heb., naph·shah′; Gr., psy·khen′.

Meaning “Son of My Sorrow.”

Meaning “Son of the Right Hand.” Heb., Vin·ya·min′.

Or, “full of (sated with) days,” MLXXVg.

Lit., “daughter,” M; SamLXXSy, “son.” Compare vs 24.

“A land,” M; Sy, “the land of Seir.”

Or, “grandsons.”

Or, “chiefs.” LXX, “chiefs; leaders; governors”; Vg, “leaders; dukes.” The Heb. word is ʼal·lu·pheh′ and is derived from ʼe′leph, “thousand.” Hence ʼal·luph′ basically means “leader of a thousand” and corresponds with the Gr. chiliarch. See Mr 6:21 ftn.

“Sheik Korah,” MLXXSyVg; Sam omits. Vss 5, 14, 18 show he was Esau’s (not Eliphaz’) son by Oholibamah.

“The hot springs.” Heb., hai·ye·mim′; Lat., a′quas ca′li·das, “hot waters.”

“Dishon,” SamLXXSyVgc and 1Ch 1:41; MVg, “Dishan.”

Or, “happened to be associating.”

Or, “matter.”

“The flock of their father,” MLXXSyVg. In M the Heb. particle ʼeth, which modifies these words, is marked with extraordinary points by the Sopherim to indicate the words are doubtful and are to be omitted. If so, it may mean that Joseph’s brothers had gone to feed themselves. In vs 13 the word “flocks” does not specifically occur, but the verb is the same as in vs 12. See App 2A.

Lit., “See the peace of your brothers and the peace of the flock.”

“Here comes that dreamer.” Lit., “The master (lord) of dreams, that one there comes.”

Lit., “strike him at the soul.”

Or, “balm,” that is, of Gilead.

“Into Sheol.” Heb., sheʼo′lah; Gr., eis hai′dou; Syr., la·shiul; Lat., in in·fer′num; the first occurrence of this word. See App 4B.

See 12:15 ftn.

“His,” M; LXXSy, “her.”

“He,” that is, Judah; LXX, “she.”

Understood to be the same as “Achzib” in Jos 15:44 and Mic 1:14; M, “Chezib.”

Lit., “Go in to.”

Or, “levirate marriage.” Jehovah later gave official recognition to this in the Mosaic Law, in De 25:5-9.

Lit., “he wasted [it] on the earth.”

Or, “For he thought.”

Or, “prostitute.” Gr., por′nen. See 1Co 6:15 ftn.

Or, “fornication.”

“Cord,” TOLXXSyVg; M, “cords.”

Meaning “Perineal Rupture.”

Meaning “A Shining Forth; A Rising.”

See 12:15 ftn.

“His master.” Heb., ʼadho·nav′, pl. of ʼa·dhohn′, to denote excellence, as in vss 3, 7, 8, 16, 19, 20.

“On this day as other days.” For this rendering see VT, Vol. II, 1952, pp. 85-87.

LXX adds: “and he said to me, ‘I am going to cohabit with you.’ ”

Lit., “house of the [round] castle.”

Lit., “bound ones.”

Lit., “were kept bound.”

Or, “the prince.” Heb., sar.

Lit., “him.”

“Against their lord.” Heb., la·ʼadho·neh·hem′, pl. of ʼa·dhohn′, to denote excellence. Compare 39:2 ftn.

Heb., sar, translated “princes of” in 12:15 where it is pl.

Lit., “the cistern,” that is, a hole shaped like one and used for a prison.

Or, “timber.” Lit., “wood.” Gr., xy′lou; Lat., cru′ce (from crux). See 41:13 ftn.

Lit., “two years of days.”

Or, “the reeds.”

“Dreams,” Sam; MLXXVg, “dream.”

“Him he hanged,” M; LXX, “that one was hanged”; Vg, “that one was hanged on a torture stake [Lat., cru′ce (from crux)].”

“Without me God will announce,” Vg.

Lit., “upon your mouth all my people will kiss [fit; adjust themselves].”

Or, “byssus fabric.”

“Avrékh!” Heb., ʼAv·rekh′. The exact meaning of this expression transliterated from Egyptian into Heb. has not yet been determined. Sy, “Father and Ruler!”; Vg, “That all should bend the knee before him.”

Meaning “Revealer of Hidden Things,” the way the Hebrews understood this form of the word. Lat., Sal·va·to′rem mun′di, “Savior of the world.”

In the Cairo Museum there is a funeral pillar (stele) discovered in 1935 that refers to a personage named Potiphare.

“On,” M; LXXVg, “Heliopolis,” meaning “City of the Sun,” because worship of the sun in the form of the god Ra was carried on in his temple there.

Meaning “One Making Forgetful; One Who Makes Forget.” Heb., Menash·sheh′.

Heb., ʼElo·him′, without the definite article.

Meaning “Doubly Fruitful; Fruitland.” Heb., ʼEph·ra′yim.

Lit., “open up all that was among them.” LXX, “open up all the grain depositories.”

Or, “to Egypt.”

Lit., “Moreover, all the earth,” but the verb “came” is pl., denoting people.

Lit., “a healing,” used as a euphemism for “a fatal accident.”

Or, “the defenselessness.” Lit., “the nakedness.”

Heb., ʼadho·neh′, pl. to denote excellence.

See vs 4 ftn.

“To Sheol.” Heb., sheʼoh′lah; Gr., eis hai′dou; Syr., la·shiul; Lat., ad in′fe·ros. See App 4B.

Lit., “all the days.”

Or, “balm,” that is, of Gilead.

Lit., “silver.”

“And . . . God Almighty.” Heb., weʼEl′ Shad·dai′. Neither ʼEl, “God,” nor Shad·dai′, “Almighty,” has the definite article.

Lit., “he asked them about the peace (welfare).”

Lit., “Does your father . . . have peace (welfare)?”

Or, “servants.”

Or, “you are like Pharaoh.”

Or, “My lord.”

“To Sheol.” Heb., sheʼo′lah; Gr., eis hai′dou; Syr., la·shiul; Lat., ad in′fe·ros. See App 4B.

Lit., “all the days.”

Or, “survivors; a remainder.” Heb., sheʼe·rith′.

“Commanded,” that is, to say to them. LXX, “give orders.”

Or, “I, the [true] God, am the God of your father.”

That is, to close them at Jacob’s death.

After “Ephraim” LXX adds five more names, as it reads: “But there were sons born to Manasseh, whom his Syrian concubine bore to him, namely, Machir. And Machir became father to Galaad. But the sons of Ephraim, Manasseh’s brother, were Sutalaam and Taam. And the sons of Sutalaam were Edem.” This may explain why LXX, in Ge 46:27 and Ex 1:5, and Stephen, in Ac 7:14, count 75 souls instead of 70.

“Seventy,” MTSyVg; LXX, “seventy-five.”

“To Joseph, that he might make announcement to him,” Vg.

“To Joseph to meet him at Heroopolis in the land of Rameses,” LXX.

“Industrious men,” Vg.

Heb., sa·reh′.

Or, “the family.”

Lit., “for the horses.” Heb., bas·su·sim′; the first historic mention of horses for which Egypt became famous.

Lit., “second.”

Or, “and truth; and faithfulness.” Heb., we·ʼemeth′.

“The couch.” Heb., ham·mit·tah′; LXX, “And Israel worshiped over (leaning upon) the top of his staff.” “Staff” or “rod” (Heb., mat·teh′, as in 38:25) and “bed” or “couch” (Heb., mit·tah′, as in 48:2) have identical consonants, and without the vowel points they can be read one way or the other.

See 43:14 ftn.

Or, “have.”

Or, “He laid his hands crosswise,” in agreement with LXXVg.

Or, “redeeming; reclaiming.”

Or, “the full number.” Lit., “the fullness.”

“You,” sing., MSamSyVg; TPLXX, “you,” pl.

Or, “There was reckless license like impetuous waters.”

“Eagle owls; hyenas,” according to another vowel pointing.

“Slaughter weapons.” Some view the Heb. word here as yet unexplainable. Vs 5 in LXX, “Simeon and Levi, brothers, accomplished the injustice of their cutting off.”

“My glory,” MVg; LXX, “my liver.” See VT, Vol. II, 1952, pp. 358-362.

Or, “a man.” Heb., ʼish, possibly in the collective sense.

“Like a lion.” Heb., keʼar·yeh′, the African lion.

“And, like a lion.” Heb., u·khela·viʼ′, the Asian lion.

“Scepter.” Heb., she′vet; Lat., scep′trum; Gr., ar′khon, “ruler.”

Or, “neither a commander.” Heb., loʼ . . . mecho·qeq′.

Or, “from before him.” Compare Jg 5:27.

“Shiloh.” Or, “the one whose it is.” Heb., Shi·loh′, meaning “He Whose It Is,” or, “He to Whom It Belongs”; LXX, “the things stored up for him”; Vg, “he who is to be sent.”

“And he will be the expectation of nations,” LXXVg.

Or, “a vine with bright-red grapes.”

Or, “the ships disembark.”

Or, “become a slave under forced labor.”

Or, “I have waited.”

“For salvation from you.” Heb., li·shu·ʽoth·kha′; the first occurrence of this noun. The Heb. word yeshu·ʽah′, “salvation,” has the same root as the Bible names Jeshua, Joshua and Jesus.

Or, “nimble.”

Or, “He is putting forth branched antlers.”

Lit., “Son.”

Lit., “daughters.”

Lit., “the arms.”

Or, “agile.”

“From the God of.” Heb., me·ʼEl′.

Or, “surging waters.” Vg, “abyss,” as in 1:2.

Or, “desire; abode.”

“One singled out.” Heb., nezir′; in Nu 6:2, 13, 18-20 translated “Nazirite,” meaning “One Singled Out; Dedicated One; Separated One.”

Lit., “The purchase of the field.”

Or, “elders.”

Lit., “the Thorny Bush.” Heb., ha·ʼA·tadh′.

Meaning “Mourning of the Egyptians.” “Mizraim” is the Heb. name for Egyptians. See 10:13.

“Joseph’s brothers saw that their father had died and they were afraid,” Sy; Vg, “Now that he was dead, his brothers were afraid.”

Or, “servants.”

Lit., “spoke to their heart.”

Lit., “sons of the third [generated] ones.”

Or, “land that he promised on oath.”