1 The words of the congregator,*+ the son of David the king in Jerusalem.+ 2 “The greatest vanity!”*+ the congregator has said, “the greatest vanity! Everything is vanity!”+ 3 What profit does a man* have in all his hard work at which he works+ hard under the sun?*+ 4 A generation is going,+ and a generation is coming;+ but the earth is standing even to time indefinite.+ 5 And the sun also has flashed forth, and the sun has set,+ and it is coming panting to its place where it is going to flash forth.+
7 All the winter torrents+ are going forth to the sea,+ yet the sea itself is not full.+ To the place where the winter torrents are going forth, there they are returning so as to go forth.+ 8 All things are wearisome;+ no one is able to speak of it. The eye is not satisfied at seeing,+ neither is the ear filled from hearing.+ 9 That which has come to be, that is what will come to be;+ and that which has been done, that is what will be done; and so there is nothing new under the sun.*+ 10 Does anything exist of which one may say: “See this; it is new”? It has already had existence for time indefinite;+ what has come into existence is from time prior to us.+ 11 There is no remembrance of people of former times, nor will there be of those also who will come to be later.+ There will prove to be no remembrance even of them among those who will come to be still later on.+
12 I, the congregator,* happened to be king over Israel in Jerusalem.+ 13 And I set my heart to seek and explore wisdom+ in relation to everything that has been done under the heavens—the calamitous occupation that God has given to the sons of mankind* in which to be occupied.+ 14 I saw all the works that were done under the sun,+ and, look! everything was vanity and a striving after wind.*+
15 That which is made crooked cannot be made straight,+ and that which is wanting cannot possibly be counted. 16 I, even I, spoke with my heart,+ saying: “Look! I myself have greatly increased in wisdom more than anyone that happened to be before me in Jerusalem,+ and my own heart saw a great deal of wisdom and knowledge.”+ 17 And I proceeded to give my heart to knowing wisdom and to knowing madness,+ and I have come to know folly,+ that this too is a striving after wind.*+ 18 For in the abundance of wisdom there is an abundance of vexation,+ so that he that increases knowledge increases pain.+
2 I said, even I, in my heart:+ “Do come now, let me try you out with rejoicing.+ Also, see good.”+ And, look! that too was vanity. 2 I said to laughter: “Insanity!”+ and to rejoicing:+ “What is this doing?”
3 I explored with my heart by cheering my flesh even with wine,+ while I was leading my heart with wisdom,+ even to lay hold on folly until I could see what good there was to the sons of mankind in what they did under the heavens for the number of the days of their life.+ 4 I engaged in greater works.+ I built houses for myself;+ I planted vineyards for myself.+ 5 I made gardens and parks* for myself,+ and I planted in them fruit trees of all sorts. 6 I made pools of water for myself,+ to irrigate with them the forest, springing up with trees.+ 7 I acquired menservants and maidservants,+ and I came to have sons of the household.+ Also, livestock, cattle and flocks in great quantity I came to have, more so than all those who happened to be before me in Jerusalem.+ 8 I accumulated also silver and gold for myself,+ and property peculiar to kings and the jurisdictional districts.+ I made male singers and female singers+ for myself and the exquisite delights+ of the sons of mankind, a lady, even ladies.+ 9 And I became greater and increased more than anyone that happened to be before me in Jerusalem.+ Moreover, my own wisdom remained mine.+
10 And anything that my eyes asked for I did not keep away from them.+ I did not hold back my heart from any sort of rejoicing, for my heart was joyful because of all my hard work,+ and this came to be my portion from all my hard work.+ 11 And I, even I, turned toward all the works of mine that my hands had done and toward the hard work that I had worked hard to accomplish,+ and, look! everything was vanity and a striving after wind,+ and there was nothing of advantage under the sun.+
12 And I, even I, turned to see wisdom+ and madness and folly;+ for what can the earthling man do who comes in after the king? The thing that people have already done. 13 And I saw, even I, that there exists more advantage for wisdom than for folly,+ just as there is more advantage for light than for darkness.+
14 As regards anyone wise, his eyes are in his head;+ but the stupid one is walking on in sheer darkness.+ And I have come to know, I too, that there is one eventuality that eventuates to them all.+ 15 And I myself said in my heart:+ “An eventuality like that upon the stupid one+ will eventuate to me, yes, me.”+ Why, then, had I become wise, I overmuch so+ at that time? And I spoke in my heart: “This too is vanity.” 16 For there is no more remembrance of the wise one than of the stupid one to time indefinite.+ In the days that are already coming in, everyone is certainly forgotten; and how will the wise one die? Along with the stupid one.+
17 And I hated life,+ because the work that has been done under the sun was calamitous from my standpoint,+ for everything was vanity and a striving after wind.+ 18 And I, even I, hated all my hard work at which I was working hard under the sun,+ that I would leave behind for the man who would come to be after me.+ 19 And who is there knowing whether he will prove to be wise or foolish?+ Yet he will take control over all my hard work at which I worked hard and at which I showed wisdom under the sun.+ This too is vanity. 20 And I myself turned around toward making my heart despair+ over all the hard work at which I had worked hard under the sun. 21 For there exists the man whose hard work has been with wisdom and with knowledge and with proficiency,+ but to a man that has not worked hard at such a thing will be given the portion of that one.+ This too is vanity and a big calamity.+
22 For what does a man come to have* for all his hard work and for the striving of his heart with which he is working hard under the sun?+ 23 For all his days his occupation means pains and vexation,+ also during the night his heart just does not lie down.+ This too is mere vanity.
24 With a man there is nothing better [than] that he should eat and indeed drink and cause his soul to see good because of his hard work.+ This too I have seen, even I, that this is from the hand of the [true] God.*+ 25 For who eats+ and who drinks* better than I do?+
26 For to the man that is good before him+ he has given wisdom and knowledge and rejoicing,+ but to the sinner he has given the occupation of gathering and bringing together merely to give to the one that is good before the [true] God.+ This too is vanity and a striving after wind.+
3 For everything there is an appointed time,+ even a time* for every affair under the heavens: 2 a time for birth+ and a time to die;+ a time to plant and a time to uproot what was planted;+ 3 a time to kill+ and a time to heal;+ a time to break down and a time to build;+ 4 a time to weep+ and a time to laugh;+ a time to wail+ and a time to skip about;+ 5 a time to throw stones away+ and a time to bring stones together;+ a time to embrace+ and a time to keep away from embracing;+ 6 a time to seek+ and a time to give up as lost; a time to keep and a time to throw away;+ 7 a time to rip apart+ and a time to sew together;+ a time to keep quiet+ and a time to speak;+ 8 a time to love and a time to hate;+ a time for war+ and a time for peace.+ 9 What advantage is there for the doer in what he is working hard at?+
10 I have seen the occupation that God has given to the sons of mankind in which to be occupied.+ 11 Everything he has made pretty in its time.+ Even time indefinite he has put in their heart,+ that mankind* may never find out the work that the [true] God has made from the start* to the finish.+ 12 I have come to know that there is nothing better for them than to rejoice and to do good during one’s life;+ 13 and also that every man* should eat and indeed drink and see good for all his hard work.+ It is the gift of God.+
14 I have come to know that everything that the [true] God makes, it will prove to be to time indefinite.+ To it there is nothing to add and from it there is nothing to subtract;+ but the [true] God himself has made it,+ that people may be afraid on account of him.+
16 And I have further seen under the sun the place of justice where there was wickedness and the place of righteousness where wickedness was.+ 17 I myself have said in my heart:+ “The [true] God will judge both the righteous one and the wicked one,+ for there is a time for every affair and concerning every work there.”+
18 I, even I, have said in my heart with regard to the sons of mankind that the [true] God is going to select them, that they may see that they themselves are beasts.+ 19 For there is an eventuality* as respects the sons of mankind and an eventuality as respects the beast, and they have the same eventuality.+ As the one dies,* so the other dies;+ and they all have but one spirit,*+ so that there is no superiority of the man over the beast, for everything is vanity. 20 All are going to one place.+ They have all come to be from the dust,*+ and they are all returning to the dust.+ 21 Who is there knowing the spirit of the sons of mankind, whether it is ascending upward; and the spirit of the beast, whether it is descending downward to the earth?+ 22 And I have seen that there is nothing better than that the man should rejoice in his works,+ for that is his portion; because who will bring him in to look on what is going to be after him?+
4 And I myself returned that I might see all the acts of oppression+ that are being done under the sun, and, look! the tears of those being oppressed,+ but they had no comforter;+ and on the side of their oppressors there was power, so that they had no comforter. 2 And I congratulated the dead who had already died rather than the living who were still alive.+ 3 So better than both of them [is] the one who has not yet come to be,+ who has not seen the calamitous work that is being done under the sun.+
7 I myself returned that I might see the vanity under the sun: 8 There exists one, but not a second one;+ also no son or brother does he have,+ but there is no end to all his hard work. Also, his eyes themselves are not satisfied with riches:+ “And for whom am I working hard and causing my soul to lack in good things?”+ This too is vanity, and it is a calamitous occupation.+
9 Two are better than one,+ because they have a good reward for their hard work.+ 10 For if one of them should fall, the other one can raise his partner up.+ But how will it be with just the one* who falls when there is not another to raise him up?+
11 Moreover, if two lie down together, they also will certainly get warm; but how can just one keep warm?+ 12 And if somebody could overpower one alone, two together could make a stand against him.+ And a threefold cord cannot quickly be torn in two.
13 Better is a needy but wise child+ than an old but stupid king,+ who has not come to know enough to be warned any longer.+ 14 For he has gone forth from the prison house itself to become king,+ although in the kingship of this one he had been born as one of little means.+ 15 I have seen all those alive who are walking about under the sun, [how it goes] with the child, who is second, that stands up in the other one’s place.+ 16 There is no end to all the people, to all those before whom he* happened to be;+ neither will people afterward rejoice in him,+ for this too is vanity and a striving after the wind.+
5 Guard your feet+ whenever you go to the house of the [true] God; and let there be a drawing near* to hear,+ rather than to give a sacrifice as the stupid ones do,+ for they are not aware of doing what is bad.*+
2 Do not hurry yourself as regards your mouth; and as for your heart,+ let it not be hasty to bring forth a word before the [true] God.+ For the [true] God is in the heavens+ but you are on the earth. That is why your words should prove to be few.+ 3 For a dream certainly comes in because of abundance of occupation,+ and the voice of a stupid one because of the abundance of words.+ 4 Whenever you vow a vow to God, do not hesitate to pay it,+ for there is no delight in the stupid ones.+ What you vow, pay.+ 5 Better is it that you vow+ not than that you vow and do not pay.+ 6 Do not allow your mouth to cause your flesh to sin,*+ neither say before the angel*+ that it was a mistake.+ Why should the [true] God become indignant on account of your voice and have to wreck the work of your hands?+ 7 For because of abundance [of occupation] there are dreams,+ and there are vanities and words in abundance. But fear the [true] God himself.+
8 If you see any oppression of the one of little means and the violent taking away of judgment+ and of righteousness in a jurisdictional district, do not be amazed over the affair,+ for one that is higher than the high one+ is watching,+ and there are those who are high above them.*
13 There exists a grave calamity that I have seen under the sun: riches being kept for their grand owner* to his calamity.+ 14 And those riches have perished+ because of a calamitous occupation, and he has become father to a son when there is nothing at all in his hand.+
15 Just as one has come forth from his mother’s belly, naked will one go away again,+ just as one came; and nothing at all can one carry away+ for his hard work, which he can take along with his hand.
16 And this too is a grave calamity: exactly as one has come, so one will go away; and what profit is there to the one who keeps working hard for the wind?+ 17 Also, all his days he eats in darkness itself, with a great deal of vexation,+ with sickness on his part and [cause for] indignation.
18 Look! The best thing that I myself have seen, which is pretty, is that one should eat and drink and see good for all his hard work+ with which he works hard under the sun for the number of the days of his life that the [true] God has given him, for that is his portion. 19 Also every man to whom the [true] God has given riches and material possessions,+ he has even empowered him to eat from it+ and to carry off his portion and to rejoice in his hard work.+ This is the gift of God.+ 20 For not often will he remember the days of his life, because the [true] God is preoccupying* [him] with the rejoicing of his heart.+
6 There exists a calamity that I have seen under the sun, and it is frequent among mankind: 2 a man* to whom the [true] God gives riches and material possessions and glory+ and who, for his soul, is in no need of anything that he shows himself longing for,+ and yet the [true] God does not enable him to eat from it,+ although a mere foreigner+ may eat it. This is vanity and it is a bad sickness. 3 If a man should become a father a hundred times,+ and he should live many years, so that numerous the days of his years should become,+ yet his own soul is not satisfied with good things+ and even the grave has not become his,+ I must say that one prematurely born is better off than he is.+ 4 For in vain has this one come and in darkness he goes away, and with darkness his own name will be covered.+ 5 Even the sun itself he has not seen, neither known.+ This one has rest rather than the former one.+ 6 Even supposing that he has lived a thousand years twice over and yet he has not seen what is good,+ is it not to just one place that everyone is going?+
7 All the hard work of mankind* is for their mouth,+ but even their own soul does not get filled. 8 For what advantage does the wise have over the stupid one?+ What does the afflicted one have in knowing how to walk in front of the living ones? 9 Better is the seeing by the eyes than the walking about of the soul.*+ This too is vanity and a striving after the wind.+
11 Because there exist many things that are causing much vanity,+ what advantage does a man have? 12 For who is there knowing what good a man has in life+ for the number of the days of his vain life, when he spends them like a shadow?+ For who can tell man what will happen after him under the sun?+
7 A name* is better than good oil,+ and the day of death than the day of one’s being born.+ 2 Better is it to go to the house of mourning than to go to the banquet house,+ because that is the end of all mankind; and the one alive should take [it] to his heart. 3 Better is vexation than laughter,+ for by the crossness of the face the heart becomes better.+ 4 The heart of the wise ones is in the house of mourning,+ but the heart of the stupid ones is in the house of rejoicing.+
5 Better is it to hear the rebuke of someone wise+ than to be the man* hearing the song of the stupid ones.+ 6 For as the sound of thorns under the pot, so is the laughter of the stupid one;+ and this too is vanity. 7 For mere oppression may make a wise one act crazy,+ and a gift+ can destroy the heart.+
8 Better is the end afterward of a matter than its beginning.+ Better is one who is patient* than one who is haughty in spirit.+ 9 Do not hurry yourself in your spirit to become offended,+ for the taking of offense is what rests in the bosom of the stupid ones.+
11 Wisdom along with an inheritance is good and is advantageous* for those seeing the sun.+ 12 For wisdom is for a protection*+ [the same as] money is for a protection;+ but the advantage of knowledge is that wisdom itself preserves alive its owners.+
13 See the work+ of the [true] God, for who is able to make straight what he has made crooked?+ 14 On a good day prove yourself to be in goodness,+ and on a calamitous day see that the [true] God has made even this exactly as that,+ to the intent that mankind* may not discover anything at all after them.+
16 Do not become righteous overmuch,+ nor show yourself excessively wise.+ Why should you cause desolation to yourself?+ 17 Do not be wicked overmuch,+ nor become foolish.+ Why should you die when it is not your time?+ 18 It is better that you should take hold of the one, but from the other also do not withdraw your hand;+ for he that fears God will go forth with them all.+
21 Also, do not give your heart to all the words that people may speak,+ that you may not hear your servant calling down evil upon you.+ 22 For your own heart well knows even many times that you, even you, have called down evil upon others.+
23 All this I have tested with wisdom. I said: “I will become wise.” But it was far from me.+ 24 What has come to be is far off and exceedingly deep. Who can find it out?+ 25 I myself turned around, even my heart did,+ to know and to explore and to search for wisdom+ and the reason of things,+ and to know about the wickedness of stupidity and the foolishness of madness;+ 26 and I was finding out: More bitter than death+ [I found] the woman who is herself nets for hunting and whose heart is dragnets [and] whose hands are fetters.+ One is good before the [true] God if one escapes from her, but one is sinning if one is captured by her.+
27 “See! This I have found,” said the congregator,*+ “one thing [taken] after another, to find out the sum-up,+ 28 which my soul has continuously sought, but I have not found. One man out of a thousand I have found,+ but a woman among all these I have not found.+ 29 See! This only I have found, that the [true] God made mankind* upright,+ but they themselves have sought out many plans.”+
8 Who is there like the wise one?+ And who is there knowing the interpretation of a thing?+ The wisdom of a man itself causes his face to shine, and even the sternness of his face is changed [for the better].+
2 I [say:] “Keep the very order of the king,+ and that out of regard for the oath of God.+ 3 Do not hurry yourself, that you may go out from before him.+ Do not stand in a bad thing.+ For all that he delights [to do] he will do,+ 4 because the word of the king is the power of control;+ and who may say to him: ‘What are you doing?’”
5 He that is keeping the commandment will not know any calamitous thing,+ and the wise heart will know both time and judgment.+ 6 For there exists a time and judgment even for every affair,+ because the calamity of mankind is abundant upon them.+ 7 For there is no one knowing what will come to be,+ because who can tell him just how it will come to be?
8 There is no man having power over the spirit* to restrain the spirit;+ neither is there any power of control in the day of death;+ nor is there any discharge in the war.+ And wickedness will provide no escape for those indulging in it.*+
9 All this I have seen, and there was an applying* of my heart to every work that has been done under the sun, [during] the time that man has dominated man to his injury.+ 10 But, though this is so, I have seen the wicked ones being buried,+ how they came in and how they would go away from the holy place+ itself and be forgotten in the city where they acted that way.+ This too is vanity.
11 Because sentence against a bad work has not been executed speedily,+ that is why the heart of the sons of men has become fully set in them to do bad.+ 12 Although a sinner may be doing bad+ a hundred times and continuing a long time as he pleases, yet I am also aware that it will turn out well with those fearing the [true] God,+ because they were in fear of him.+ 13 But it will not turn out well at all with the wicked one,+ neither will he prolong his days that are like a shadow,+ because he is not in fear of God.+
14 There exists a vanity that is carried out on the earth, that there exist righteous ones to whom it is happening as if for the work of the wicked ones,+ and there exist wicked ones to whom it is happening as if for the work of the righteous ones.+ I said that this too is vanity.
15 And I myself commended rejoicing,+ because mankind* have nothing better under the sun than to eat and drink and rejoice, and that it should accompany them in their hard work for the days of their life,+ which the [true] God has given them under the sun.+ 16 In accord with this I applied my heart+ to know wisdom and to see the occupation that is carried on in the earth,+ because there is one seeing no sleep with his eyes, either by day or by night.+
17 And I saw all the work of the [true] God,+ how mankind are not able to find out the work that has been done under the sun;+ however much mankind keep working hard to seek, yet they do not find out.+ And even if they should say they are wise enough to know,+ they would be unable to find out.+
9 For I took all this to my heart, even to search out all this,+ that the righteous ones and the wise ones and their works are in the hand of the [true] God.+ Mankind are not aware of either the love or the hate that were all prior to them.+ 2 All are the same in what all have.+ One eventuality+ there is to the righteous one+ and the wicked one,+ the good one and the clean one and the unclean one, and the one sacrificing and the one that is not sacrificing. The good one is the same as the sinner;+ the one swearing is the same as whoever has been afraid of a sworn oath.+ 3 This is what is calamitous in all that has been done under the sun, that, because there is one eventuality to all,+ the heart of the sons of men is also full of bad;+ and there is madness+ in their heart during their lifetime, and after it—to the dead ones!+
4 For as respects whoever is joined* to all the living there exists confidence, because a live dog+ is better off than a dead lion.+ 5 For the living are conscious that they will die;*+ but as for the dead, they are conscious of nothing at all,*+ neither do they anymore have wages, because the remembrance of them has been forgotten.+ 6 Also, their love and their hate and their jealousy have already perished,+ and they have no portion anymore to time indefinite in anything that has to be done under the sun.+
7 Go, eat your food* with rejoicing and drink your wine with a good heart,+ because already the [true] God has found pleasure in your works.+ 8 On every occasion let your garments prove to be white,+ and let oil not be lacking upon your head.+ 9 See life with the wife whom you love+ all the days of your vain life that He has given you under the sun, all the days of your vanity, for that is your portion in life+ and in your hard work with which you are working hard under the sun. 10 All that your hand finds to do, do with your very power,+ for there is no work nor devising nor knowledge+ nor wisdom+ in Sheʹol,*+ the place to which you are going.+
11 I returned to see* under the sun that the swift do not have the race,+ nor the mighty ones the battle,+ nor do the wise also have the food,*+ nor do the understanding ones also have the riches,+ nor do even those having knowledge have the favor;+ because time and unforeseen occurrence befall them all.*+ 12 For man+ also does not know his time.+ Just like fishes that are being taken in an evil net,+ and like birds that are being taken in a trap,+ so the sons of men themselves are being ensnared at a calamitous time,+ when it falls upon them suddenly.+
13 Also this I saw as respects wisdom under the sun—and it* was great to me: 14 There was a little city, and the men* in it were few; and there came to it a great king, and he surrounded it and built against it great strongholds.+ 15 And there was found in it a man,* needy [but]* wise, and that one provided escape for the city by his wisdom.+ But no man remembered that needy man.+ 16 And I myself said: “Wisdom is better than mightiness;+ yet the wisdom of the needy one is despised, and his words are not listened to.”+
2 The heart of the wise is at his right hand,+ but the heart of the stupid at his left hand.+ 3 And also in whatever way the foolish one is walking,+ his own heart is lacking,* and he certainly says to everybody that he is foolish.+
5 There exists something calamitous that I have seen under the sun, as when there is a mistake+ going forth on account of the one in power:+ 6 Foolishness* has been put in many high positions,+ but the rich ones themselves keep dwelling merely in a low condition.
12 The words of the mouth of the wise one mean favor,+ but the lips of the stupid one swallow him up.+ 13 The start of the words of his mouth is foolishness,+ and the end afterward of his mouth is calamitous madness. 14 And the foolish one speaks many words.+
16 How will it be with you, O land, when your king is a boy+ and your own princes keep eating even in the morning? 17 Happy are you, O land, when your king is the son of noble ones and your own princes eat at the proper time for mightiness, not for mere drinking.+
20 Even in your bedroom do not call down evil upon the king himself,+ and in the interior rooms where you lie down do not call down evil upon anyone rich;+ for a flying creature of the heavens will convey the sound and something owning wings will tell the matter.+
11 Send out your bread*+ upon the surface of the waters,+ for in the course of many days you will find it again.+ 2 Give a portion to seven, or even to eight,+ for you do not know what calamity will occur on the earth.+
3 If the clouds are filled [with water], they empty out a sheer downpour upon the earth;+ and if a tree falls to the south or if to the north, in the place where the tree+ falls there it will prove to be.
6 In the morning sow your seed and until the evening do not let your hand rest;+ for you are not knowing where this will have success,+ either here or there, or whether both of them will alike be good.
7 The light is also sweet, and it is good for the eyes to see the sun;+ 8 for if a man should live even many years, in all of them let him rejoice.+ And let him remember the days of darkness,+ though they could be many; every [day] that has come in is vanity.+
9 Rejoice,+ young man, in your youth, and let your heart do you good in the days of your young manhood, and walk in the ways of your heart and in the things seen by your eyes.+ But know that on account of all these the [true] God will bring you into judgment.+ 10 So remove vexation from your heart, and ward off calamity from your flesh;+ for youth and the prime of life are vanity.+
12 Remember, now, your Grand Creator*+ in the days of your young manhood,*+ before the calamitous days proceed to come,+ or the years have arrived when you will say: “I have no delight in them”;+ 2 before the sun and the light and the moon and the stars grow dark,+ and the clouds have returned, afterward the downpour; 3 in the day when the keepers of the house+ tremble, and the men of vital energy have bent themselves,+ and the grinding women*+ have quit working because they have become few, and the ladies seeing* at the windows+ have found it dark; 4 and the doors onto the street have been closed,+ when the sound of the grinding mill becomes low,+ and one gets up at the sound of a bird, and all the daughters of song sound low.+ 5 Also, they have become afraid merely at what is high, and there are terrors in the way. And the almond tree carries blossoms,+ and the grasshopper drags itself along, and the caper berry bursts, because man* is walking to his long-lasting house+ and the wailers have marched around in the street;+ 6 before the silver cord is removed, and the golden bowl gets crushed,+ and the jar at the spring is broken, and the waterwheel for the cistern has been crushed. 7 Then the dust returns to the earth+ just as it happened to be and the spirit+ itself returns to the [true] God+ who gave it.+
9 And besides the fact that the congregator had become wise,+ he also taught the people knowledge continually,+ and he pondered and made a thorough search,+ that he might arrange many proverbs in order.+ 10 The congregator sought to find the delightful words+ and the writing of correct words of truth.+
11 The words of the wise ones are like oxgoads,+ and just like nails driven in*+ are those indulging in collections* [of sentences]; they have been given from one shepherd.+ 12 As regards anything besides these, my son, take a warning: To the making of many books there is no end, and much devotion [to them] is wearisome to the flesh.+
13 The conclusion of the matter, everything having been heard, is: Fear the [true] God+ and keep his commandments.+ For this is the whole [obligation] of man.* 14 For the [true] God himself will bring every sort of work into the judgment in relation to every hidden thing, as to whether it is good or bad.+
“Ecclesiastes.” Heb., Qo·heʹleth. In Heb. this book is named after the active participle of the verb qa·halʹ, “to congregate; to assemble.” Although Qo·heʹleth is fem., King Solomon applied it to himself in 1:1. Gr., Ek·kle·si·a·stesʹ; Lat., Liʹber Ec·cle·si·aʹstes.
Or, “assembler; convener; convoker,” M; LXXVg, “Ecclesiastes,” that is, a member of an ecclesia (congregation; assembly).
“The greatest vanity!” Lit., “Vanity of vanities,” M(Heb., havelʹ hava·limʹ)LXXSyVg.
Lit., “to an earthling man.” Heb., la·ʼa·dhamʹ.
“Under the sun.” Heb., ta·chathʹ hash·shaʹmesh. This phrase occurs 29 times in Ecclesiastes.
“The wind.” Lit., “It,” possibly referring to the sun in its movements southward and northward between the summer and winter solstices.
“It.” Lit., “the wind,” but in translation it is transferred to the beginning of the vs.
“The wind.” Heb., ha·ruʹach; Gr., pneuʹma. Compare Ge 1:2 ftn, “Force.”
See vs 3 ftn, “Sun.”
See vs 1 ftn.
Or, “men.” Heb., ha·ʼa·dhamʹ.
See vs 6, second ftn on “Wind.”
See vs 6, second ftn on “Wind.”
“And parks.” Heb., u·phar·de·simʹ, pl. of par·desʹ; LXXSy, “parks; paradises.”
Lit., “what is there proving to be for the man?” Heb., meh-ho·wehʹ la·ʼa·dhamʹ? The participle ho·wehʹ is from the root verb ha·wahʹ, related to the divine name, Yeho·wahʹ.
“The [true] God.” Heb., ha·ʼElo·himʹ, with ha, “the,” for emphasis; TSy, “Jehovah.” See App 1F.
“Drinks,” LXXBagsterSy; M, “hastens.”
Or, “season; seasonable time.”
Lit., “the earthling man.” Heb., ha·ʼa·dhamʹ.
Or, “every earthling man.” Heb., kol-ha·ʼa·dhamʹ.
Or, “an event.” Heb., miq·rehʹ.
Lit., “As this [one] dies.” Heb., kemohthʹ zeh.
Or, “and . . . breath.” Heb., weruʹach; Gr., pneuʹma.
“From the dust.” Heb., min-he·ʽa·pharʹ. See Ge 2:7 ftn, “Dust.”
“One.” Heb., ʼish.
Or, “But woe to just the one!”
Or, “they,” that is, “the people.”
“Let there be a drawing near.” In Heb. this is a verb in the infinitive absolute, indefinite as to time and impersonal.
MTLXXSyVg end chapter 4 here as vs 17.
“Do not allow the word of your mouth to determine the judgment of Gehenna upon your flesh,” T.
“Angel,” MTVg; LXXSy, “God.”
Or, “and there is the Supreme One above them.”
Lit., “and who is setting his love on wealthiness with no income (revenue)?”
“For their grand owner.” Heb., liv·ʽa·lavʹ.
Possibly, “answering,” according to another derivation of the Heb. verb.
“Man.” Heb., ʼish.
Lit., “the earthling man.” Heb., ha·ʼa·dhamʹ.
Or, “soulful desire.”
Or, “earthling man.” Heb., ʼa·dhamʹ.
“A name.” Heb., shem; LXXVg, “A good name.” See Pr 22:1 ftn.
See 6:2 ftn.
Lit., “long in spirit.”
Or, “Wisdom [compared] with a possession is better and is more profitable.”
Lit., “for a shadow.” Heb., betselʹ.
See 6:7 ftn.
“Said the congregator.” The verb and subject are both fem. See Title and 1:1 ftns.
“Mankind.” Heb., ha·ʼa·dhamʹ.
“Over the spirit (breath).” Heb., ba·ruʹach; Gr., pneuʹma·ti.
Lit., “the owners of it.” Heb., beʽa·lavʹ.
“There was an applying.” In Heb. this is a verb in the infinitive absolute, indefinite as to time and impersonal.
Lit., “for the earthling man.” Heb., la·ʼa·dhamʹ.
“Is joined,” MmarginLXXSy and many Heb. mss.
Lit., “For the living ones are knowing that they will die.” Heb., ki ha·chai·yimʹ yoh·dheʽimʹ shey·ya·muʹthu.
Lit., “and the dead ones, they are not knowing anything.” Heb., weham·me·thimʹ ʼeh·namʹ yoh·dheʽimʹ meʼuʹmah.
Lit., “your bread.” Heb., lach·meʹkha.
“In Sheol.” Heb., bish·ʼohlʹ; T, “the house of the grave”; Gr., haiʹdei; Lat., inʹfe·ros. See App 4B.
“To see.” In Heb. this verb is in the infinitive absolute, indefinite as to time and impersonal.
Lit., “bread.” Heb., leʹchem.
Or, “time and unpredictable occurrence happen to them all.”
“It,” fem., evidently referring to “wisdom.” The adjective “great” is also fem.
Lit., “and men.” Heb., wa·ʼana·shimʹ, pl. of ʼish.
“Man.” Heb., ʼish.
“But,” TVg and many Heb. mss.
Lit., “Flies of death.”
Or, “his own good motive is lacking.” Heb., lib·bohʹ cha·serʹ.
“Foolishness,” M; LXXSyVg, “The foolish one.”
Lit., “The earthling man.” Heb., ha·ʼa·dhamʹ.
Or, “Food.” Heb., leʹchem.
Lit., “but the silver.” Heb., wehak·keʹseph.
Thin, round or oval, and able to float for a time.
“Wind.” Heb., ruʹach. See Ge 1:2 ftn, “Force.”
“In,” T and many Heb. mss.
“Your Grand Creator.” Heb., Boh·reʼeyʹkha. The participle of the Heb. verb “create” is pl. to denote grandeur or excellence.
“The grinding women.” In Heb. a fem. pl. participle because of referring to teeth, fem., and because women did the grinding.
“The ladies seeing,” fem., referring to eyes, fem.
Lit., “the earthling man.” Heb., ha·ʼa·dhamʹ.
Lit., “Vanity of vanities!” M(Heb., havelʹ hava·limʹ)LXXSyVg.
See 1:1 ftn.
Lit., “planted,” as if built into a house.
“Collections.” Heb., ʼasup·pohthʹ (from ʼa·saphʹ, “to collect”).
Or, “mankind.” Heb., ha·ʼa·dhamʹ.