chief priests: See study note on Mt 2:4.
scribes: See study note on Mt 2:4.
elders: See study note on Mt 16:21.
illustration: Or “parable.”—See study note on Mt 13:3.
leased: See study note on Mt 21:33.
the chief cornerstone: See study note on Mt 21:42.
Caesar: See study note on Mt 22:17.
denarius: This Roman silver coin with an inscription of Caesar was “the tax coin” that the Romans exacted from the Jews. (Mt 22:17, 19; Lu 20:22) In Jesus’ day, agricultural laborers commonly received a denarius for a 12-hour workday, and the Christian Greek Scriptures often use the denarius as a basis for calculating other monetary values. (Mt 20:2; Mr 6:37; 14:5; Re 6:6) A variety of copper and silver coins were used in Israel, including silver coins minted in Tyre that were used for the temple tax. Yet, for paying taxes to Rome, people evidently used the silver denarius bearing the image of Caesar.—See Glossary and App. B14.
image and inscription: See study note on Mt 22:20.
pay back: See study note on Mt 22:21.
Caesar’s things to Caesar: Jesus’ reply here, and in the parallel accounts at Mt 22:21 and Mr 12:17, is his only recorded reference to the Roman emperor. “Caesar’s things” include payment for services rendered by the secular government as well as the honor and relative subjection that is to be shown to such authorities.—Ro 13:1-7.
God’s things to God: See study note on Mt 22:21.
Sadducees: This is the only mention of the Sadducees in the Gospel of Luke. (See Glossary.) The name (Greek, Sad·dou·kaiʹos) is likely connected with Zadok (often spelled Sad·doukʹ in the Septuagint), who was made high priest in the days of Solomon and whose descendants evidently served as priests for centuries.—1Ki 2:35.
resurrection: The Greek word a·naʹsta·sis literally means “raising up; standing up.” It is used about 40 times in the Christian Greek Scriptures with reference to the resurrection of the dead. (Mt 22:23, 31; Lu 20:33; Ac 4:2; 24:15; 1Co 15:12, 13) In the Septuagint at Isa 26:19, the verb form of a·naʹsta·sis is used to render the Hebrew verb “to live” in the expression “Your dead will live.”—See Glossary.
married her: See study note on Mr 12:21.
children: Or “people.” Lit., “sons.” In this context, the Greek word for “son” is used in a broader sense than merely referring to immediate male offspring. That both men and women are included is clear from the use of the Greek word for given in marriage, a term that is used about women. In this context, the whole expression, “children of this system of things” is evidently an idiom for people whose attitudes and lifestyle reflect the characteristics of this present system of things.
this system of things: The Greek word ai·onʹ, having the basic meaning “age,” can refer to a state of affairs or to features that distinguish a certain period of time, epoch, or age. In this context, it refers to the present system of things.—See study notes on Mt 12:32; Mr 10:30 and Glossary, “System(s) of things.”
that system of things: The Greek word ai·onʹ, having the basic meaning “age,” can refer to a state of affairs or to features that distinguish a certain period of time, epoch, or age. Here it refers to the coming system of things under God’s rule, when the resurrection from the dead will take place.—See study notes on Mt 12:32; Mr 10:30 and Glossary, “System(s) of things.”
children: Lit., “sons.” The Greek word for “son” occurs twice in this verse. In some contexts, it is used in a broader sense than merely referring to immediate male offspring.—See study note on Lu 20:34.
even Moses made known: See study note on Mr 12:26.
when he calls Jehovah ‘the God of Abraham’: Or “when he says: ‘Jehovah the God of Abraham.’” Jesus is here explaining that Moses refers to Jehovah as still being the God of the patriarchs long after they had died. The quote in this verse is taken from Ex 3:6. The preceding verses (Ex 3:4, 5) show that “Jehovah” is the one speaking, and at Ex 3:6, Jehovah says to Moses: “I am the God of your father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.” At that time, Abraham had been dead for 329 years, Isaac for 224, and Jacob for 197. Yet, Jehovah did not say: ‘I was the God of.’ He said: “I am the God of.” This Hebrew Scripture background is one of the reasons why the New World Translation uses the name Jehovah in the main text.—See App. C1 and C3 introduction; Lu 20:37.
for they are all living to him: Or “for they are all living from his standpoint.” The Bible shows that those who are living but who are alienated from God are dead from his standpoint. (Eph 2:1; 1Ti 5:6) Likewise, approved servants of God who die are still living from Jehovah’s standpoint, since his purpose to resurrect them is sure of fulfillment.—Ro 4:16, 17.
Jehovah: The divine name, represented by four Hebrew consonants (transliterated YHWH), occurs in the original Hebrew text at Ps 110:1, quoted here. However, as explained in App. A5, most Bible translations do not use God’s name in what is commonly called the New Testament, not even in quotations from the Hebrew Scriptures. Most Bibles simply use “Lord.” Yet, as shown in App. C, some Bible translations do use such renderings as Jehovah, Yahveh, Yahweh, יהוה (YHWH, or the Tetragrammaton), LORD, and ADONAI in capital letters (indicating that it is a substitute for God’s name) in the main text of the Christian Greek Scriptures. Some 17th-century editions of the King James Version have the rendering “the LORD” in capital letters here and at three other places where Ps 110:1 is quoted in the Christian Greek Scriptures. (Mt 22:44; Mr 12:36; Ac 2:34) Later editions continued this practice. Since “the LORD” is used in the Hebrew Scriptures of that translation to indicate where the original Hebrew text uses the divine name, the same way of writing “the LORD” in the Christian Greek Scriptures would indicate that the translators thought that it is Jehovah who is being referred to. It is also interesting to note that the New King James Version, first published in 1979, extends this use of “the LORD” to all occurrences of that word when it refers to the divine name in quotes from the Hebrew Scriptures.
marketplaces: See study note on Mt 23:7.
front seats: See study note on Mt 23:6.