expel you from the synagogue: Or “excommunicate you; ban you from the synagogue.” The Greek adjective a·po·sy·naʹgo·gos (lit., “away from the synagogue”) is used only three times, here and at Joh 9:22 and 12:42. An expelled person would be shunned and scorned as a social outcast. Such cutting off of fellowship from other Jews would have severe economic consequences for the family. The synagogues, which were used primarily for education, were apparently sometimes used as places for local courts that had the power to inflict the penalties of scourging and excommunication. (See study note on Mt 10:17.) Jesus’ foretelling that his followers would be expelled from the synagogues warned them of the possible consequences of following him. Although Jesus had earlier said that the world would hate his followers, this was the first time he directly said that some of them would be killed.
a sacred service: The Greek word used here is la·treiʹa and refers to an act of worship. In the Christian Greek Scriptures, this noun appears solely with reference to serving God. (Ro 9:4; 12:1; Heb 9:1, 6)—For a discussion of the related Greek verb la·treuʹo, see study note on Lu 1:74.
helper: See study note on Joh 14:16.
that one: Both “that one” and “he” in this verse refer back to “the helper,” mentioned in the preceding verse. (See study note on Joh 16:13.) Jesus used a figure of speech called personification when he spoke of the holy spirit, an impersonal force, as a helper. He said that this helper would “teach,” “bear witness,” ‘give evidence,’ “guide,” “speak,” ‘hear,’ and “receive.” (Joh 14:26; 15:26; 16:7-15) Personification describes something impersonal or inanimate as if it were alive. In this context, the spirit would give the world convincing evidence concerning sin, in that the world’s failure to exercise faith in God’s Son would be exposed. The spirit would also give the world convincing evidence concerning righteousness, in that Jesus’ ascension to heaven proved that he was righteous. The spirit would demonstrate why Satan, “the ruler of this world,” merits adverse judgment. (Joh 16:9-11) The Greek word used here for “to give . . . convincing evidence” is e·legʹkho, which is also rendered “to reprove.”—1Ti 5:20; Tit 1:9.
that one: Both “that one” and “he” in verses 13 and 14 refer back to “the helper” mentioned at Joh 16:7. Jesus used “the helper” (which is in the masculine gender in Greek) as a personification of the holy spirit, an impersonal force, which is in the neuter gender in Greek.—See study note on Joh 14:16.
the world: In this context, the Greek word koʹsmos refers to the world of mankind apart from God’s servants, the unrighteous human society alienated from God.—Compare study note on Joh 15:19.
born into the world: Here Jesus used the birth of a human as an illustration to show how tribulation and grief can be “turned into joy.” (Joh 16:20) A woman giving birth experiences the pain of childbirth, but the joy of bringing a new life into the world will overshadow the pain and make her forget it. In this context, the term “world” (Greek, koʹsmos) refers to the organized, human society, or sphere of human life and circumstances, into which the child is born. In the Bible, the term “world” sometimes has this meaning.—1Co 14:10; 1Ti 6:7; see study note on Lu 9:25.
anything: In addition to the subjects mentioned in Jesus’ model prayer (Mt 6:9-13), the Scriptures mention a wide range of circumstances that affect God’s servants and that are appropriate subjects for prayer. Personal prayers, then, may embrace virtually every facet of life.—Php 4:6; 1Pe 5:7; 1Jo 5:14.
comparisons: Or “figures of speech; figurative language.”—See study note on Joh 10:6.
has affection for you: The Greek verb phi·leʹo is translated “have affection for,” “like,” “be fond of,” and “kiss.” (Mt 23:6; Joh 12:25; Mr 14:44) This Greek term may describe a very close bond, such as a relationship between genuine friends. When Jesus “gave way to tears” as he approached Lazarus’ tomb, onlookers said: “See, what affection he had for [form of the Greek verb phi·leʹo] him!” (Joh 11:35, 36) This Greek term can also describe the close bond that may exist between a parent and a child. (Mt 10:37) As shown here at Joh 16:27, this Greek word describes the strong, warm, personal attachment that Jehovah has for his Son’s followers, as well as the warm feelings that the disciples had for God’s Son. At Joh 5:20, this same Greek word is used to describe the Father’s close attachment to the Son.
by means of me: Or “in union with me.” In this context, the Greek preposition (en) can denote both agency (“by means of”) and close association and unity (“in union with”).—See study note on Joh 10:38.
I have conquered the world: In this context, the Greek word koʹsmos (“world”) refers to unrighteous human society alienated from God. The term “world” is used in a similar sense at Joh 12:31; 15:19; 2Pe 2:5; 3:6; and 1Jo 2:15-17; 5:19. On the whole, the way people of this “world” behave and the attitudes they display are out of harmony with God’s will as expressed in the Scriptures. (1Jo 2:16) On this last night of his earthly life, Jesus could rightly say: “I have conquered the world.” He triumphed over the world by not becoming like it, by not permitting the thinking and actions of unrighteous human society to influence him in any way. By his faith, loyalty, and integrity, Jesus proved that “the ruler of the world,” Satan, had “no hold” on him. (See study note on Joh 14:30.) Jesus stated in the prayer recorded in John chapter 17 that neither he nor his disciples were part of this world. (Joh 17:15, 16) And when on trial before Pilate, Jesus told that Roman governor: “My Kingdom is no part of this world.” (Joh 18:36) More than 60 years after Jesus’ trial, John was inspired to write: “This is the conquest that has conquered the world, our faith.”—1Jo 5:4, 5.