us: As mentioned in the study notes on Ac 16:10 and 20:5, the book of Acts contains sections where Luke, the writer of the book, uses first person pronouns such as “we,” “us,” and “our” (Ac 27:20) when describing what happened. This indicates that Luke accompanied Paul for portions of some of his many journeys. The section of Acts that starts here and continues to Ac 28:16 includes such references, showing that Luke traveled with Paul to Rome.
an army officer: Or “a centurion.” A centurion was in command of about 100 soldiers in the Roman army.
with kindness: Or “with human kindness (affection).” The Greek word phi·lan·throʹpos and the related word phi·lan·thro·piʹa denote showing an affectionate concern for and interest in humans. After spending one day at sea and traveling about 110 km (70 mi) N, the ship docked at Sidon, on the Syrian coast. Apparently, the army officer Julius did not treat Paul as an ordinary criminal, possibly because Paul was a Roman citizen who had not been proved guilty.—Ac 22:27, 28; 26:31, 32.
a ship: A grain ship. (Ac 27:37, 38) In those days, Egypt was the chief granary for Rome. Egyptian grain ships docked at Myra, a major city situated near the coast of SW Asia Minor. The army officer Julius located such a ship and had the soldiers and prisoners board. This vessel must have been much larger than the ship that carried them on the first part of the journey. (Ac 27:1-3) It carried a valuable cargo of wheat as well as 276 people—the crew, the soldiers, the prisoners, and likely others heading to Rome. Myra was due N of Alexandria and may therefore have been on the regular route of ships from that Egyptian city. Or it may be that contrary winds (Ac 27:4, 7) forced the Alexandrian vessel to change its course and drop anchor at Myra.—See App. B13.
the fast of Atonement Day: Or “the autumn fast.” Lit., “the fast.” The Greek term for “the fast” refers to the only fast commanded under the Mosaic Law, that is, the fast in connection with the yearly Atonement Day, also called Yom Kippur (Hebrew, yohm hak·kip·pu·rimʹ, “day of the coverings”). (Le 16:29-31; 23:26-32; Nu 29:7; see Glossary, “Day of Atonement.”) The expression “to afflict oneself,” used in connection with the Atonement Day, is generally understood to mean to engage in various forms of self-denial, including fasting. (Le 16:29, ftn.) The use of the term “the fast” at Ac 27:9 supports the idea that a primary form of self-denial practiced on Atonement Day involved fasting. The Atonement Day fast fell in late September or early October.
Euroaquilo: Greek, Eu·ra·kyʹlon; Latin, euroaquilo. That is, a NE wind known to Maltese mariners as the gregale. It is the most violent wind on the Mediterranean. It would be extremely dangerous to a ship with large sails, which could easily capsize during such a storm.
the skiff: The Greek word skaʹphe refers to a small auxiliary boat that was pulled behind a ship or kept aboard a larger ship. It could be used to get to shore when the ship was anchored near a coast, to unload cargo, or to pull the ship in order to turn it. In an emergency, it could also be used as a lifeboat. To prevent the skiff from being swamped or crushed during storms, it was hauled up out of the water and secured to the ship.
the Syrtis: The Greek name Syrʹtis comes from a root meaning “to drag.” Syrtis was the name of two gulfs located within the large indentation on the coast of northern Africa (on the coast of modern-day Libya). The western gulf (between Tunis and Tripoli) was called Syrtis Minor (now the Gulf of Gabès). Just to the E was Syrtis Major, the modern-day Gulf of Sidra. Ancient sailors dreaded both gulfs because of the treacherous sandbanks that were constantly being shifted by the tides. Strabo, a first-century C.E. Greek geographer, said regarding vessels that got caught in the shoals: “The safe escape of a boat is rare.” (Geography, 17, III, 20) Josephus (Jewish Wars 2.16.4 [2.381]) says that the name Syrtis alone caused terror in those who heard it.—See App. B13.
a violent storm: Lit., “no small storm.” The Greek expression refers to a severe storm. In Paul’s day, sailors navigated by using the sun or the stars as reference points, so cloudy weather would make navigation very difficult for them.
for not one of you will be lost: Or “for there will be no loss of life among you; not a single life (soul) will be lost.” The Greek word psy·kheʹ used in this phrase refers to a person or the life that a person has.—See Glossary, “Soul,” and App. A2.
to whom I render sacred service: Or “whom I serve (worship).”—See study note on Ac 26:7.
the Sea of Adria: In Paul’s day, this term applied to an area larger than the present Adriatic Sea. Greek geographer Strabo said that this name was derived from the city of Atria, located at the mouth of the Po River on what is now called the Gulf of Venice. (Geography, 5, I, 8) The present Italian city of Adria lies somewhat away from the coast. It appears that the name Adria came to apply to the waters in the vicinity of the ancient city and was progressively extended to include all the present Adriatic Sea, the Ionian Sea, and those waters of the Mediterranean E of Sicily (and Malta) and W of Crete.—See App. B13.
20 fathoms: About 36 m (120 ft). A fathom is a unit for measuring the depth of water. The fathom is commonly viewed as being four cubits (c. 1.8 m; 6 ft) and approximately corresponds to the distance between the fingertips of a man’s two hands when his arms are stretched in opposite directions. Appropriately, the Greek word for “fathom” (or·gui·aʹ) comes from a word meaning “to stretch out; to reach.”—See App. B14.
15 fathoms: About 27 m (90 ft).—See study note on 20 fathoms in this verse and App. B14.
276: Although a few manuscripts give different numbers regarding how many people were on board, the number 276 has strong manuscript support and is accepted by most scholars. Ships of the period could carry that many passengers. Josephus recounts that a ship with about 600 people on board experienced shipwreck on its way to Rome.