This term comes from a Greek word (pentateukhos) meaning “Five Rolls” or “Five Volumes” and refers to the first five books of the Bible—Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. All were written by Moses.
The Pentateuch takes us from creation to the founding of Israel as a nation and the appointment of Joshua as leader to succeed Moses. Much of the content concerns God’s laws and regulations to Israel and its Levitical priesthood. Because Moses was the writer, other inspired penmen, as well as Jesus Christ, refer to the Pentateuch as “the Law of Moses,” “the book of Moses,” or just “Moses.” (Jos 8:31; Ezr 6:18; Lu 24:27) The Jews call it the Torah, or Law.
The Pentateuch sheds valuable light on the origin of humankind and man’s fall into sin. Its laws reveal Jehovah’s love for his people, leading them to the one who will eliminate sin and its effects—Jesus Christ.—Ga 3:24; Heb 10:1.