“All Scripture Is Inspired of God and Beneficial”
1. How does the Bible identify its Author, and what kind of knowledge do the Scriptures provide?
“ALL Scripture is inspired of God.” These words at 2 Timothy 3:16 identify God, whose name is Jehovah, as the Author and Inspirer of the Holy Scriptures. How satisfyingly delightful the inspired Scriptures are! What an amazing fund of true knowledge they provide! They are indeed “the very knowledge of God” that has been sought after and treasured by lovers of righteousness in all ages.—Prov. 2:5.
2. How did Moses, David, and Solomon evaluate godly wisdom?
2 One of these seekers of knowledge was Moses, the visible leader and organizer of God’s nation of Israel, who said that divine instruction was as refreshing “as the dew, as gentle rains upon grass and as copious showers upon vegetation.” Then there was David, valiant fighter and upholder of Jehovah’s name, who prayed: “Instruct me, O Jehovah, about your way. I shall walk in your truth.” There was peaceful Solomon, builder of one of the most glorious structures ever to stand on this earth, the house of Jehovah in Jerusalem, who evaluated godly wisdom in these words: “Having it as gain is better than having silver as gain and having it as produce than gold itself. It is more precious than corals, and all other delights of yours cannot be made equal to it.”—Deut. 32:2; Ps. 86:11; Prov. 3:14, 15.
3. What value do Jesus and God himself place on the divine word?
3 Jesus, the Son of God, set the highest value on God’s word, declaring, “Your word is truth.” To his followers he said: “If you remain in my word, you are really my disciples, and you will know the truth, and the truth will set you free.” (John 17:17; 8:31, 32) Powerful indeed is this word that Jesus received from his Father. It is God’s word. After his death and resurrection and his ascension to Jehovah’s own right hand in the heavens, Jesus made further revelation of his Father’s word, including a delightful description of God’s blessings for mankind in the Paradise earth. Following that, God instructed the apostle John: “Write, because these words are faithful and true.” All the words of the inspired Scriptures are “faithful and true,” bringing immeasurable benefits to those who heed them.—Rev. 21:5.
4. For what are the inspired Scriptures beneficial?
4 How do these benefits come about? The complete expression of the apostle Paul at 2 Timothy 3:16, 17 supplies the answer: “All Scripture is inspired of God and beneficial for teaching, for reproving, for setting things straight, for disciplining in righteousness, that the man of God may be fully competent, completely equipped for every good work.” The inspired Scriptures, then, are beneficial for teaching right doctrine and right conduct, setting things straight in our minds and lives, and reproving and disciplining us so that we may walk humbly in truth and righteousness. By submitting ourselves to the teaching of God’s Word, we may become “God’s fellow workers.” (1 Cor. 3:9) There is no greater privilege on earth today than for one to be busy in God’s work as the ‘fully competent and completely equipped man of God.’
FIRM FOUNDATION FOR FAITH
5. What is faith, and how only may it be obtained?
5 For one to be a fellow worker with God, faith is needed. Faith is not to be confused with the watered-down credulity that is so prevalent today. Many people think that any kind of belief—sectarian, evolutionary, or philosophical—is sufficient. However, the man of God must “keep holding the pattern of healthful words . . . with the faith and love that are in connection with Christ Jesus.” (2 Tim. 1:13) His faith must be real and alive, for “faith is the assured expectation of things hoped for, the evident demonstration of realities though not beheld.” It must be grounded in a firm belief in God and his rewards for those who please him. (Heb. 11:1, 6) This faith is to be obtained only through diligent study of God’s Word, the Bible. It is founded in deep love for the Bible and for the God of the Bible, Jehovah, and for his Son, Jesus Christ. There is only one such living faith, even as there is only one Lord, Jesus Christ, and one God and Father of all, Jehovah.—Eph. 4:5, 6.
6. True faith is of what quality?
6 We need to know what God’s Word is and where it came from as well as its authority and purpose and its power for righteousness. Gaining appreciation of its glorious message, we will have faith. Moreover, we shall come to love the Bible and its Author so fervently that nothing will ever be able to stifle that faith and love. It is the Scriptures, which include the sayings of Jesus Christ, that build a firm foundation for faith. True faith will be of the kind that will endure test and bitter trial, persecutions, and the materialistic advances and philosophies of a godless society. It will triumph gloriously right through into God’s new world of righteousness. “This is the conquest that has conquered the world, our faith.”—1 John 5:4.
7. What rewards come with the finding of Bible wisdom?
7 In order to gain and hold on to faith, we need to apply ourselves to building love and appreciation for God’s Word, the inspired Scriptures. The Scriptures are God’s incomparable gift to mankind, a storehouse of spiritual treasures whose depth of wisdom is unfathomable and whose power for enlightening and stimulating to righteousness exceeds that of all other books ever written. As we dig down to gain knowledge of God’s Word, we will be led to exclaim with the apostle Paul: “O the depth of God’s riches and wisdom and knowledge!” To know the inspired Scriptures and their Author is to enter into the pathway of eternal joy and pleasantness.—Rom. 11:33; Ps. 16:11.
JEHOVAH—A COMMUNICATING GOD
8. (a) Why should we be thankful that Jehovah is a communicating God? (b) In what way does he contrast with the demon gods?
8 In speaking of the glory of Jehovah’s name, David exclaimed: “You are great and are doing wondrous things; you are God, you alone.” (Ps. 86:10) Jehovah has done many “wondrous things” for mankind on earth, and among these is the communicating of his Word to them. Yes, Jehovah is a communicating God, a God who lovingly expresses himself for the benefit of his creatures. How thankful we should be that our Creator is no aloof potentate, shrouded in mysteries and unresponsive to the needs of lovers of righteousness on earth! As he will also do in the new world to come, Jehovah resides even now with those who exercise faith and love toward him, in the relation of a kind Father communicating good things to his inquiring children. (Rev. 21:3) Our heavenly Father is not like the demon gods, who must be represented by fearsome dumb idols. Gods of metal and stone have no fatherly relationship with their benighted worshipers. They can communicate nothing of benefit to them. Truly, “those making them will become just like them.”—Ps. 135:15-19; 1 Cor. 8:4-6.
9. What kind of communication has come from God in the realms above?
9 Jehovah is the “God merciful and gracious, slow to anger and abundant in loving-kindness and truth.” (Ex. 34:6) Out of the abundance of his loving-kindness, he has communicated an abundance of truth to mankind. This is all sound counsel for the guidance of mankind and includes prophecy to lighten one’s paths to future blessings. “For all the things that were written aforetime were written for our instruction, that through our endurance and through the comfort from the Scriptures we might have hope.” (Rom. 15:4) Out of the realms above, from heaven itself, has come reliable communication to instruct mankind, who are in the realms below.—John 8:23.
10. In what tongues has Jehovah made communication, and why?
10 Jehovah has never communicated in an unknown tongue but always in the language of mankind, the living tongue of his faithful witnesses. (Acts 2:5-11) To Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, and the Hebrew prophets, Jehovah spoke in mankind’s first language, now known as Hebrew. Hebrew continued to be used for as long as it could be understood, even as late as the time of Saul of Tarsus, to whom the resurrected Jesus spoke in that language. (Acts 26:14) When the Aramaic language of the Chaldeans took hold among the Israelites in exile, some communications then came from God in Aramaic, for the people understood that language. (Ezra 4:8–6:18; 7:12-26; Dan. 2:4b–7:28) Later, when Greek was the international language and the principal language of his witnesses, Jehovah’s communications were made and preserved in that tongue. The sayings preserved in the Bible are Jehovah’s communication, spoken always in a living tongue for the benefit of humble, truth-loving men on earth.
11. Why may it be said that Jehovah is the Former of all language?
11 Jehovah is the Creator of the mind and of the speech organs, including the tongue, mouth, and throat, which form all the intricacies of speech sounds for each of the many systems of language. Thus, it may be said that Jehovah is the Former of all language. His authority over the language of mankind was demonstrated by his miracle performed at the Tower of Babel. (Ex. 4:11; Gen. 11:6-9; 10:5; 1 Cor. 13:1) No language is strange to Jehovah. Not only did he give man the original Hebrew language but, by his creation of the mind and the speech organs, he also provided the basis for Aramaic and Greek and for all of the some 3,000 languages now being spoken by mankind.
THE LANGUAGE OF TRUTH
12, 13. (a) How has Jehovah made his communications easy to understand? (b) Give examples.
12 Regardless of the system of human language used by Jehovah, in all instances he has communicated in the language of truth, not in religious mysticisms. It is a language simple and easy to understand. (Zeph. 3:9) Earthly man can easily understand three-dimensional matters, that is, objects that have height, breadth, and length and that are set in the stream of time. Therefore, Jehovah has represented invisible things by using typical representations that the mind of man can comprehend. As an example, there was the tabernacle designed by God and erected by Moses in the wilderness. Under inspiration Paul used its three-dimensional symbols to explain glorious realities that are of heaven itself.—Heb. 8:5; 9:9.
13 Another example: Jehovah, who is spirit, does not literally sit on a thronelike chair in heaven. However, to us mere men, bound by visible realities, God expresses himself by using such a visible symbol to convey understanding. When he commences heavenly court proceedings, it is just as when a king on earth begins proceedings by taking his seat on a throne.—Dan. 7:9-14.
14, 15. Why is the Bible, in contrast with human philosophical writings, easily translatable into other tongues? Illustrate.
14 Since the Bible has been written in these down-to-earth, easily understandable terms, it is possible to translate its symbols and actions clearly and accurately into most modern-day languages. The original power and force of truth are preserved in all translations. Simple everyday words, such as “horse,” “war,” “crown,” “throne,” “husband,” “wife,” and “children,” communicate accurate thought clearly in every language. This is in contrast with human philosophical writings, which often do not lend themselves to accurate translation. Their complicated expressions and up-in-the-air terminology often cannot be conveyed precisely in another tongue.
15 The Bible’s power of expression is far superior. Even when God communicated judgment messages to nonbelievers, he did not use philosophical language but, rather, everyday symbols. This is shown at Daniel 4:10-12. Here the kingdom of the self-glorifying pagan king was described in some detail under the symbol of a tree, and then, by means of actions involving this tree, future happenings were accurately foretold. All of this is clearly conveyed in translations into other languages. Jehovah has lovingly made communications in this way in order that “the true knowledge will become abundant.” How wonderfully this has aided in the understanding of prophecy in this “time of the end”!—Dan. 12:4.
LINE OF COMMUNICATION
16. How may Jehovah’s channel of communication be outlined?
16 Someone may ask, What has been the means of communication? This may well be illustrated by a modern-day example. Communications lines have (1) the utterer, or originator, of the message; (2) the transmitter; (3) the medium through which the message passes; (4) the receiver; and (5) the hearer. In telephone communications we have (1) the telephone user originating the communication; (2) the telephone transmitter, which converts the message into electrical impulses; (3) the telephone lines carrying the electrical impulses to the destination; (4) the receiver reconverting the message from impulses to sounds; and (5) the hearer. Likewise in heaven (1) Jehovah God originates his utterances; (2) then his official Word, or Spokesman—now known as Jesus Christ—often transmits the message; (3) God’s holy spirit, the active force that is used as the medium of communication, carries it earthward; (4) God’s prophet on earth receives the message; and (5) he then publishes it for the benefit of God’s people. Just as on occasion today a courier may be sent to deliver an important message, so Jehovah at times chose to use spirit messengers, or angels, to carry some communications from the heavens to his servants on the earth.—Gal. 3:19; Heb. 2:2.
PROCESS OF INSPIRATION
17. What Greek word is translated “inspired of God,” and how does its meaning help us to understand the process of inspiration?
17 The expression “inspired of God” is translated from the Greek the·oʹpneu·stos, meaning “God-breathed.” (See 2 Timothy 3:16, first footnote.) It is God’s own spirit, his active force, that he has ‘breathed’ on faithful men, causing them to compile and write the Sacred Scriptures. This process is known as inspiration. The prophets and other faithful servants of Jehovah who became subject to inspiration had their minds borne along by means of this active force. This means that they received messages, including pictures of purpose, from God and that these became firmly fixed in the circuits of their minds. “For prophecy was at no time brought by man’s will, but men spoke from God as they were borne along by holy spirit.”—2 Pet. 1:21; John 20:21, 22.
18. How deeply were the inspired messages impressed on their human receivers?
18 While these men of God were awake and fully conscious or while they were asleep in a dream, his spirit firmly implanted the message emanating from the divine origin of the line of communication. Upon receiving the message, the prophet had the responsibility of relaying it in word form to others. When Moses and other faithful prophets return in the resurrection, they will no doubt be able to confirm the accuracy of the preserved records of their writings, for their appreciative re-created minds will likely still hold the original communications clearly in memory. In like manner, the apostle Peter was so deeply impressed by the vision of the transfiguration that he could write vividly concerning its magnificence more than 30 years later.—Matt. 17:1-9; 2 Pet. 1:16-21.
THE AUTHOR AND HIS FINGER
19. What is God’s “finger,” as proved by what scriptures?
19 Human authors have used fingers to write, in ancient times by means of a pen or stylus and in modern times by means of a pen, typewriter, or computer. What has been produced through these fingers is said to have been authored by the mind of their owner. Did you know that God has a finger? This is so, for Jesus spoke of God’s spirit as His “finger.” When Jesus cured a demon-possessed man so that he regained his power of speech and his sight, religious foes blasphemed the means by which Jesus had cured the man. According to Matthew, Jesus said to them: “If it is by means of God’s spirit that I expel the demons, the kingdom of God has really overtaken you.” (Matt. 12:22, 28) Luke adds to our understanding by quoting Jesus as saying on a like occasion: “If it is by means of God’s finger I expel the demons, the kingdom of God has really overtaken you.” (Luke 11:20) On an earlier occasion, the magic-practicing priests of Egypt were forced to admit that the plagues on Egypt were an exhibition of Jehovah’s superior power, acknowledging: “It is the finger of God!”—Ex. 8:18, 19.
20. How has God’s “finger” operated, and with what result?
20 In harmony with these uses of the word “finger,” it can be appreciated that “God’s finger” has great power and that this designation well applies to his spirit as he used it in the writing of the Bible. So the Scriptures inform us that by means of “God’s finger,” he wrote the Ten Commandments on the two tablets of stone. (Ex. 31:18; Deut. 9:10) When God used men to write the various books of the Holy Bible, his symbolic finger, or spirit, was likewise the directive force behind the pen of those men. God’s holy spirit is unseen, but it has been active in a marvelous way, with the visible, tangible result that mankind has received the treasured gift of God’s Word of truth, His Bible. There is no question that the Bible’s Author is Jehovah God, the heavenly Communicator.
THE INSPIRED COLLECTION BEGINS
21. (a) How did the writing of the Scriptures commence? (b) In what way did Jehovah provide for their preservation?
21 As has been seen, Jehovah “proceeded to give Moses two tablets of the Testimony, tablets of stone written on by God’s finger.” (Ex. 31:18) This writing comprised the Ten Commandments, and it is of interest that this document officially presents the divine name, Jehovah, eight times. In the same year, 1513 B.C.E., Jehovah commanded Moses to start making permanent records. So began the writing of the Sacred Scriptures. (Ex. 17:14; 34:27) God also commanded Moses to construct “the ark of the testimony,” or “the ark of the covenant,” a chest of beautiful workmanship in which the Israelites were to preserve this most treasured communication. (Ex. 25:10-22; 1 Ki. 8:6, 9) The design of the Ark, and of the tabernacle that housed it, was supplied by Jehovah; and the chief artisan and builder, Bezalel, was filled “with the spirit of God in wisdom, in understanding and in knowledge and in every sort of craftsmanship” in order to complete his work according to the divine pattern.—Ex. 35:30-35.
22. (a) Who is the Author of the inspired Scriptures, and how long did the writing take? (b) Who were the cowriters of the Bible, and what is known about them?
22 In making known his purposes, God “spoke on many occasions and in many ways” over a long period of time. (Heb. 1:1) The penmen who wrote down his Word did so from 1513 B.C.E. to about 98 C.E., or during about 1,610 years. The one Author, Jehovah God, used about 40 of these scribes, or human secretaries. All these cowriters were Hebrews and thus members of the nation “entrusted with the sacred pronouncements of God.” (Rom. 3:2) Eight of them were Christian Jews who knew Jesus either personally or through his apostles. The inspired Scriptures written before their time had borne witness concerning the coming of the Messiah, or Christ. (1 Pet. 1:10, 11) Although called from many walks of life, these earthly Bible writers, from Moses to the apostle John, all shared in upholding the sovereignty of Jehovah God and proclaiming his purposes in the earth. They wrote in Jehovah’s name and by the power of his spirit.—Jer. 2:2, 4; Ezek. 6:3; 2 Sam. 23:2; Acts 1:16; Rev. 1:10.
23. What earlier records did some Bible writers use, and how did these become inspired Scripture?
23 Several of these writers include in their records compilations from eyewitness documents made by earlier writers, not all of whom were inspired. Moses, for example, may have compiled parts of Genesis from such eyewitness accounts, as Samuel may have done in writing the book of Judges. Jeremiah compiled First and Second Kings, and Ezra wrote First and Second Chronicles, largely in this way. The holy spirit guided these compilers in determining which portions of older human documents should be incorporated, thus authenticating these compilations as being reliable. From the time of their compilation forward, these extracts from older documents became part of the inspired Scriptures.—Gen. 2:4; 5:1; 2 Ki. 1:18; 2 Chron. 16:11.
24, 25. (a) What period of history is covered in the Bible? (b) Point out some interesting facts found in the chart on page 12.
24 In what order did the 66 Bible books come to us? What part of the endless stream of time do they cover? After describing the creation of the heavens and the earth and the preparation of the earth as man’s home, the Genesis account takes up the beginnings of human history from the creation of the first man in 4026 B.C.E. The Sacred Writings then narrate important events down until shortly after 443 B.C.E. Then, after a gap of more than 400 years, they pick up the account again in 3 B.C.E., taking it on to about 98 C.E. Thus, from a historical viewpoint, the Scriptures span a period of 4,123 years.
25 The chart on page 12 will assist in the understanding of the background of the Bible writers and the sequence in which the Bible writings came to us.
THE COMPLETE “BOOK” OF DIVINE TRUTH
26. In what way are the Scriptures one complete book?
26 The Sacred Scriptures, as a collection from Genesis to Revelation, form one complete book, one complete library, all inspired by the one Supreme Author. They should not be divided into two parts, so that one part is given less value. The Hebrew Scriptures and the Christian Greek Scriptures are essential to each other. The latter supplements the former to make the one complete book of divine truth. The 66 Bible books, all together, form the one library of the Holy Scriptures.—Rom. 15:4.
27. Why are the expressions “Old Testament” and “New Testament” misnomers?
27 It is a mistake of tradition to divide God’s written Word into two sections, calling the first section, from Genesis to Malachi, the “Old Testament,” and the second section, from Matthew to Revelation, the “New Testament.” At 2 Corinthians 3:14 the popular King James Version tells of the “reading of the old testament,” but here the apostle is not referring to the ancient Hebrew Scriptures in their entirety. Nor does he mean that the inspired Christian writings constitute a “new testament [covenant].” The apostle is speaking of the Law covenant, which was recorded by Moses in the Pentateuch and which makes up only a part of the pre-Christian Scriptures. For this reason he says in the next verse, “when Moses is read.” The Greek word rendered “testament” in the King James Version has uniformly been rendered “covenant” in many modern translations.—Matt. 26:28; 2 Cor. 3:6, 14, New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures, Revised Standard Version, American Standard Version.
28. What assurance is given as to Bible prophecies?
28 That which has been recorded and preserved as the Holy Scriptures is not to be tampered with. (Deut. 4:1, 2; Rev. 22:18, 19) The apostle Paul writes on this point: “However, even if we or an angel out of heaven were to declare to you as good news something beyond what we declared to you as good news, let him be accursed.” (Gal. 1:8; see also John 10:35.) All of Jehovah’s word of prophecy must be fulfilled in due course. “So my word that goes forth from my mouth will prove to be. It will not return to me without results, but it will certainly do that in which I have delighted, and it will have certain success in that for which I have sent it.”—Isa. 55:11.
EXAMINING THE SCRIPTURES
29. In this book, as each Bible book is examined in turn, what introductory information is provided?
29 In the following pages, the 66 books of the Sacred Scriptures are examined in turn. The setting of each book is described, and information is given concerning the writer, the time of writing, and in some cases the period covered. Proof is also presented to show that the book is authentic and that it rightly belongs as part of the inspired Scriptures. This proof may be found in the words of Jesus Christ or in the inspired writings of other servants of God. Very often the authenticity of the book is shown by undeniable fulfillments of Bible prophecy or by internal evidence from the book itself, such as its harmony, honesty, and candor. Supporting evidence may be taken from archaeological finds or reliable secular history.
30. In what way are the contents of each Bible book presented?
30 As the contents of each book are described, the endeavor is to make the powerful message of the Bible writer stand out in such a way as to instill in the heart of the reader a deep love for the inspired Scriptures and their Author, Jehovah God, and thus to enhance appreciation for the living message of God’s Word with all its practicalness, harmony, and beauty. The contents of the book are set out under paragraph subheadings. This is for convenience in study and does not mean that these are arbitrary subdivisions for the books of the Bible. Each book is in itself an entity, making a valuable contribution to the understanding of the divine purposes.
31. (a) What information is presented to show why each book is beneficial? (b) What glorious theme is kept to the fore throughout the discussions of Bible books?
31 In concluding each book, the discussion points out why this portion of the inspired Scriptures is “beneficial for teaching, for reproving, for setting things straight, for disciplining in righteousness.” (2 Tim. 3:16) The fulfillments of prophecy, where these are indicated by the inspired testimony of later Bible writers, are considered. In each instance, the book’s contribution to developing the overall theme of the Bible is shown. The Bible is no myth. It contains the only living message for mankind. From the first book, Genesis, to the last book, Revelation, the inspired Scriptures testify to the purpose of the Creator of the universe, Jehovah God, to sanctify his name by the Kingdom ruled by his Seed. Therein lies the glorious hope for all lovers of righteousness.—Matt. 12:18, 21.
32. What information is provided to heighten appreciation for the Bible?
32 After considering the 66 Bible books themselves, we devote some space to giving background information on the Bible. This includes studies on the geography of the Promised Land, the timing of the events of the Bible, Bible translations, archaeological and other supporting evidences of the authenticity of the Bible, and proof of the Bible catalog. Other valuable information and tables also appear in this section. All of this is designed to heighten appreciation for the Bible as the most practical and beneficial book on earth today.
33. How might the Bible be described, and of what benefit is a study of it?
33 The divine Author has spoken to mankind at great length. He has shown great depth of love and fatherly interest in what he has done for his children on earth. What a remarkable collection of inspired documents he has provided for us in the Holy Scriptures! Truly, these form a treasure beyond compare, an extensive library of ‘divinely breathed’ information, far exceeding in wealth and in scope the writings of mere men. Devotion to the study of God’s Word will not become “wearisome to the flesh,” but, rather, it will bring eternal benefits to those knowing “the saying of Jehovah [that] endures forever.”—Eccl. 12:12; 1 Pet. 1:24, 25.
[Chart on page 12]
THE BIBLE’S INSPIRED PENMEN AND THEIR WRITINGS
(In Date Order)
Order Writers Occupations Writings Writings
1. Moses Scholar, 1473 B.C.E. Genesis; Exodus;
shepherd, Leviticus; Job;
(possibly also 91)
2. Joshua Leader c. 1450 B.C.E. Joshua
3. Samuel Levite, before Judges; Ruth;
prophet c. 1080 B.C.E. part of First
4. Gad Prophet c. 1040 B.C.E. Part of First
Samuel (both with
5. Nathan Prophet c. 1040 B.C.E. See above (with Gad)
6. David King, 1037 B.C.E. Many of the Psalms
7. Sons of Some of the Psalms
8. Asaph Singer Some of the Psalms
9. Heman Wise man Psalm 88
10. Ethan Wise man Psalm 89
11. Solomon King, c. 1000 B.C.E. Most of Proverbs;
builder, The Song of Solomon;
wise man Ecclesiastes;
12. Agur Proverbs chapter 30
13. Lemuel King Proverbs chapter 31
14. Jonah Prophet c. 844 B.C.E. Jonah
15. Joel Prophet c. 820 B.C.E.(?) Joel
16. Amos Herdsman, c. 804 B.C.E. Amos
17. Hosea Prophet after 745 B.C.E. Hosea
18. Isaiah Prophet after 732 B.C.E. Isaiah
19. Micah Prophet before Micah
20. Zephaniah Prince, before Zephaniah
prophet 648 B.C.E.
21. Nahum Prophet before Nahum
22. Habakkuk Prophet c. 628 B.C.E.(?) Habakkuk
23. Obadiah Prophet c. 607 B.C.E. Obadiah
24. Ezekiel Priest, c. 591 B.C.E. Ezekiel
25. Jeremiah Priest, 580 B.C.E. First and Second
prophet Kings; Jeremiah;
26. Daniel Prince, c. 536 B.C.E. Daniel
27. Haggai Prophet 520 B.C.E. Haggai
28. Zechariah Prophet 518 B.C.E. Zechariah
29. Mordecai Prime c. 475 B.C.E. Esther
30. Ezra Priest, c. 460 B.C.E. First and Second
copyist, Chronicles; Ezra
31. Nehemiah Court after 443 B.C.E. Nehemiah
32. Malachi Prophet after 443 B.C.E. Malachi
33. Matthew Tax c. 41 C.E. Matthew
34. Luke Physician, c. 61 C.E. Luke; Acts
35. James Overseer before 62 C.E. James
36. Mark Missionary c. 60-65 C.E. Mark
37. Peter Fisherman, c. 64 C.E. First and Second
38. Paul Missionary, c. 65 C.E. First and Second
tentmaker Galatians; First
First and Second
39. Jude Disciple c. 65 C.E. Jude
40. John Fisherman, c. 98 C.E. Revelation; John;
apostle First, Second, and