Bible Book Number 2—Exodus
Place Written: Wilderness
Writing Completed: 1512 B.C.E.
Time Covered: 1657-1512 B.C.E.
1. (a) What are the highlights of Exodus? (b) What names have been given Exodus, and of what account is it a continuation?
THE soul-stirring accounts of momentous signs and miracles that Jehovah performed in delivering his name people from the afflictions of Egypt, his organizing of Israel as his special property as “a kingdom of priests and a holy nation,” and the beginning of Israel’s history as a theocratic nation—these are the highlights of the Bible book of Exodus. (Ex. 19:6) In Hebrew it is called Weʼelʹleh shemohthʹ, meaning “Now these are the names,” or simply Shemohthʹ, “Names,” according to its first words. The modern-day name comes from the Greek Septuagint, where it is called Eʹxo·dos, which has been Latinized to Exodus, meaning “Going Forth” or “Departure.” That Exodus is a continuation of the account in Genesis is shown by the opening word, “Now” (literally, “And”), and by the relisting of the names of Jacob’s sons, as taken from the fuller record of Genesis 46:8-27.
2. What does Exodus reveal concerning the name JEHOVAH?
2 The book of Exodus reveals God’s magnificent name, JEHOVAH, in all the brilliance of its glory and sanctity. As he proceeded to demonstrate the depth of meaning of his name, God told Moses, “I SHALL PROVE TO BE WHAT I SHALL PROVE TO BE,” and added that he should tell Israel, “I SHALL PROVE TO BE [Hebrew: אהיה, ʼEh·yehʹ, from the Hebrew verb ha·yahʹ] has sent me to you.” The name JEHOVAH (יהוה, YHWH) comes from the kindred Hebrew verb ha·wahʹ, “become,” and actually means “He Causes to Become.” Certainly Jehovah’s mighty and fearsome acts that he now proceeded to bring to pass in behalf of his people, Israel, magnified and clothed that name in a resplendent glory, making it a memorial “to generation after generation,” the name to be revered for an eternity of time. It is of all things most beneficial that we know the wonderful history surrounding that name and that we worship the only true God, the One who declares, “I am Jehovah.”a—Ex. 3:14, 15; 6:6.
3. (a) How do we know that Moses was the writer of Exodus? (b) When was Exodus written, and what period does it cover?
3 Moses is the writer of Exodus, as is indicated by its being the second volume of the Pentateuch. The book itself registers three instances of Moses’ making a written record at the direction of Jehovah. (17:14; 24:4; 34:27) According to Bible scholars Westcott and Hort, Jesus and the writers of the Christian Greek Scriptures quote or refer to Exodus more than 100 times, as when Jesus said: “Moses gave you the Law, did he not?” Exodus was written in the wilderness of Sinai, in the year 1512 B.C.E., a year after the sons of Israel had left Egypt. It covers a period of 145 years, from the death of Joseph in 1657 B.C.E. to the erection of the tabernacle of Jehovah’s worship in 1512 B.C.E.—John 7:19; Ex. 1:6; 40:17.
4, 5. What archaeological evidence supports the Exodus account?
4 Considering that the events of Exodus occurred about 3,500 years ago, there is a surprising amount of archaeological and other external evidence testifying to the accuracy of the record. Egyptian names are correctly used in Exodus, and titles mentioned correspond to Egyptian inscriptions. Archaeology shows that it was a custom of the Egyptians to allow foreigners to live in Egypt but to keep separate from them. The waters of the Nile were used for bathing, which calls to mind that Pharaoh’s daughter bathed there. Bricks have been found made with and without straw. Also, in Egypt’s heyday magicians were prominent.—Ex. 8:22; 2:5; 5:6, 7, 18; 7:11.
5 Monuments show that the Pharaohs personally led their charioteers into battle, and Exodus indicates that the Pharaoh of Moses’ day followed this custom. How great must have been his humiliation! But how is it that ancient Egyptian records make no reference to the Israelites’ sojourn in their land or to the calamity that befell Egypt? Archaeology has shown that it was the custom for a new Egyptian dynasty to erase anything uncomplimentary in previous records. They never recorded humiliating defeats. The blows against the gods of Egypt—such as the Nile god, the frog god, and the sun god—which discredited these false gods and showed Jehovah to be supreme, would not be suited to the annals of a proud nation.—14:7-10; 15:4.b
6. With what locations are the Israelites’ early encampments generally identified?
6 Moses’ 40 years of service as a shepherd under Jethro acquainted him with living conditions and locations of water and food in the area, thus well qualifying him to lead the Exodus. The exact route of the Exodus cannot be traced with certainty today, since the various sites mentioned in the account cannot be definitely located. However, Marah, one of the early encampments in the Sinai Peninsula, is usually identified with ʽEin Hawwara, 50 miles [80 km] SSE of modern Suez. Elim, the second encampment location, is traditionally identified with Wadi Gharandel, about 55 miles [88 km] SSE of Suez. Interestingly, this modern site is known as a watering place with vegetation and palms, calling to mind the Biblical Elim, which had “twelve springs of water and seventy palm trees.”c The authenticity of Moses’ account, however, is not dependent upon archaeologists’ corroboration of the various sites along the way.—15:23, 27.
7. What other evidence, including the tabernacle construction, confirms Exodus as inspired?
7 The account of the construction of the tabernacle on the plains before Sinai fits in with local conditions. One scholar stated: “In form, structure, and materials, the tabernacle belongs altogether to the wilderness. The wood used in the structure is found there in abundance.”d Whether it is in the field of names, customs, religion, places, geography, or materials, the accumulation of external evidence confirms the inspired Exodus account, now about 3,500 years old.
8. How is Exodus shown to be interwoven with the rest of the Scriptures as inspired and beneficial?
8 Other Bible writers referred to Exodus constantly, showing its prophetic significance and value. Over 900 years later, Jeremiah wrote of “the true God, the great One, the mighty One, Jehovah of armies being his name,” who proceeded to bring his people, Israel, out of Egypt “with signs and with miracles and with a strong hand and with a stretched-out arm and with great fearsomeness.” (Jer. 32:18-21) More than 1,500 years later, Stephen based much of the stirring testimony that led to his martyrdom on the information in Exodus. (Acts 7:17-44) The life of Moses is cited for us as an example of faith at Hebrews 11:23-29, and Paul makes other frequent references to Exodus in setting forth examples and warnings for us today. (Acts 13:17; 1 Cor. 10:1-4, 11, 12; 2 Cor. 3:7-16) All of this helps us to appreciate how the parts of the Bible are interwoven one with another, each portion sharing in the revelation of Jehovah’s purpose in a way that is beneficial.
CONTENTS OF EXODUS
9. Under what circumstances is Moses born and reared?
9 Jehovah commissions Moses, emphasizing His own Memorial Name (1:1–4:31). After naming the sons of Israel who have come down into Egypt, Exodus next records the death of Joseph. In time a new king arises over Egypt. When he sees that the Israelites keep on “multiplying and growing mightier at a very extraordinary rate,” he adopts repressive measures, including forced labor, and tries to reduce Israel’s male population by ordering the destruction of all newborn male children. (1:7) It is under these circumstances that a son is born to an Israelite of the house of Levi. This child is the third in the family. When he is three months old, his mother hides him in a papyrus ark among the reeds by the bank of the Nile River. He is found by the daughter of Pharaoh, who likes the boy and adopts him. His own mother becomes his nursemaid, and as a result, he grows up in an Israelite home. Later on he is brought to Pharaoh’s court. He is named Moses, meaning “Drawn Out [that is, saved out of water].”—Ex. 2:10; Acts 7:17-22.
10. What events lead to Moses’ being commissioned for special service?
10 This Moses is interested in the welfare of his fellow Israelites. He kills an Egyptian for mistreating an Israelite. As a result, he has to flee, and so he comes into the land of Midian. There he marries Zipporah the daughter of Jethro, the priest of Midian. In time Moses becomes father to two sons, Gershom and Eliezer. Then, at the age of 80, after he has spent 40 years in the wilderness, Moses is commissioned by Jehovah for a special service in sanctification of Jehovah’s name. One day while shepherding Jethro’s flock near Horeb, “the mountain of the true God,” Moses sees a thornbush that is aflame but is not consumed. When he goes to investigate, he is addressed by an angel of Jehovah, who tells him of God’s purpose to bring His people “the sons of Israel out of Egypt.” (Ex. 3:1, 10) Moses is to be used as Jehovah’s instrument in freeing Israel from Egyptian bondage.—Acts 7:23-35.
11. In what special sense does Jehovah now make known his name?
11 Moses then asks how he is to identify God to the sons of Israel. It is here, for the first time, that Jehovah makes known the real meaning of his name, associating it with his specific purpose and establishing it as a memorial. “This is what you are to say to the sons of Israel, ‘I SHALL PROVE TO BE has sent me to you . . . Jehovah the God of your forefathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob, has sent me to you.’” His name, Jehovah, identifies him as the one who will cause his purposes in connection with his name people to come to pass. To this people, the descendants of Abraham, he will give the land promised to their forefathers, “a land flowing with milk and honey.”—Ex. 3:14, 15, 17.
12. What does Jehovah explain to Moses as to freeing the Israelites, and how do the people accept the signs?
12 Jehovah explains to Moses that the king of Egypt will not let the Israelites go free but that He will first have to strike Egypt with all His wonderful acts. Moses’ brother, Aaron, is given to him as spokesman, and they receive three signs to perform to convince the Israelites that they come in the name of Jehovah. While on the way to Egypt, Moses’ son has to be circumcised to prevent a death in the family, reminding Moses of God’s requirements. (Gen. 17:14) Moses and Aaron gather the older men of the sons of Israel and inform them of Jehovah’s purpose to bring them out of Egypt and to take them to the Promised Land. They perform the signs, and the people believe.
13. What results from Moses’ first encounter with Pharaoh?
13 The blows on Egypt (5:1–10:29). Moses and Aaron now go in to Pharaoh and announce that Jehovah, the God of Israel, has said: “Send my people away.” In a scornful tone, proud Pharaoh replies: “Who is Jehovah, so that I should obey his voice to send Israel away? I do not know Jehovah at all and, what is more, I am not going to send Israel away.” (5:1, 2) Instead of freeing the Israelites, he imposes harder tasks on them. However, Jehovah renews his promises of deliverance, again tying this in with the sanctification of his name: “I am Jehovah . . . I shall indeed prove to be God to you . . . I am Jehovah.”—6:6-8.
14. How are the Egyptians compelled to recognize “the finger of God”?
14 The sign Moses performs before Pharaoh, by having Aaron throw down his rod to become a big snake, is imitated by the magic-practicing priests of Egypt. Although their snakes are swallowed up by Aaron’s big snake, still Pharaoh’s heart becomes obstinate. Jehovah now proceeds to bring ten successive heavy blows upon Egypt. First, their river Nile and all the waters of Egypt turn to blood. Then a plague of frogs comes upon them. These two blows are imitated by the magic-practicing priests, but the third blow, that of gnats on man and beast, is not. The priests of Egypt have to recognize that this is “the finger of God.” However, Pharaoh will not send Israel away.—8:19.
15. Which blows afflict only the Egyptians, and why only does Jehovah permit Pharaoh to continue?
15 The first three blows come upon Egyptians and Israelites alike, but from the fourth one on, only the Egyptians are afflicted, Israel standing distinct under Jehovah’s protection. The fourth blow is heavy swarms of gadflies. Then comes pestilence upon all the livestock of Egypt, followed by boils with blisters on man and beast, so that even the magic-practicing priests are unable to stand before Moses. Jehovah again lets Pharaoh’s heart become obstinate, declaring to him through Moses: “But, in fact, for this cause I have kept you in existence, for the sake of showing you my power and in order to have my name declared in all the earth.” (9:16) Moses then announces to Pharaoh the next blow, “a very heavy hail,” and here the Bible registers for the first time that some among Pharaoh’s servants fear Jehovah’s word and act on it. The eighth and ninth blows—an invasion of locusts and a gloomy darkness—follow in quick succession, and the obstinate, enraged Pharaoh threatens Moses with death if he tries to see his face again.—9:18.
16. What does Jehovah command concerning the Passover and the Feast of Unfermented Cakes?
16 The Passover and striking of the firstborn (11:1–13:16). Jehovah now declares, “One plague more I am going to bring upon Pharaoh and Egypt”—the death of the firstborn. (11:1) He orders that the month of Abib be the first of the months for Israel. On the 10th day, they are to take a sheep or a goat—a male, one year old, unblemished—and on the 14th day, they are to kill it. On that evening they must take the blood of the animal and splash it on the two doorposts and the upper part of the doorway, and then they must stay inside the house and eat the roasted animal, of which not one bone is to be broken. There is to be no leaven in the house, and they must eat in haste, dressed and equipped for marching. The Passover is to serve as a memorial, a festival to Jehovah throughout their generations. It is to be followed by the seven-day Feast of Unfermented Cakes. Their sons must be fully instructed in the meaning of all of this. (Later, Jehovah gives further instructions concerning these feasts, and he commands that all firstborn males belonging to Israel, both men and beasts, must be sanctified to him.)
17. What events mark this as a night to be memorialized?
17 Israel does as Jehovah commands. Then disaster strikes! At midnight Jehovah kills all the firstborn of Egypt, while passing over and delivering the firstborn of Israel. “Get out from the midst of my people,” shouts Pharaoh. And ‘the Egyptians begin to urge the people’ to get away quickly. (12:31, 33) The Israelites do not leave empty-handed, for they ask for and receive from the Egyptians articles of silver and of gold and clothing. They march out of Egypt in battle formation, to the number of 600,000 able-bodied men, together with their families and a vast mixed company of non-Israelites, as well as a numerous stock of animals. This marks the end of 430 years from Abraham’s crossing of the Euphrates to enter the land of Canaan. This is indeed a night to be memorialized.—Ex. 12:40, second footnote; Gal. 3:17.
18. What climactic sanctification of Jehovah’s name takes place at the Red Sea?
18 Jehovah’s name sanctified at the Red Sea (13:17–15:21). Guiding them by day in a pillar of cloud and by night in a pillar of fire, Jehovah leads Israel out by way of Succoth. Again Pharaoh grows obstinate, chasing them with his chosen chariots of war and trapping them, so he thinks, at the Red Sea. Moses reassures the people, saying: “Do not be afraid. Stand firm and see the salvation of Jehovah, which he will perform for you today.” (14:13) Jehovah then makes the sea go back, forming an escape corridor through which Moses leads the Israelites safely to the eastern shore. Pharaoh’s mighty hosts rush in after them, only to be trapped and drowned in the returning waters. What a climactic sanctification of Jehovah’s name! What grand cause for rejoicing in him! That rejoicing is then expressed in the Bible’s first great song of victory: “Let me sing to Jehovah, for he has become highly exalted. The horse and its rider he has pitched into the sea. My strength and my might is Jah, since he serves for my salvation. . . . Jehovah will rule as king to time indefinite, even forever.” —15:1, 2, 18.
19. What events mark the journey toward Sinai?
19 Jehovah makes Law covenant at Sinai (15:22–34:35). In successive stages, as guided by Jehovah, Israel travels toward Sinai, the mountain of the true God. When the people murmur about the bitter water at Marah, Jehovah makes it sweet for them. Again, when they murmur about the lack of meat and bread, he provides them quail in the evening and the sweetish manna, like dew on the ground, in the morning. This manna is to serve as bread for the Israelites for the next 40 years. Also, for the first time in history, Jehovah orders the observance of a rest day, or sabbath, having the Israelites pick up twice the quantity of manna on the sixth day and withholding the supply on the seventh. He also produces water for them at Rephidim and fights for them against Amalek, having Moses record His judgment that Amalek will be completely wiped out.
20. How is better organization effected?
20 Moses’ father-in-law, Jethro, then brings him his wife and two sons. The time has now come for better organization in Israel, and Jethro contributes some good practical counsel. He advises Moses not to carry the whole load himself but to appoint capable, God-fearing men to judge the people as chiefs of thousands, hundreds, fifties, and tens. Moses does this, so that now only the difficult cases come to him.
21. What promise does Jehovah next make, but on what conditions?
21 Within three months after the Exodus, Israel camps in the wilderness of Sinai. Jehovah here promises: “And now if you will strictly obey my voice and will indeed keep my covenant, then you will certainly become my special property out of all other peoples, because the whole earth belongs to me. And you yourselves will become to me a kingdom of priests and a holy nation.” The people vow: “All that Jehovah has spoken we are willing to do.” (19:5, 6, 8) Following a period of sanctification for Israel, Jehovah comes down on the third day upon the mountain, causing it to smoke and tremble.
22. (a) What commandments are contained in the Ten Words? (b) What other judicial decisions are set before Israel, and how is the nation taken into the Law covenant?
22 Jehovah then proceeds to give the Ten Words, or Ten Commandments. These stress exclusive devotion to Jehovah, while forbidding other gods, image worship, and the taking up of Jehovah’s name in a worthless way. The Israelites are commanded to render service six days and then to keep a sabbath to Jehovah, and to honor father and mother. Laws against murder, adultery, stealing, testifying falsely, and covetousness complete the Ten Words. Then Jehovah goes on to set judicial decisions before them, instructions for the new nation, covering slavery, assault, injuries, compensation, theft, damage from fire, false worship, seduction, mistreatment of widows and orphans, loans, and many other matters. Sabbath laws are given, and three annual festivals are arranged for the worship of Jehovah. Moses then writes down the words of Jehovah, sacrifices are offered, and half the blood is sprinkled on the altar. The book of the covenant is read to the people, and after they again attest their willingness to obey, the rest of the blood is sprinkled on the book and on all the people. Thus Jehovah makes the Law covenant with Israel through the mediator, Moses.—Heb. 9:19, 20.
23. What instructions does Jehovah provide Moses in the mountain?
23 Moses then goes up to Jehovah in the mountain to receive the Law. For 40 days and nights, he is given many instructions concerning the materials for the tabernacle, the details of its furnishings, minute specifications for the tabernacle itself, and the design for the priestly garments, including the plate of pure gold, inscribed “Holiness belongs to Jehovah,” on Aaron’s turban. The installation and service of the priesthood are detailed, and Moses is reminded that the Sabbath will be a sign between Jehovah and the sons of Israel “to time indefinite.” Moses is then given the two tablets of the Testimony written on by the ‘finger of God.’—Ex. 28:36; 31:17, 18.
24. (a) What sin do the people commit, and with what result? (b) How does Jehovah next reveal his name and glory to Moses?
24 In the meantime the people become impatient and ask Aaron to make a god to go ahead of them. Aaron does this, forming a golden calf, which the people worship in what he calls “a festival to Jehovah.” (32:5) Jehovah speaks of exterminating Israel, but Moses intercedes for them, though he shatters the tablets in his own blazing anger. The sons of Levi now stand up on the side of pure worship, slaughtering 3,000 of the revelers. Jehovah also plagues them. After Moses implores God to continue leading his people, he is told he may glimpse the glory of God and is instructed to carve two additional tablets on which Jehovah will again write the Ten Words. When Moses goes up into the mountain the second time, Jehovah proceeds to declare to him the name of Jehovah as He goes passing by: “Jehovah, Jehovah, a God merciful and gracious, slow to anger and abundant in loving-kindness and truth, preserving loving-kindness for thousands.” (34:6, 7) Then he states the terms of his covenant, and Moses writes it down as we have it today in Exodus. When Moses comes down from Mount Sinai, the skin of his face emits rays because of Jehovah’s revealed glory. As a result, he has to put a veil over his face.—2 Cor. 3:7-11.
25. What does the record relate concerning the tabernacle and the further manifestation of Jehovah’s glory?
25 Construction of the tabernacle (35:1–40:38). Moses then calls Israel together and transmits Jehovah’s words to them, telling them that the willinghearted have the privilege of contributing to the tabernacle and the wisehearted the privilege of working on it. Soon it is reported to Moses: “The people are bringing much more than what the service needs for the work that Jehovah has commanded to be done.” (36:5) Under Moses’ direction workmen filled with Jehovah’s spirit proceed to build the tabernacle and its furnishings and to make all the garments for the priests. One year after the Exodus, the tabernacle is completed and erected on the plain before Mount Sinai. Jehovah shows his approval by covering the tent of meeting with his cloud and by filling the tabernacle with his glory, so that Moses is not able to enter the tent. This same cloud by day and a fire by night mark Jehovah’s guidance of Israel during all their journeyings. It is now the year 1512 B.C.E., and here the record of Exodus ends, with the name of Jehovah gloriously sanctified through his marvelous works performed in behalf of Israel.
26. (a) How does Exodus establish faith in Jehovah? (b) How do references to Exodus in the Christian Greek Scriptures increase our faith?
26 Preeminently, Exodus reveals Jehovah as the great Deliverer and Organizer and the Fulfiller of his magnificent purposes, and it establishes our faith in him. This faith is increased as we study the many references to Exodus in the Christian Greek Scriptures, indicating fulfillments of many features of the Law covenant, the assurance of a resurrection, Jehovah’s provision to sustain his people, precedents for Christian relief work, counsel on consideration for parents, requirements for gaining life, and how to view retributive justice. The Law was finally summarized in two commands regarding the showing of love for God and fellowman.—Matt. 22:32—Ex. 4:5; John 6:31-35 and; 2 Cor. 8:15—Ex. 16:4, 18; Matt. 15:4 and Eph. 6:2—Ex. 20:12; Matt. 5:26, 38, 39—Ex. 21:24; Matt. 22:37-40.
27. Of what benefit to the Christian is the historical record in Exodus?
27 At Hebrews 11:23-29 we read of the faith of Moses and his parents. By faith he left Egypt, by faith he celebrated the Passover, and by faith he led Israel through the Red Sea. The Israelites got baptized into Moses and ate spiritual food and drank spiritual drink. They looked forward to the spiritual rock-mass, or Christ, but still they did not have God’s approval, for they put God to the test and became idolaters, fornicators, and murmurers. Paul explains that this has an application for Christians today: “Now these things went on befalling them as examples, and they were written for a warning to us upon whom the ends of the systems of things have arrived. Consequently let him that thinks he is standing beware that he does not fall.”—1 Cor. 10:1-12; Hebrews 3:7-13.
28. How have the shadows of the Law and the Passover lamb been fulfilled?
28 Much of the deep spiritual significance of Exodus, together with its prophetic application, is given in Paul’s writings, especially in Hebrews chapters 9 and 10. “For since the Law has a shadow of the good things to come, but not the very substance of the things, men can never with the same sacrifices from year to year which they offer continually make those who approach perfect.” (Heb. 10:1) We are interested, therefore, in knowing the shadow and understanding the reality. Christ “offered one sacrifice for sins perpetually.” He is described as “the Lamb of God.” Not a bone of this “Lamb” was broken, just as in the type. The apostle Paul comments: “Christ our passover has been sacrificed. Consequently let us keep the festival, not with old leaven, neither with leaven of badness and wickedness, but with unfermented cakes of sincerity and truth.”—Heb. 10:12; John 1:29 and Joh 19:36—Ex. 12:46; 1 Cor. 5:7, 8—Ex. 23:15.
29. (a) Contrast the Law covenant with the new covenant. (b) What sacrifices do spiritual Israelites now offer to God?
29 Jesus became the Mediator of a new covenant, as Moses had been mediator of the Law covenant. The contrast between these covenants is also clearly explained by the apostle Paul, who speaks of the ‘handwritten document of decrees’ having been taken out of the way by Jesus’ death on the torture stake. The resurrected Jesus as High Priest is “a public servant of the holy place and of the true tent, which Jehovah put up, and not man.” The priests under the Law rendered “sacred service in a typical representation and a shadow of the heavenly things” according to the pattern that was given by Moses. “But now Jesus has obtained a more excellent public service, so that he is also the mediator of a correspondingly better covenant, which has been legally established upon better promises.” The old covenant became obsolete and was done away with as a code administering death. Those Jews not understanding this are described as having their perceptions dulled, but those believers who appreciate that spiritual Israel has come under a new covenant can “with unveiled faces reflect like mirrors the glory of Jehovah,” being adequately qualified as its ministers. With cleansed consciences these are able to offer up their own “sacrifice of praise, that is, the fruit of lips which make public declaration to his name.”—Col. 2:14; Heb. 8:1-6, 13; 2 Cor. 3:6-18; Heb. 13:15; Ex. 34:27-35.
30. What did the deliverance of Israel and the magnifying of Jehovah’s name in Egypt foreshadow?
30 Exodus magnifies Jehovah’s name and sovereignty, pointing forward to a glorious deliverance of the Christian nation of spiritual Israel, to whom it is said: “You are ‘a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a people for special possession, that you should declare abroad the excellencies’ of the one that called you out of darkness into his wonderful light. For you were once not a people, but are now God’s people.” Jehovah’s power as demonstrated in gathering his spiritual Israel out of the world to magnify his name is no less miraculous than the power he showed in behalf of his people in ancient Egypt. In keeping Pharaoh in existence to show him His power and in order that His name might be declared, Jehovah foreshadowed a far greater testimony to be accomplished through His Christian Witnesses.—1 Pet. 2:9, 10; Rom. 9:17; Rev. 12:17.
31. What does Exodus foreshadow as to a kingdom and Jehovah’s presence?
31 Thus, we can say from the Scriptures that the nation formed under Moses pointed forward to a new nation under Christ and to a kingdom that will never be shaken. In view of this, we are encouraged to “render God sacred service with godly fear and awe.” Just as Jehovah’s presence covered the tabernacle in the wilderness, so he promises to be eternally present with those who fear him: “Look! The tent of God is with mankind, and he will reside with them, and they will be his peoples. And God himself will be with them. . . . Write, because these words are faithful and true.” Exodus is indeed an essential and beneficial part of the Bible record.—Ex. 19:16-19—Heb. 12:18-29; Ex. 40:34—Rev. 21:3, 5.
d Exodus, 1874, F. C. Cook, page 247.