Studies on the Inspired Scriptures and Their Background
Study Number 7—The Bible in Modern Times
The history of Bible societies; the Watch Tower Society’s work in printing and publishing Bibles; the production of the New World Translation.
1. (a) For what purposes were divine communications given, and why were some therefore not recorded? (b) What specific orders did Jehovah give to many of the prophets, and with what benefit for us in “the last days”?
THE Holy Scriptures, the 66 inspired books that we know today as the Bible, contain “the word of Jehovah” put down in writing. (Isa. 66:5) Through many centuries this “word” flowed freely from Jehovah to his prophets and servants on earth. These divine communications accomplished their immediate purpose and also gave powerful foregleams of events certain to take place in the then distant future. It was not always required of God’s prophets that they put down in writing “the word of Jehovah” that was relayed to them. For example, some of the utterances of Elijah and Elisha that were made for the generation of their time have not been preserved in written form. On the other hand, the prophets Moses, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Habakkuk, and others received specific orders to “write down” or to ‘write in a book or scroll’ “the word of Jehovah” that was revealed to them. (Ex. 17:14; Isa. 30:8; Jer. 30:2; Hab. 2:2; Rev. 1:11) “The sayings previously spoken by the holy prophets” were thus preserved, along with other holy writings, to arouse the clear thinking faculties of Jehovah’s servants and especially to provide guidance concerning “the last days.”—2 Pet. 3:1-3.
2. What periods in history have been noted for increased activity in Bible copying and translation?
2 Much copying of the inspired Hebrew Scriptures was done from Ezra’s time forward. Beginning in the first century of the Common Era, the Bible was copied and recopied by the early Christians and was used in witnessing concerning Jehovah’s purposes with regard to His Christ throughout the length and breadth of the then known world. When printing from movable type became common (from the 15th century onward), further impetus was given to multiplying and distributing copies of the Bible. Much translation as well as printing was undertaken by private groups in the 16th and 17th centuries. As early as 1800, the Bible had appeared in whole or in part in 71 languages.
3. What factor has greatly contributed to the increase in Bible distribution since the beginning of the 19th century?
3 Greater momentum was given this work in the 19th and 20th centuries, when newly formed Bible societies began to take a hand in the gigantic task of distributing the Bible. One of the earliest of these Bible societies was the British and Foreign Bible Society, which was organized in London in 1804. The organizing of this Bible society triggered the establishment of many more such societies.*
4. (a) What statistics prove that the word of life has indeed overspread the earth? (b) What helpful information is supplied on the chart on page 322 about the different Bible versions listed? Illustrate this by reference to some specific Bible version.
4 With so many Bible societies operating, the work of spreading the Bible flourished. By the year 1900, the Bible had appeared in whole or in part in 567 languages, and by 1928, in 856 languages. By 1938 the thousand mark was passed, and now the Bible is available in more than 1,900 languages. Jehovah’s refreshing word of life has overspread the earth! Thus, it has become possible for men of all nations to answer the call: “Praise Jehovah, all you nations, and let all the peoples praise him.” (Rom. 15:11) The chart on page 322, “Some Leading Bible Translations in Seven Principal Languages,” gives further information on modern-day Bible distribution.
5. What is even more important than Bible distribution, yet for what are Jehovah’s Witnesses thankful?
5 Though making the Bible available to the multitudes of the earth is a commendable work, the putting of these Bibles to use in giving the people Bible understanding is an even more important task. It was the conveying of “the sense” of the word that was important in Jewish and early Christian times, when few Bibles were available, and this is still the most important thing. (Matt. 13:23; Neh. 8:8) However, this work of teaching God’s Word to the peoples of all the earth has been speeded up by the wide distribution of the Bible. As Jehovah’s Witnesses today press forward with their globe-encircling work of Bible education, they are grateful that millions of Bibles are now available in many lands and languages.
JEHOVAH’S WITNESSES AS BIBLE PUBLISHERS
6. Witnesses of Jehovah have been characterized by what activity today as well as in ancient times?
6 Witnesses of Jehovah are Bible-publishing people. This was so in the days of Ezra. It was so in the days of the early disciples of Jesus Christ, who saturated the ancient world with their handwritten copies of the Bible to such an extent that the rich legacy we have received of their manuscript writings surpasses that of any other ancient literature. Now, in these modern times, the same kind of energetic Bible-publishing activity characterizes Jehovah’s Witnesses.
7. What corporation did Jehovah’s Witnesses form? when? and how did they start to develop their ministry at that time?
7 In 1884 Jehovah’s Witnesses formed a corporation for carrying on their Bible-publishing work, the corporation being now known as the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania. At first Bibles were purchased from other Bible societies for redistribution by these Witnesses, who were even then developing their characteristic house-to-house ministry. The King James Version of 1611 in English was used as their basic version for Bible study.
8. (a) How has the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society been true to its name? (b) How has the Society made use of many Bible translations, and to what end?
8 True to its name, the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society has engaged in distributing Bibles, as well as publishing books, tracts, and other Christian literature. This has been for the purpose of instruction in the correct teachings of God’s Word. Its Bible education has helped lovers of righteousness to break away from false religious tradition and worldly philosophy and to return to the freedom of Bible truth as revealed through Jesus and other devoted spokesmen for Jehovah. (John 8:31, 32) From the time that the magazine The Watchtower began to be published in 1879, the publications of the Watch Tower Society have quoted, cited, and referred to scores of different Bible translations. Thus, the Society has recognized the value of all of them and has made use of the good in all of them as being of value in clearing away religious confusion and setting forth the message of God.
9. How did the Society enter the field of Bible publishing?
9 Rotherham and Holman Bibles. In 1896 Jehovah’s Witnesses, by means of the Watch Tower Society, entered directly into the field as publishers and distributors of the Bible. In that year printing rights were obtained from the British Bible translator Joseph B. Rotherham to publish in the United States the revised twelfth edition of his New Testament. On the title page of these printed copies, there appeared the name of the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society, Allegheny, Pennsylvania, the Society’s headquarters being located there at the time. In 1901 arrangements were made for a special printing of the Holman Linear Bible, containing marginal explanatory notes from the Society’s publications of 1895 to 1901. The Bible text itself presented the King James Version and the Revised Version of the Hebrew and Greek Scriptures. The entire edition of 5,000 copies had been distributed by the year 1903.
10. What version of the Greek Scriptures did the Society become publishers of in 1902?
10 The Emphatic Diaglott. In 1902 the Watch Tower Society came to be the copyright owners, sole publishers, and distributors of The Emphatic Diaglott. This version of the Christian Greek Scriptures was prepared by the English-born Bible translator Benjamin Wilson, of Geneva, Illinois. It was completed in 1864. It used the Greek text of J. J. Griesbach, with a literal interlinear English translation and Wilson’s own version to the right using his special signs of emphasis.
11. When did the Society publish the “Bible Students Edition,” and what did this contain?
11 A Bible Students Edition. In 1907 the Watch Tower Society published a “Bible Students Edition” of the Bible. This volume contained a clear printing of the King James Version of the Bible and included excellent marginal notes, together with a valuable appendix designed by Jehovah’s Witnesses. The appendix, which was later enlarged to over 550 pages, was called the “Berean Bible Teachers Manual” and was also published in separate book form. It contained brief comments on many of the verses of the Bible, with references to The Watchtower and to the Society’s textbooks, and an epitome of doctrinal topics with key scriptures to facilitate their presentation to others. This was similar in form to the Society’s later publication “Make Sure of All Things.” Also included were a topical index, explanations of difficult texts, a list of spurious passages, a Scripture index, a comparative chronology, and 12 maps. This excellent Bible served Jehovah’s Witnesses for decades in their public preaching work.
A BIBLE PRINTING SOCIETY
12. When did the Society enter the field of Bible printing?
12 For 30 years the Watch Tower Society engaged outside firms to do the actual printing of its Bibles. However, in December 1926, The Emphatic Diaglott became the first Bible version to be printed on the Society’s own presses at Brooklyn, New York. The printing of this edition of the Christian Greek Scriptures stimulated the hope that a complete Bible would someday be printed on the Society’s presses.
13. (a) What was the first complete Bible printed by the Society, and when was it released? (b) What helps did it contain?
13 The King James Version. World War II underlined the need for independent publication of the Bible itself. While the global conflict was at its height, the Society succeeded in purchasing plates of the complete King James Version of the Bible. It was on September 18, 1942, at the New World Theocratic Assembly of Jehovah’s Witnesses, with key assembly point at Cleveland, Ohio, that the Society’s president spoke on the subject “Presenting ‘the Sword of the Spirit.’” As the climax to this address, he released this first complete Bible printed in the Watch Tower Society’s Brooklyn factory. In its appendix it provided a list of proper names with their meanings, a specially prepared “Concordance of Bible Words and Expressions,” and other helps. An appropriate running head was provided at the top of each page. For example, “Jephthah’s earnest vow” replaced the traditional “Jephthah’s rash vow” at Judges 11, and “Prehuman existence and human birth of God’s Word” appeared at John chapter 1.
14. What improved translation of the Bible was printed by the Society in 1944, and what features does this Bible have?
14 The American Standard Version. Another important Bible translation is the American Standard Version of 1901. It has the most commendable feature of rendering God’s name as “Jehovah” nearly 7,000 times in the Hebrew Scriptures. After long negotiations, the Watch Tower Society was able to purchase, in 1944, the use of the plates of the complete American Standard Version of the Bible for printing on its own presses. On August 10, 1944, at Buffalo, New York, the key city of 17 simultaneous assemblies of Jehovah’s Witnesses linked together by private telephone lines, the Society’s president delighted his large audience by releasing the Watch Tower edition of the American Standard Version. The appendix includes a most helpful expanded “Concordance of Bible Words, Names, and Expressions.” A pocket edition of the same Bible was published in 1958.
15. What translation was produced by the Society in 1972?
15 The Bible in Living English. In 1972 the Watch Tower Society produced The Bible in Living English, by the late Steven T. Byington. It consistently renders the divine name as “Jehovah.”
16. In what twofold work are Jehovah’s Witnesses thus engaged?
16 Thus, not only are Jehovah’s Witnesses preaching the good news of God’s established Kingdom in more than 200 countries and islands throughout the earth but they have also become printers and publishers, on a large scale, of the priceless Book that contains that Kingdom message, the Holy Scriptures inspired by Jehovah God.
NEW WORLD TRANSLATION OF THE HOLY SCRIPTURES
17. (a) How have the many Bible versions been useful, and yet what defects do they contain? (b) Since 1946, what had the president of the Watch Tower Society been seeking?
17 Jehovah’s Witnesses acknowledge their indebtedness to all the many Bible versions that they have used in studying the truth of the Word of God. However, all these translations, even down to the very latest, have their defects. There are inconsistencies or unsatisfactory renderings, which are infected with sectarian traditions or worldly philosophies and hence are not in full harmony with the sacred truths that Jehovah has recorded in his Word. Particularly since 1946, the president of the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society had been in quest of a faithful translation of the Scriptures from the original languages—a translation just as understandable to modern readers as the original writings were understandable to intelligent, ordinary people of the Bible-writing era itself.
18. How did the Society come to be publishers and printers of the New World Translation?
18 On September 3, 1949, at the Brooklyn headquarters of the Society, the president announced to the Board of Directors the existence of the New World Bible Translation Committee and that it had completed a modern translation of the Christian Greek Scriptures. The committee’s document was read, by which the committee assigned the possession, control, and publication of the translation manuscript to the Society, in recognition of the Society’s unsectarian work of promoting Bible education throughout the earth. Portions of the manuscript were also read, as examples of the nature and quality of the translation. The directors were unanimous in accepting the gift of the translation, and arrangements were made for its immediate printing. Typesetting began on September 29, 1949, and by early summer of 1950, tens of thousands of copies were completed in bound form.
19. (a) How did the New World Translation appear in its parts? (b) What effort had been made in preparing these volumes?
19 Releasing the New World Translation in Its Parts. It was on Wednesday, August 2, 1950, on the fourth day of their international assembly at Yankee Stadium, New York, that a totally surprised audience of 82,075 of Jehovah’s Witnesses heartily accepted the release of the New World Translation of the Christian Greek Scriptures. Encouraged by the initial enthusiastic reception, as well as by later expressions of appreciation for the translation’s merits, the Committee next undertook the extensive work of translating the Hebrew Scriptures. This appeared in five additional volumes, released successively from 1953 to 1960. The set of six volumes formed a library of the entire Bible in modern English. Each volume also contained valuable aids to Bible study. A vast storehouse of Scriptural information was thus made available to the modern-day student of the Bible. Diligent effort had been made to draw on every reliable source of textual information so that the New World Translation would express clearly and accurately the powerful message of the original inspired Scriptures.
20. What valuable aids did the first edition of the New World Translation contain in its (a) footnotes, (b) marginal references, and (c) forewords and appendixes?
20 Among the Bible study aids in the six-part first edition of the New World Translation was the invaluable collection of textual footnotes, giving background to the renderings. In these notes powerful arguments in defense of the Scriptures were made available. A valuable chain-reference system was also included. These chains of important doctrinal words were designed to direct the student to a series of key texts on these subjects. There were numerous cross-references in the margins of the pages. These directed the reader to (a) parallel words, (b) parallel thoughts, ideas, and events, (c) biographic information, (d) geographic information, (e) fulfillments of prophecies, and (f) direct quotations in or from other parts of the Bible. In the volumes were also important forewords, illustrations of some ancient manuscripts, helpful appendixes and indexes, and maps of Bible lands and locations. This first edition of the New World Translation provided a gold mine for personal Bible study and for beneficial teaching of honesthearted persons by Jehovah’s Witnesses. A special student’s edition, published in one volume in a printing of 150,000 copies, was later released on June 30, 1963, at the opening of the “Everlasting Good News” Assembly of Jehovah’s Witnesses at Milwaukee, Wisconsin, U.S.A.
21. (a) What were the circumstances of the release of the revised New World Translation? (b) What were some of its features?
21 One-Volume Revised Edition. In the summer of 1961, at a series of assemblies of Jehovah’s Witnesses held in the United States and Europe, a revised edition of the complete New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures in one handy volume was released for distribution. It was accepted with joy by the hundreds of thousands who attended these assemblies. Bound in green cloth, it contained 1,472 pages and had an excellent concordance, an appendix on Bible topics, and maps.
22, 23. What further editions have been released, and what are some of their features?
22 Further Editions. In 1969 The Kingdom Interlinear Translation of the Greek Scriptures was released, with a second edition issued in 1985. This volume provides a literal English translation of the Greek text edited by Westcott and Hort as well as the modern-English rendering of the 1984 edition of the New World Translation. It thus opens up to the serious Bible student what the original Greek basically or literally says.
23 A second revision of the New World Translation was released in 1970, and a third revision with footnotes followed in 1971. At the “Kingdom Increase” District Conventions of Jehovah’s Witnesses, held in 1984, a revised reference edition was issued in English. It includes a complete updating and revision of the marginal (cross) references that were initially presented in English from 1950 to 1960. Designed for the serious Bible student, it contains over 125,000 marginal references, more than 11,000 footnotes, an extensive concordance, maps, and 43 appendix articles. Also in 1984, a regular-size edition of the 1984 revision, with marginal references but without footnotes, was made available.
24. (a) What are some of the advantages of both the regular and reference editions? (b) Illustrate the use of the running heads.
24 Some Advantages. In order to aid the reader in quickly locating any desired material, both the regular and reference editions contain a carefully designed running head at the top of each page. These running heads describe the material below, and they are especially planned to aid the Kingdom publisher in quickly locating texts in answer to questions that may be put to him. For example, he may be trying to locate counsel on the training of children. Coming to page 860 (regular edition) in the Proverbs, he sees the last key phrase, “A good name.” Since this is the last phrase of the heading, it indicates that the subject will appear late on that page, and that is where he finds it, at Proverbs 22:1. The scripture identified by the first part of the running head on page 861, “Train up a boy,” he finds early on the page, at Pr 22 verse 6. The next element of the heading reads, “Not spare the rod.” This material is located near the bottom of the first column, in Pr 22 verse 15. These running heads at the tops of the pages can be a great aid to the Kingdom publisher who knows the general location of texts for which he is searching. They can open up the Bible for quick action.
25. What concordance service is provided, and to what practical uses may this be put?
25 At the back of both the regular and reference editions of this Bible, there is a feature called “Bible Words Indexed.” Here are to be found thousands of important Bible words together with lines of context. A concordance service is thus made available, including the wide range of new, descriptive words used in the text. For those accustomed to the King James Version renderings, help is given in making scores of transitions from older English Bible words to the more modern Bible terms. Take, for example, the word “grace” in the King James Version. This is listed in the index, referring the student to “undeserved kindness,” the up-to-date expression used in the new translation. The word index makes it possible to locate Scripture texts on key doctrinal subjects, such as “soul” or “ransom,” supporting detailed study directly from the Bible texts. A Kingdom publisher who is called upon to preach on any of these outstanding subjects could immediately use the brief portions of context supplied in this concordance. Additionally, principal citations are listed for outstanding proper names, including geographic places as well as prominent Bible characters. Invaluable aid is thus rendered to all Bible students using this translation.
26. Illustrate one of the ways in which the appendix to the New World Translation is of help.
26 A scholarly appendix offers further accurate information beneficial for teaching. The appendix articles are arranged in such a way that they can be used as an aid in explaining basic Bible doctrines and related matters. For example, in dealing with the subject “soul,” the appendix, under eight different headings, lists Scripture texts that show the various ways in which the word “soul” (Hebrew, neʹphesh) is used. Diagrams and maps are also provided in the appendix articles. The Reference Bible contains a more extensive appendix as well as helpful footnotes that supply important textual information in a simple way. Thus, the New World Translation is outstanding for the range of services that it provides for placing accurate knowledge quickly at the disposal of its readers.
27, 28. Explain and illustrate how the New World Translation indicates the pronunciation of proper names.
27 Aid in Pronouncing Bible Names. In the English text itself, all editions of the New World Translation render aid in the pronunciation of proper names. The system is the same as that designed by an expert for the Revised Standard Version of 1952. The proper name is broken down into syllables that are kept apart by a dot or by the accent mark (ʹ). The accent mark follows the syllable on which major emphasis should be put in pronouncing the word. If the accented syllable ends in a vowel, then the vowel is long in its pronunciation. If a syllable ends in a consonant, then the vowel in that syllable is short in its pronunciation.
28 As an example, note Job 4:1. Here it speaks of “Elʹi·phaz the Teʹman·ite.” While the accent in both cases falls on the first syllable, the letter “e” is to be pronounced differently in these two cases. In “Elʹi·phaz” the accent mark falling after the consonant “l” makes the vowel “e” short, as in “end.” Whereas, in “Teʹman·ite” the accent falling directly after the vowel “e” makes it long, as the first “e” in “Eden.” When the two vowels “a” and “i” are combined, as in “Morʹde·cai” at Esther 2:5 and “Siʹnai” at Exodus 19:1, the “ai” is pronounced simply as a long “i.”
29. Is the New World Translation simply a revision of earlier translations, and what features support your answer?
29 A Fresh Translation. The New World Translation is a fresh translation from the original Bible languages of Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek. By no means is it a revision of any other English translation, nor does it copy any other version as to style, vocabulary, or rhythm. For the Hebrew-Aramaic section, the well-refined and universally accepted text of Rudolf Kittel’s Biblia Hebraica, the 7th, 8th, and 9th editions (1951-55), was used. A new edition of the Hebrew text known as Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia, dated 1977, was used for updating the information presented in the footnotes of the New World Translation—With References. The Greek section was translated principally from the Greek master text prepared by Westcott and Hort, published in 1881. However, the New World Bible Translation Committee also consulted other Greek texts, including Nestle’s Greek text (1948). Descriptions of these excellent master texts are presented in Studies 5 and 6 of this volume. The translation committee has made a vigorous and accurate translation of the Bible, and this has resulted in a clear and living text, opening up the way to a deeper, more satisfying understanding of the Word of God.
30. What is one critic’s evaluation of this translation?
30 Note one critic’s evaluation of this translation: “Original renderings of the Hebrew Scriptures into the English language are extremely few. It therefore gives us much pleasure to welcome the publication of the first part of the New World Translation [of the Hebrew Scriptures], Genesis to Ruth. . . . This version has evidently made a special effort to be thoroughly readable. No one could say it is deficient in freshness and originality. Its terminology is by no means based upon that of previous versions.”*
31. How did one Hebrew scholar evaluate the New World Translation?
31 The Hebrew scholar Professor Dr. Benjamin Kedar of Israel, in an interview with a representative of the Watch Tower Society, evaluated the New World Translation as follows: “In my linguistic research in connection with the Hebrew Bible and translations, I often refer to the English edition of what is known as the New World Translation. In so doing, I find my feeling repeatedly confirmed that this work reflects an honest endeavor to achieve an understanding of the text that is as accurate as possible. Giving evidence of a broad command of the original language, it renders the original words into a second language understandably without deviating unnecessarily from the specific structure of the Hebrew. . . . Every statement of language allows for a certain latitude in interpreting or translating. So the linguistic solution in any given case may be open to debate. But I have never discovered in the New World Translation any biased intent to read something into the text that it does not contain.”*
32. To what extent is the New World Translation literal, and with what benefit?
32 A Literal Translation. Faithfulness as to translation is also demonstrated in its being literal. This requires an almost word-for-word correspondency between the rendering in English and the Hebrew and Greek texts. In the presentation of the text in the language into which it is translated, the degree of literalness should be as high as the original-language idiom permits. Furthermore, literalness requires that the word order of most of the renderings be the same as in the Hebrew or Greek, thus preserving the emphasis of the original writings. Through literal translation, the flavor, color, and rhythm of the original writings may be accurately communicated.
33. How have occasional departures from the literal text been noted?
33 There have been occasional departures from the literal text, for the purpose of conveying in understandable terms the difficult Hebrew or Greek idioms. However, in the reference edition of the New World Translation, these have been called to the reader’s attention by means of footnotes that give the literal rendering.
34. (a) What results from abandoning literal translation? (b) Illustrate.
34 Many Bible translators have abandoned literalness for what they consider to be elegance of language and form. They argue that literal renderings are wooden, stiff, and confining. However, their abandonment of literal translation has brought about, by the introduction of paraphrase and interpretation, many departures from the accurate original statements of truth. They have, in effect, watered down the very thoughts of God. For example, the dean emeritus of a large American university once charged Jehovah’s Witnesses with destroying the beauty and elegance of the Bible. By the Bible he meant the King James Version, which had long been venerated as a standard of beautiful English. He said: ‘Look what you have done to Psalm 23. You have destroyed its swing and beauty by your “Je/ho/vah is/ my/ shep/herd.” Seven syllables instead of six. It is shocking. It is off balance. There is no rhythm. The King James has it right with its six balanced syllables—“The/ Lord/ is/ my/ shep/herd.”’ It was protested to the professor that it was more important to put it the way that David, the Bible writer, put it. Did David use the general term “Lord,” or did he use the divine name? The professor admitted that David used the divine name, but he still argued that for the sake of beauty and elegance, the word “Lord” would be warranted. What a lame excuse for removing Jehovah’s illustrious name from this psalm to his praise!
35. For what may we thank God, and what is our hope and prayer?
35 Thousands of renderings have been sacrificed in this way on the altar of man’s concept of language beauty, resulting in inaccuracies in the many Bible versions. Thanks be to God that he has provided the New World Translation, with its clear and accurate Bible text! May his great name, Jehovah, be sanctified in the hearts of all who read it!
Among the many Bible societies formed since 1804 are the American Bible Society (1816), formed out of already existing local societies, as well as the Edinburgh Bible Society (1809) and the Glasgow Bible Society (1812), both later incorporated (1861) into the National Bible Society of Scotland. By 1820 Bible societies had also been formed in Switzerland, Ireland, France, Finland, Sweden, Denmark, Norway, the Netherlands, Iceland, Russia, and Germany.
Alexander Thomson, The Differentiator, June 1954, page 131.
June 12, 1989, translated from the German.
[Chart on page 322]
SOME LEADING BIBLE TRANSLATIONS IN SEVEN PRINCIPAL LANGUAGES
Name of Originally Basic Text Divine Name Basic
Version Published for Hebrew Rendered Text for
Rheims-Douay* 1582-1610 Vulgate Lord Vulgate
Version* 1611 M LORD Received
(Jehovah, few) Text
Young 1862-98 M Jehovah Received
English 1881-95 M LORD Westcott
Revised* (Jehovah, and Hort
Emphasised Bible 1878-1902 M Yahweh Westcott
(Ginsburg) and Hort,
American 1901 M Jehovah Westcott
Standard and Hort
An American 1923-39 M LORD Westcott
Translation (Yahweh, few) and Hort
Revised 1946-52 M LORD Westcott
Standard* and Hort,
New English 1961-70 M (BHK) LORD New
Bible* (Jehovah, few) eclectic
Today’s 1966-76 M (BHK) LORD UBS
New King 1979-82 M (BHS) LORD Majority
James Bible/ (YAH, few) Text
New Jerusalem 1985 M Yahweh Greek
Valera 1602 M Jehová Received
Moderna 1893 M Jehová Scrivener
Nácar-Colunga* 1944 M Yavé Greek
Evaristo Martín 1964 M Yavé Greek
Serafín de 1965 M (BHK) Yahvéh, Señor Nestle-
Biblia de 1967 M Yahveh Greek
Cantera- 1975 M (BHK) Yahveh Greek
Nueva Biblia 1975 M Señor Greek
Almeida 1681, 1750 M Jehovah Received
Figueiredo* 1778-90 Vulgate Senhor Vulgate
Matos Soares* 1927-30 Vulgate Senhor Vulgate
Pontifício 1967 M Javé Merk
Jerusalém* 1976, 1981 M Iahweh Greek
Luther* 1522, 1534 M HErr Erasmus
Zürcher 1531 M Herr, Jahwe Greek
Elberfelder 1855, 1871 M Jehova Received
Menge 1926 M HErr Greek
Luther 1964, 1984 M HERR Greek
Bibel in 1967 M (BHS) Herr Nestle-
Deutsch (Gute UBS
1972, 1974 M Herr, Jahwe Greek
Elberfelder 1975, 1985 M HERR, Jahwe Greek
Darby 1859, 1885 M Eternel Greek
Crampon* 1894-1904 M Jéhovah Merk
Jérusalem* 1948-54 Vulgate, Yahvé Vulgate,
TOB Ecumenical 1971-75 M (BHS) Seigneur Nestle,
Osty* 1973 M Yahvé Greek
Segond Revised 1978 M (BHS) Eternel Nestle-
Français 1982 M (BHS) Seigneur Nestle,
Statenvertaling 1637 M HEERE Received
Leidse 1899-1912 M Jahwe Nestle
1929-39 M Jahweh Nestle
NBG-vertaling 1939-51 M HERE Nestle
1961-75 M Jahwe Nestle
Groot Nieuws 1972-83 M Heer Nestle
Diodati 1607, 1641 M Signore Greek
M Eterno Greek
Nardoni* 1960 M Signore, Jahweh Greek
Pontificio 1923-58 M Signore, Jahve Merk
Garofalo* 1960 M Jahve, Signore Greek
Concordata* 1968 M (BHK) Signore, Iavè Nestle,
CEI* 1971 M Signore Greek
Parola del 1976-85 M (BHS) Signore UBS
* An asterisk denotes that the Apocrypha was included but may not appear in all editions.
“M” refers to the Masoretic text. When it stands alone, no special edition of the Masoretic text is specified.
“BHK” refers to Kittel’s Biblia Hebraica.
“UBS” refers to The Greek New Testament, by United Bible Societies.
“BHS” refers to Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia.
“Greek” indicates translation made from the Greek, but no special text indicated.