Identifying True Worshipers in the Time of the End
1. According to Daniel chapter 7, what extraordinary experiences were to befall a small, defenseless group of people in our day?
A TINY, defenseless group of people come under vicious attack by a mighty world power. They survive intact and even experience a renewal—not as a result of their own strength but because Jehovah God values them. Daniel chapter 7 foretold these events, which occurred in the early part of the 20th century. Who, though, were these people? The same chapter of Daniel referred to them as “the holy ones of the Supreme One,” Jehovah God. It also revealed that these individuals will ultimately be corulers in the Messianic Kingdom!—Daniel 7:13, 14, 18, 21, 22, 25-27.
2. (a) How does Jehovah feel about his anointed servants? (b) What would be a wise course to follow during these times?
2 As we learned in Daniel chapter 11, the king of the north will meet his final end after threatening the secure spiritual land of these faithful people. (Daniel 11:45; compare Ezekiel 38:18-23.) Yes, Jehovah is very protective of his faithful anointed ones. Psalm 105:14, 15 tells us: “On their account [Jehovah] reproved kings, saying: ‘Do not you men touch my anointed ones, and to my prophets do nothing bad.’” Would you not agree, then, that in these turbulent times, it would be wise for the expanding “great crowd” to associate as closely as possible with these holy ones? (Revelation 7:9; Zechariah 8:23) Jesus Christ recommended that sheeplike people do exactly that—associate with his anointed spiritual brothers by supporting them in their work.—Matthew 25:31-46; Galatians 3:29.
3. (a) Why is it not easy to find Jesus’ anointed followers and remain close to them? (b) How will Daniel chapter 12 help in this regard?
3 However, God’s Adversary, Satan, has been waging an all-out war against the anointed. He has promoted false religion, effectively filling the world with counterfeit Christians. As a result, many people have been misled. Others simply despair of ever finding those who represent the true religion. (Matthew 7:15, 21-23; Revelation 12:9, 17) Even those who do find the “little flock” and associate with them must fight to maintain faith, for this world constantly seeks to erode faith. (Luke 12:32) What about you? Have you found “the holy ones of the Supreme One,” and are you associating with them? Are you aware of the solid evidence proving that those you have found are indeed the ones God has chosen? Such evidence can bolster your faith. It can also equip you to help others see through the religious confusion of today’s world. Daniel chapter 12 contains a wealth of this lifesaving knowledge.
THE GREAT PRINCE GOES INTO ACTION
4. (a) Daniel 12:1 foretells what two distinct things regarding Michael? (b) In Daniel, what is often meant by a monarch’s “standing”?
4 Daniel 12:1 reads: “During that time Michael will stand up, the great prince who is standing in behalf of the sons of your people.” This verse foretells these two distinct things regarding Michael: one, that he “is standing,” suggesting a state of affairs that extends over a period of time; two, that he “will stand up,” suggesting an event during that period of time. First, we want to know the period when Michael is “standing in behalf of the sons of [Daniel’s] people.” Recall that Michael is a name given to Jesus in his role as a heavenly Ruler. The reference to his “standing” reminds us of the way that this term is used elsewhere in the book of Daniel. It often refers to the action of a king, such as his taking up royal power.—Daniel 11:2-4, 7, 20, 21.
5, 6. (a) During what time period is Michael standing? (b) When and how does Michael “stand up,” and with what results?
5 It is evident that the angel was here pointing to a period of time specified elsewhere in Bible prophecy. Jesus called it his “presence” (Greek, pa·rou·siʹa), when he would rule as King in heaven. (Matthew 24:37-39) This time period is also called “the last days” and “the time of the end.” (2 Timothy 3:1; Daniel 12:4, 9) Ever since that period began in 1914, Michael has been standing as King in heaven.—Compare Isaiah 11:10; Revelation 12:7-9.
6 When, though, does Michael “stand up”? When he rises up to take special action. This, Jesus will do in the future. Revelation 19:11-16 prophetically describes Jesus as the mighty Messianic King riding at the head of an angelic army and bringing destruction upon enemies of God. Daniel 12:1 continues: “And there will certainly occur a time of distress such as has not been made to occur since there came to be a nation until that time.” As Jehovah’s Chief Executioner, Christ will bring an end to the entire wicked system of things during the foretold “great tribulation.”—Matthew 24:21; Jeremiah 25:33; 2 Thessalonians 1:6-8; Revelation 7:14; 16:14, 16.
7. (a) What hope is there for all faithful ones during the coming “time of distress”? (b) What is Jehovah’s book, and why is it vital to be found therein?
7 How will people who exercise faith fare during this dark time? Daniel was further told: “During that time your people will escape, every one who is found written down in the book.” (Compare Luke 21:34-36.) What is this book? In essence, it represents Jehovah God’s remembrance of those who do his will. (Malachi 3:16; Hebrews 6:10) Those who are written down in this book of life are the most secure people in the world, for they enjoy divine protection. Whatever harm may come to them, it can and will be undone. Even if death should overtake them before this coming “time of distress,” they remain safe in Jehovah’s limitless memory. He will remember them and resurrect them during the Thousand Year Reign of Jesus Christ.—Acts 24:15; Revelation 20:4-6.
HOLY ONES “WAKE UP”
8. Daniel 12:2 offers what delightful prospect?
8 Comforting indeed is the hope of the resurrection. Daniel 12:2 touches on it, saying: “There will be many of those asleep in the ground of dust who will wake up, these to indefinitely lasting life and those to reproaches and to indefinitely lasting abhorrence.” (Compare Isaiah 26:19.) These words may well remind us of Jesus Christ’s moving promise of a general resurrection. (John 5:28, 29) What a thrilling hope! Just think of beloved friends and family—now dead—given a chance to live again in the future! But this promise in the book of Daniel refers primarily to another kind of resurrection—one that has already occurred. How could that be?
9. (a) Why is it reasonable to expect that Daniel 12:2 would find fulfillment during the last days? (b) To what kind of resurrection does the prophecy refer, and how do we know?
9 Consider the context. The first verse of Da chapter 12 applies, as we have seen, not only to the end of this system of things but also to the entire period of the last days. In fact, the bulk of the chapter finds fulfillment, not in the coming earthly paradise, but during the time of the end. Has there been a resurrection during this period? The apostle Paul wrote of the resurrection of “those who belong to the Christ” as occurring “during his presence.” However, those who are resurrected to life in heaven are raised “incorruptible.” (1 Corinthians 15:23, 52) None of them are raised “to reproaches and to indefinitely lasting abhorrence” foretold at Daniel 12:2. Is there another kind of resurrection? In the Bible, resurrection sometimes has a spiritual significance. For example, both Ezekiel and Revelation contain prophetic passages that apply to a spiritual revival, or resurrection.—Ezekiel 37:1-14; Revelation 11:3, 7, 11.
10. (a) In what sense were the anointed remnant resurrected during the time of the end? (b) How did some of the anointed who were revived nonetheless awaken “to reproaches and to indefinitely lasting abhorrence”?
10 Has there been such a spiritual revival of God’s anointed servants in the time of the end? Yes! It is a historical reality that in 1918 a small remnant of faithful Christians were subjected to an extraordinary attack that disrupted their organized public ministry. Then, against all likelihood, in 1919 they returned to life in a spiritual sense. These facts fit the description of the resurrection foretold at Daniel 12:2. Some did “wake up” spiritually at that time and thereafter. Sadly, though, not all remained in a spiritually alive state. Those who after being awakened chose to reject the Messianic King and who left God’s service earned for themselves the ‘reproaches and indefinitely lasting abhorrence’ described at Daniel 12:2. (Hebrews 6:4-6) However, the faithful anointed ones, making good use of their spiritually revived state, loyally supported the Messianic King. Ultimately, their faithfulness leads, as the prophecy states, to “indefinitely lasting life.” Today, their spiritual vitality in the face of opposition helps us to identify them.
THEY ‘SHINE LIKE THE STARS’
11. Who are “the ones having insight” today, and in what sense do they shine like the stars?
11 The next two verses of Daniel chapter 12 do even more to help us identify “the holy ones of the Supreme One.” In verse 3 the angel tells Daniel: “The ones having insight will shine like the brightness of the expanse; and those who are bringing the many to righteousness, like the stars to time indefinite, even forever.” Who are “the ones having insight” today? Again, the evidence points to the same “holy ones of the Supreme One.” After all, who but the faithful anointed remnant had the insight to discern that Michael, the Great Prince, began standing as King in 1914? By preaching such truths as this—as well as by maintaining Christian conduct—they have been “shining as illuminators” in this spiritually bedarkened world. (Philippians 2:15; John 8:12) Concerning them, Jesus prophesied: “At that time the righteous ones will shine as brightly as the sun in the kingdom of their Father.”—Matthew 13:43.
12. (a) During the time of the end, how have the anointed been involved in “bringing the many to righteousness”? (b) How will the anointed bring many to righteousness and ‘shine like the stars’ during the Thousand Year Reign of Christ?
12 Daniel 12:3 even tells us what work would occupy these anointed Christians in the time of the end. They would be “bringing the many to righteousness.” The anointed remnant set about gathering the remaining number of the 144,000 joint heirs of Christ. (Romans 8:16, 17; Revelation 7:3, 4) When that work was completed—evidently by the mid-1930’s—they began gathering the “great crowd” of “other sheep.” (Revelation 7:9; John 10:16) These too exercise faith in the ransom sacrifice of Jesus Christ. Therefore, they have a clean standing before Jehovah. Numbering into the millions today, they cherish the hope of surviving the coming destruction of this wicked world. During Christ’s Thousand Year Reign, Jesus and his 144,000 fellow kings and priests will apply to obedient mankind on earth the full benefits of the ransom, thereby helping all of those exercising faith to shed every last trace of sin inherited from Adam. (2 Peter 3:13; Revelation 7:13, 14; 20:5, 6) In the fullest sense, the anointed will then share in “bringing the many to righteousness” and will ‘shine like the stars’ in heaven. Do you value the hope of living on earth under the glorious heavenly government of Christ and his corulers? What a privilege it is to share with “the holy ones” in preaching this good news of God’s Kingdom!—Matthew 24:14.
THEY “ROVE ABOUT”
13. In what sense were the words of Daniel’s book sealed and made secret?
13 The angel’s declaration to Daniel, which began back at Daniel 10:20, now concludes with these heartwarming words: “And as for you, O Daniel, make secret the words and seal up the book, until the time of the end. Many will rove about, and the true knowledge will become abundant.” (Daniel 12:4) Much of what Daniel was inspired to write was indeed made secret and sealed up to human understanding. Why, Daniel himself later wrote: “Now as for me, I heard, but I could not understand.” (Daniel 12:8) In this sense Daniel’s book remained sealed for centuries. What about today?
14. (a) During “the time of the end,” who have ‘roved about,’ and where? (b) What evidence is there that Jehovah has blessed this ‘roving about’?
14 We are privileged to live in “the time of the end” foretold in the book of Daniel. As prophesied, many faithful ones have ‘roved about’ in the pages of God’s Word. The result? With Jehovah’s blessing, true knowledge has become abundant. The faithful anointed Witnesses of Jehovah have been blessed with insight enabling them to understand that the Son of man became King in 1914, to identify the beasts of Daniel’s prophecy, to warn against “the disgusting thing that is causing desolation”—and these are just a few examples. (Daniel 11:31) This abundance of knowledge, then, is yet another identifying mark of “the holy ones of the Supreme One.” But Daniel received further evidence.
THEY ARE ‘DASHED TO PIECES’
15. What question is now raised by an angel, and of whom might this question remind us?
15 Daniel, we recall, received these angelic messages on the bank of “the great river” Hiddekel, also known as the Tigris. (Daniel 10:4) Here he now sees three angelic creatures and says: “I saw, I Daniel, and, look! there were two others standing, one on the bank here of the stream and the other on the bank there of the stream. Then one said to the man clothed with the linen, who was up above the waters of the stream: ‘How long will it be to the end of the wonderful things?’” (Daniel 12:5, 6) The question the angel raised here may again remind us of “the holy ones of the Supreme One.” At the beginning of “the time of the end,” in 1914, they were greatly concerned with the question of how long it would be until God’s promises were fulfilled. That they are the focus of this prophecy becomes apparent in the answer to this question.
16. What prophecy does the angel utter, and how does he emphasize the certainty of its fulfillment?
16 Daniel’s account continues: “And I began to hear the man clothed with the linen, who was up above the waters of the stream, as he proceeded to raise his right hand and his left hand to the heavens and to swear by the One who is alive for time indefinite: ‘It will be for an appointed time, appointed times and a half. And as soon as there will have been a finishing of the dashing of the power of the holy people to pieces, all these things will come to their finish.’” (Daniel 12:7) This is a solemn matter. The angel raises both hands in an oath, perhaps so that this gesture is visible to the two angels on opposite sides of the broad river. He thereby emphasizes the absolute certainty of the fulfillment of this prophecy. When, though, are these appointed times? The answer is not as difficult to find as you might think it is.
17 This prophecy is remarkably similar to two other prophecies. One, which we considered in Chapter 9 of this publication, is found at Daniel 7:25; the other, at Revelation 11:3, 7, 9. Note some of the parallels. Each is set during the time of the end. Both prophecies concern holy servants of God, showing them to be persecuted and even temporarily unable to carry out their public preaching activity. Each prophecy shows that God’s servants revive and then resume their work, foiling their persecutors. And each prophecy mentions the duration of this time of hardship for the holy ones. Both prophecies in Daniel (7:25 and 12:7) refer to ‘a time, times, and half a time.’ Scholars generally recognize this to mean three and a half times. Revelation refers to the same period as 42 months, or 1,260 days. (Revelation 11:2, 3) This confirms that the three and a half times in Daniel refer to three and a half years of 360 days each. But when did these 1,260 days begin?
18. (a) According to Daniel 12:7, what would mark the end of the 1,260 days? (b) When was “the power of the holy people” finally dashed to pieces, and how did this happen? (c) When did the 1,260 days begin, and how did the anointed ‘prophesy in sackcloth’ during that period?
18 The prophecy is quite explicit as to when the 1,260 days would end—when there is “a finishing of the dashing of the power of the holy people to pieces.” In the middle of 1918, leading members of the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society, including its president, J. F. Rutherford, were convicted on false charges, sentenced to long terms of confinement, and imprisoned. God’s holy ones did indeed see their work ‘dashed to pieces,’ their power broken. Counting back three and a half years from mid-1918 brings us to the end of 1914. At that time the little band of anointed ones were bracing themselves for the onslaught of persecution. World War I had broken out, and opposition to their work was mounting. For the year 1915, they even based their yeartext on this question that Christ asked his followers: “Are ye able to drink of my cup?” (Matthew 20:22, King James Version) As predicted at Revelation 11:3, the 1,260-day period that ensued was a mournful time for the anointed—it was as if they were prophesying in sackcloth. Persecution worsened. Some of them were imprisoned, others were mobbed, and still others were tortured. Many were disheartened by the death of the Society’s first president, C. T. Russell, in 1916. What, though, was to happen after this dark time concluded with the killing of these holy ones as a preaching organization?
19. How does the prophecy in Revelation chapter 11 assure us that the anointed ones were not to be silenced for long?
19 The parallel prophecy found at Revelation 11:3, 9, 11 shows that after the “two witnesses” are killed, they lie dead for only a short period of time—three and a half days—until they are revived. Similarly, the prophecy in Daniel chapter 12 shows that the holy ones would not remain silent but had more work ahead of them.
THEY ARE ‘CLEANSED, WHITENED, AND REFINED’
20. According to Daniel 12:10, what blessings would come upon the anointed after their hard experiences?
20 As noted earlier, Daniel wrote these things down but could not understand them. Still, he must have wondered if the holy ones would actually be finished off at the hands of their persecutors, for he asked, “What will be the final part of these things?” The angel answered: “Go, Daniel, because the words are made secret and sealed up until the time of the end. Many will cleanse themselves and whiten themselves and will be refined. And the wicked ones will certainly act wickedly, and no wicked ones at all will understand; but the ones having insight will understand.” (Daniel 12:8-10) There was a sure hope for the holy ones! Rather than being destroyed, they would be whitened, blessed with a clean standing before Jehovah God. (Malachi 3:1-3) Their insight into spiritual matters would enable them to keep clean in God’s eyes. In contrast, the wicked would refuse to understand spiritual things. But when would all of this occur?
21. (a) The time period foretold at Daniel 12:11 would begin when what conditions had been brought about? (b) What was “the constant feature,” and when was it removed? (See box on page 298.)
21 Daniel was told: “From the time that the constant feature has been removed and there has been a placing of the disgusting thing that is causing desolation, there will be one thousand two hundred and ninety days.” So this time period would begin when certain conditions had been brought about. “The constant feature”—or “the continual sacrifice”a—had to be removed. (Daniel 12:11, footnote) What sacrifice did the angel mean? Not the animal sacrifices offered at any earthly temple. Why, even the temple that once stood in Jerusalem was a mere “copy of the reality”—Jehovah’s great spiritual temple, which went into operation when Christ became its High Priest in 29 C.E.! In this spiritual temple, representing God’s arrangement for pure worship, there is no need of continual sin offerings, for “Christ was offered once for all time to bear the sins of many.” (Hebrews 9:24-28) Yet, all true Christians do offer sacrifices at this temple. The apostle Paul wrote: “Through [Christ] let us always offer to God a sacrifice of praise, that is, the fruit of lips which make public declaration to his name.” (Hebrews 13:15) So this first condition of the prophecy—the removing of “the constant feature”—was brought about in mid-1918 when the preaching work was virtually suspended.
22. (a) What is the desolating “disgusting thing,” and when was it installed? (b) When did the time period foretold at Daniel 12:11 begin, and when did it end?
22 What, though, about the second condition—the “placing,” or installation, of “the disgusting thing that is causing desolation”? As we saw in our discussion of Daniel 11:31, this disgusting thing was first the League of Nations and reemerged later as the United Nations. Both are disgusting in that they have been heralded as the only hope for peace on earth. Thus, in the hearts of many, these institutions actually take the place of God’s Kingdom! The League was officially proposed in January 1919. At that time, then, both conditions of Daniel 12:11 were met. So the 1,290 days began in early 1919 and ran until the autumn (Northern Hemisphere) of 1922.
23. How did God’s holy ones progress toward a cleansed standing during the 1,290 days foretold in Daniel chapter 12?
23 During that time, did the holy ones make progress toward becoming whitened and cleansed in God’s eyes? They certainly did! In March 1919 the president of the Watch Tower Society and his close associates were released from prison. They were later exonerated of the false charges against them. Aware that their work was far from over, they got busy immediately, organizing a convention for September 1919. In the same year, a companion magazine to The Watch Tower was first published. Originally called The Golden Age (now Awake!), it has always supported The Watchtower in fearlessly exposing the corruption of this world and in helping God’s people to remain clean. By the end of the foretold 1,290 days, the holy ones were well on the way to a cleansed and restored standing. In September 1922, right about the time when this period ended, they held a landmark convention at Cedar Point, Ohio, U.S.A. It gave tremendous impetus to the preaching work. However, there was still a need for making more progress. That remained for the next marked period.
HAPPINESS FOR THE HOLY ONES
24, 25. (a) What time period is foretold at Daniel 12:12, and when did it evidently begin and end? (b) What was the spiritual condition of the anointed remnant at the outset of the 1,335 days?
24 Jehovah’s angel concludes his prophecy regarding the holy ones with these words: “Happy is the one who is keeping in expectation and who arrives at the one thousand three hundred and thirty-five days!” (Daniel 12:12) The angel gives no clues as to when this period begins or ends. History suggests that it simply follows on the heels of the preceding period. In that case it would run from the autumn of 1922 to the late spring of 1926 (Northern Hemisphere). Did the holy ones come to a state of happiness by the end of that period? Yes, in important spiritual ways.
25 Even after the convention in 1922 (shown on page 302), some of God’s holy ones were still looking longingly to the past. The basic study material for their meetings was still the Bible and the volumes of Studies in the Scriptures, by C. T. Russell. At that time, there was a widely held view that pointed to 1925 as the year for the resurrection to begin and for Paradise to be restored to the earth. Thus, many were serving with a fixed date in mind. Some proudly refused to share in the work of preaching to the public. This was not a happy state of affairs.
26. As the 1,335 days progressed, how did the spiritual condition of the anointed change?
26 As the 1,335 days progressed, however, all of this began to change. Preaching came to the fore, as regular arrangements for everyone to participate in the field ministry were established. Meetings were scheduled to study The Watch Tower each week. The issue of March 1, 1925, carried the historic article “Birth of the Nation,” giving God’s people a full understanding of what had happened in the 1914-19 period. After 1925 passed, the holy ones no longer served God with an immediate, explicit deadline in view. Rather, the sanctification of Jehovah’s name was paramount. This vital truth was highlighted, as never before, in the January 1, 1926, Watch Tower article “Who Will Honor Jehovah?” At the convention in May 1926, the book Deliverance was released. (See page 302.) This was one of a series of new books designed to replace Studies in the Scriptures. No longer were the holy ones looking to the past. They were looking confidently to the future and the work ahead. As prophesied, the 1,335 days therefore ended with the holy ones in a happy state.
27. How does an overview of Daniel chapter 12 help us to make a conclusive identification of Jehovah’s anointed ones?
27 Of course, not all endured through this tumultuous era. No doubt that is why the angel had emphasized the importance of “keeping in expectation.” Those who endured and kept in expectation were greatly blessed. An overview of Daniel chapter 12 makes this clear. As foretold, the anointed were revived, or resurrected, in a spiritual sense. They were given outstanding insight into God’s Word, being empowered to “rove about” in it and, guided by holy spirit, to unlock age-old mysteries. Jehovah cleansed them and made them shine spiritually, as brightly as stars. Consequently, they brought many into a righteous standing with Jehovah God.
28, 29. What should be our resolve as “the time of the end” nears its conclusion?
28 With all these prophetic marks to identify “the holy ones of the Supreme One,” what excuse can there be for failure to recognize them and associate with them? Wonderful blessings await the great crowd, who join this dwindling anointed class in serving Jehovah. All of us must keep in expectation of the fulfillment of God’s promises. (Habakkuk 2:3) In our day Michael, the Great Prince, has been standing in behalf of God’s people for decades. Soon now he will go into action as the divinely appointed executioner of this system of things. When he does so, where will we stand?
29 The answer to that question will depend on whether we choose to live a life of integrity now. To strengthen our resolve to do so as “the time of the end” draws to a close, let us consider the final verse of Daniel’s book. Our discussion of it in the next chapter will help us to see how Daniel stood before his God and how he will stand before Him in the future.
a Translated simply as “the sacrifice” in the Greek Septuagint.
WHAT DID YOU DISCERN?
• During what time period is Michael “standing,” and how and when will he “stand up”?
• To what kind of resurrection does Daniel 12:2 refer?
• What dates mark the beginning and the end of the
three and a half times mentioned at Daniel 12:7?
1,290 days foretold at Daniel 12:11?
1,335 days prophesied at Daniel 12:12?
• How does paying attention to Daniel chapter 12 help us identify Jehovah’s true worshipers?
[Box on page 298]
REMOVAL OF THE CONSTANT FEATURE
In the book of Daniel, the term “constant feature” occurs five times. It refers to a sacrifice of praise—“the fruit of lips”—regularly offered to Jehovah God by his servants. (Hebrews 13:15) Its foretold removal is referred to at Daniel 8:11, 11:31, and 12:11.
During both world wars, Jehovah’s people were severely persecuted in the realms of “the king of the north” and “the king of the south.” (Daniel 11:14, 15) The removal of “the constant feature” took place toward the end of World War I when the preaching work was all but suspended in mid-1918. (Daniel 12:7) During World War II, “the constant feature” was similarly “taken away” for 2,300 days by the Anglo-American World Power. (Daniel 8:11-14; see Chapter 10 of this book.) It was also removed by Nazi “arms” for a period of time unspecified in the Scriptures.—Daniel 11:31; see Chapter 15 of this book.
[Chart/Pictures on page 301]
PROPHETIC TIME PERIODS IN DANIEL
Seven times (2,520 years): October 607 B.C.E. to
(Messianic Kingdom established.
See Chapter 6 of this book.)
Three and a half times December 1914 to June 1918
(1,260 days): (Anointed Christians harassed.
2,300 evenings and June 1 or 15, 1938, to
mornings: October 8 or 22, 1944
Daniel 8:14 (“Great crowd” emerge, multiply.
See Chapter 10 of this book.)
70 weeks (490 years): 455 B.C.E. to 36 C.E.
Daniel 9:24-27 (Messiah’s coming and his
earthly ministry. See Chapter 11
of this book.)
1,290 days: January 1919 to
Daniel 12:11 September 1922
(Anointed Christians awaken and
1,335 days: September 1922 to May 1926
Daniel 12:12 (Anointed Christians
attain a happy state.)
[Pictures on page 287]
Prominent servants of Jehovah were unjustly sent to the federal penitentiary in Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.A. From left to right: (seated) A. H. Macmillan, J. F. Rutherford, W. E. Van Amburgh; (standing) G. H. Fisher, R. J. Martin, G. DeCecca, F. H. Robison, and C. J. Woodworth
[Pictures on page 299]
Landmark conventions were held at Cedar Point, Ohio, U.S.A., in 1919 (above) and 1922 (below)
[Full-page picture on page 302]