The name or title applied to more than one king of the Amalekites.
1. Balaam, in his third prophetic utterance, foretold that a king of Israel would be “higher than Agag, and his kingdom will be lifted up.” (Nu 24:7) These words were spoken about 1473 B.C.E., and no subsequent reference is made to Agag until the reign of King Saul (1117-1078 B.C.E.). Because of this some scholars suggest that “Agag” was a title used by the kings of the Amalekites similar to the title of Pharaoh used by the kings of Egypt. It may also be simply a case of the repeated use of a personal name. At any rate the manner of Balaam’s reference to Agag indicates that his kingdom was at that time a powerful one.—Nu 24:20; see AMALEK, AMALEKITES.
2. The king of Amalek who was defeated by King Saul in fulfillment of Jehovah’s decree. (Ex 17:14; De 25:17-19; 1Sa 15:1-7) However, Saul failed to execute Agag and allowed the people to keep some of the spoil, and this resulted in Samuel’s pronouncement of God’s rejection of Saul as king. (1Sa 15:8-29) Agag was then executed by Samuel, who told him: “Just as your sword has bereaved women of children, in that way your mother will be most bereaved of children among women.”—1Sa 15:32, 33; compare Jg 1:5-7.