1. The sixth in the list of Ishmael’s 12 sons. By the marriage of his sister Mahalath, Dumah became the brother-in-law to his half cousin Esau. Dumah also became a chieftain and head of a clan, or nation, in fulfillment of Jehovah’s promise to Abraham.—Ge 17:20; 25:14-16; 28:9; 1Ch 1:30.
The Ishmaelite Dumah evidently gave his name to a region in N Arabia about midway between the Promised Land and S Babylonia. The name continues in that of the oasis Dumat al-Ghandal (now known as Al-Jawf). Assyrian King Sennacherib mentions an Adummatu, which was “situated in the desert.” Esar-haddon says that an Adumu was conquered by his father Sennacherib.
2. A city listed among those assigned to the tribe of Judah after the conquest of the land by Joshua. (Jos 15:52) It was in the mountainous region and is identified with Khirbet Domeh ed-Deir (Duma), about 15 km (9 mi) SW of Hebron.
3. At Isaiah 21:11 a pronouncement is made against “Dumah.” However, mention is immediately made of “Seir,” and this may indicate that the message is directed against Edom. (Ge 32:3) The Greek Septuagint at Isaiah 21:11 says “Idumea” (the land of the Edomites) rather than “Dumah.”