3. A city in the southern part of Judah. (Jos 15:21) Since the Hebrew consonants of the name Eder with the last two transposed are the same as the Hebrew consonants of Arad, and since the Septuagint (Vatican Manuscript No. 1209) has “Ara” instead of “Eder” in this text, most scholars consider Eder to be identical with Arad (Tel ʽArad), about 28 km (17 mi) E of Beer-sheba.
4. [Drove]. A tower near which Jacob (Israel) pitched his tent sometime after the death of Rachel. Although its exact location is not known, it was apparently located some place between Bethlehem and Hebron. The name Eder indicates it provided shelter for shepherds and served as a watchtower from which they could oversee their flocks. (Ge 35:19, 21, 27) While Jacob was tenting here, his son Reuben ‘profaned Jacob’s lounge,’ having relations with Jacob’s concubine Bilhah.—Ge 35:22; 49:3, 4.
The same Hebrew expression here translated “tower of Eder” (migh·dal-ʽeʹdher) is used by Micah (4:8) when referring to the “tower of the drove.” This expression may allude to the name of Jacob’s camping site and is used in connection with the restoration of Jehovah’s “limping” people. (Mic 4:7) With “Zion” restored, they would be watched over as from a lookout “tower” and thereby be guarded from further danger. Such an illustration is consistent with other similes in Micah’s prophecy; he referred to the Messiah as one who would do “shepherding” (Mic 5:2-4) and Jehovah’s people as “the flock of [God’s] inheritance.”—Mic 7:14.