[Object of Hostility].
A man living in the land of Uz, in what is now Arabia. (Job 1:1) God said concerning Job: “There is no one like him in the earth, a man blameless and upright, fearing God and turning aside from bad.” (Job 1:8) This would indicate that Job lived in Uz at about the time that his distant cousins, the 12 tribes of Israel, were in slavery down in the land of Egypt. By then Joseph the son of Jacob (Israel) had died (1657 B.C.E.) after he had endured much unjust suffering but had kept his blamelessness toward Jehovah God. Moses had not yet risen up as Jehovah’s prophet to lead the 12 tribes of Israel out of Egyptian slavery. Between Joseph’s death and the time when Moses by his conduct showed himself to be blameless and upright, there was no human with integrity like Job’s. It was likely during this period that the conversations involving Job took place between Jehovah and Satan.—Job 1:6-12; 2:1-7.
Moses is generally credited with writing the account of Job’s experiences. He could have known about Job when he spent 40 years in Midian and may have heard of Job’s final outcome and death when Israel was near Uz toward the end of its wilderness journey. If Moses completed the book of Job about the time of Israel’s entry into the Promised Land in 1473 B.C.E. (probably not long after Job’s death), this would place the time of Job’s trial about 1613 B.C.E., for Job lived 140 years after his trial was over.—Job 42:16, 17.
Job was a relative of Abraham, both being descendants of Shem. Though not an Israelite, Job was a worshiper of Jehovah. He was “the greatest of all the Orientals,” possessing great wealth. His family consisted of his wife, seven sons, and three daughters. (Job 1:1-3) He conscientiously performed duties as a priest for his family, offering sacrifices to God in their behalf.—Job 1:4, 5.
Job was a figure of importance in the gate of the city, even aged men and princes giving him respect. (Job 29:5-11) He sat as an impartial judge, executing justice as a champion of the widow, and was like a father to the fatherless boy, the afflicted, and those who had no help. (Job 29:12-17) He kept himself clean from immorality, greedy materialism, and idolatry, and he was generous to the poor and needy.—Job 31:9-28.
Job’s Integrity. Job’s integrity to Jehovah was challenged by Satan. Then Jehovah, with confidence in that integrity and knowing His own ability to recover and reward Job, permitted Satan to test Job’s integrity to the limit, but he did not allow Satan to kill Job. Although Satan, through various means, took away first Job’s livestock and servants and then his children (Job 1:13-19), Job never charged God with folly or wrongdoing. Neither did he turn away from God, even when pressure was brought upon him by his own wife and by others. (Job 1:20-22; 2:9, 10) He spoke the truth about God. (Job 42:8) He accepted reproof for being too anxious to declare himself righteous and neglecting to vindicate God (Job 32:2), and he acknowledged his sins to God.—Job 42:1-6.
Jehovah loved Job. At the end of Job’s faithful course under test, God constituted him a priest for his three companions who had contended with him, and God restored Job to his former status. He again had a fine family (evidently by the same wife) and double the wealth he had previously possessed. All his relatives and former associates returned to pay respect to him and to bring him gifts. (Job 42:7-15) He lived to see his sons and his grandsons to four generations.—Job 42:16.
Through the prophet Ezekiel, God pointed to Job as an example of righteousness. (Eze 14:14, 20) His patient endurance of suffering is set before Christians as a pattern, and his happy outcome is pointed to as magnifying Jehovah’s affection and mercy. (Jas 5:11) The account of his trialsome experience gives great comfort and strength to Christians, and many Bible principles are highlighted and illuminated by the book bearing his name.