2. An older brother of King David, also called Shimea(h) and Shimei. (1Ch 2:13; 2Sa 13:3; 21:21) As the third son of Jesse, Shammah was the third possible choice rejected from being anointed as king by Samuel. (1Sa 16:6-9) He was in Saul’s army that was being taunted by Goliath when David brought provisions. (1Sa 17:13, 14, 20, 23) One of Shammah’s sons, Jonathan, killed a Philistine giant. (2Sa 21:20, 21; 1Ch 20:6, 7) Some suggest that Shammah’s son Jonathan was also called Jehonadab and was the wily adviser of Amnon.—2Sa 13:3, 32.
3. One of David’s top three warriors; son of Agee the Hararite. On one occasion, Shammah defended a whole field against the Philistines, striking down many of them. (2Sa 23:11, 12) He and the other two principal mighty men made their way in to the cistern of Bethlehem (at the time held by the Philistines), to get water for David, which he refused to drink. (2Sa 23:13-17) Comparison of the similar lists at 1 Chronicles 11:33, 34 and 2 Samuel 23:32, 33 (where in the latter text the generally suggested reading is “Jonathan the son of Shammah the Hararite”) would indicate that Shagee is an alternative name for Shammah, and that Shammah had a son Jonathan who also became a distinguished warrior of David.
4. One of David’s 30 mighty men; a Harodite. (2Sa 23:8, 25) Varied spellings of his name seemingly occur at 1 Chronicles 11:27 (Shammoth) and 1 Chronicles 27:8 (Shamhuth), which latter text identifies him as head of the fifth monthly service division.