(Soʹco[h]) [possibly, Branch [of a Tree]].
1. A Judean city in the Shephelah, seemingly referred to as both Soco and Socoh. (Jos 15:20, 33, 35) The Philistines collected their army together at Socoh and then camped at nearby Ephes-dammim before Goliath’s encounter with David. (1Sa 17:1) Years later this Soco was apparently among the cities that Rehoboam strengthened. (2Ch 11:5-7; however, this passage may apply to No. 2.) Nevertheless, Soco, along with its dependent towns, was captured by the Philistines more than 200 years later, during King Ahaz’ rule. (2Ch 28:16-18) It is identified with the ruins at Khirbet ʽAbbad (Horvat Sokho), in the Low Plain of Elah about 4 km (2.5 mi) ESE of Azekah, although Khirbet Shuweikeh, a short distance to the E, seems to preserve the Biblical name.
2. Socoh, a city in the mountainous region of Judah. (Jos 15:20, 48) It is often identified with a Khirbet Shuweikeh, about 17 km (11 mi) SW of Hebron. This is a different Khirbet Shuweikeh from the one mentioned in No. 1.
3. Socoh, a place under the administration of one of Solomon’s deputies. (1Ki 4:7, 10) The suggested identification of it with Khirbet Shuweiket er-Ras, about 15 km (9.5 mi) WNW of Samaria, seems to fit the account, since the proposed sites of both Arubboth and Hepher (mentioned with Socoh in the Kings account) are nearby.
4. In the genealogy of Judah, Heber is called “the father of Soco.” (1Ch 4:18) Soco could be a personal name of Heber’s descendant, or the text could indicate that Heber was the founder of the city of Soco or its population. Assuming that this latter situation was the case, it is not possible to determine whether the reference is to Soco(h) No. 1 or No. 2.