(Zaʹdok) [from a root meaning “be righteous”].
1. A priest prominently associated with King David. Zadok was a descendant of Aaron through the high-priestly line of Eleazar. (1Ch 6:3-8, 50-53) He is also called a seer. (2Sa 15:27) Zadok, as a young man mighty in valor, was one of the tribal chiefs who threw in his support for David’s kingship. (1Ch 12:27, 28) From that time on he was loyal to David.—2Sa 8:15, 17; 20:25; 1Ch 18:16.
Zadok and Abiathar (whenever the two are mentioned, Zadok is named first, perhaps because he was also a prophet) accompanied the ark of the covenant when David had it brought up to Jerusalem, after which Zadok continued to serve for a time at Gibeon, where the tabernacle was located. (1Ch 15:11, 14; 16:39) When Absalom rebelled, Zadok and the Levites started to bring the Ark along as they accompanied David in his flight from Jerusalem, but David sent them back to the city, designating Zadok and others to act as intelligence intermediaries. (2Sa 15:23-29, 35, 36; 17:15, 16; 18:19-27) After the rebellion was over, Zadok and Abiathar were instrumental in securing David’s favorable reception in Jerusalem. (2Sa 19:11-14) When, late in his reign, David organized the Levitical services for the temple, both Zadok and Ahimelech the son of Abiathar assisted him.—1Ch 24:3, 6, 30, 31.
In contrast with Abiathar, Zadok did not support the attempted usurpation of the throne by Adonijah; for this, David appointed Zadok as the one to anoint Solomon as king. (1Ki 1:7, 8, 26, 32-46) During the reigns of Saul and David, Zadok served only as an associate priest, but for his loyalty as contrasted with the wavering allegiance of High Priest Abiathar, Solomon expelled Abiathar from Jerusalem and made Zadok high priest. This fulfilled Jehovah’s prophecy spoken against Eli’s house. (1Ki 2:26, 27, 35) The later listing of “Zadok and Abiathar” at 1 Kings 4:4 is probably in a historical sense. Josephus claims that Zadok was the first high priest at Solomon’s temple. (Jewish Antiquities, X, 152 [viii, 6]) At 1 Chronicles 27:16, 17, Zadok is listed as leader over the house of Aaron. The Bible provides a basis for tracing the line of Zadok as holding the office of high priest down to the time of Darius the Persian (likely Darius II). (1Ki 4:2; 1Ch 6:8-15; 2Ch 31:10; Ne 12:22) The priests seen in Ezekiel’s visionary temple were “sons of Zadok.”—Eze 40:46; 43:19; 44:15; 48:11.
4. One of Jerusalem’s postexilic wall rebuilders; son of Baana. (Ne 3:4) Either he or a representative of a family of the same name signed the national covenant proposed shortly thereafter.—Ne 9:38; 10:1, 14, 21.
5. Another who helped rebuild Jerusalem’s wall; son or descendant of Immer, who possibly belonged to the priestly family.—Ne 3:29.
6. A copyist whom Nehemiah made jointly responsible with Shelemiah and Pedaiah for the Levitical stores. (Ne 13:13) Perhaps the same as No. 5.
7. A postexilic ancestor of Jesus’ adoptive father Joseph.—Mt 1:14.