A king of Midian who shared in oppressing Israel. Zebah and Zalmunna were rulers presumably for the seven years that Midian made raids against Israel, ruining fields and bringing about poverty. (Jg 6:1-6) At some unspecified time they also killed members of Gideon’s household.—Jg 8:18, 19.
When Gideon defeated their army of 135,000, Zebah, Zalmunna, and 15,000 managed to escape under hot pursuit and made their way to Karkor, quite some distance, but there they were again defeated and finally captured. As Gideon was bringing Zebah and Zalmunna back as humiliated captives at least as far as Succoth, they must have been reminded of their boastful words (or at least the expression of their attitude) preserved in the psalm: “Let us take possession of the abiding places of God for ourselves.” (Ps 83:11, 12) After they admitted to having killed his brothers, Gideon personally put to death the two Midianite kings.—Jg 8:4-21.