An implement for writing with ink or similar fluid. When ancients wrote on clay, wax, or soft metal they used a stylus (see STYLUS), but writing was also done on parchment or papyrus with pen and ink. (3Jo 13; 2Jo 12) The Greek word translated “pen” (kaʹla·mos) refers to a reed or cane and can literally be rendered “writing-reed.” Among ancient Egyptians the reed pen was made with a flat chisel-shaped head that was cut or sliced so that it would act as a brush. The reeds may have been dried and hardened by leaving them under dung heaps for several months, as has been the practice in recent years. The Greeks and Romans used a reed pen that was pointed and slit, as was later done with quill pens and as has been done even in recent times with pen points.