The site of the defeat of the Rephaim by Chedorlaomer, king of Elam. (Gen. 14:5) Some have supposed it to be the full name for Ashtaroth and that the addition of “karnaim” (horns) refers to the two horns of the crescent moon symbolizing the goddess Astarte, or to twin peaks adjacent to the town. However, it is also suggested that the name means ‘Ashteroth near Karnaim’ and that it thus refers to the city of Ashtaroth with Karnaim being mentioned as a separate but adjacent town. Reference is made to Karnaim during the Maccabean period (1 Maccabees 5:26, 43, 44; 2 Maccabees 12:21, 26), and the site is considered to be located at Sheikh Saʽad, which lies about three miles (5 kilometers) N of Tell ʽAshterah, the generally accepted site of Ashtaroth.—See ASHTAROTH.
Tiglath-pileser III of Assyria makes mention of Qarnini in his conquest of the region, evidently referring to Karnaim.