1. The sixth in the list of Ishmael’s twelve sons. By the marriage of his sister Mahalath, Dumah became the brother-in-law to his half-cousin Esau. Dumah also became a chieftain and head of a clan or nation, in fulfillment of Jehovah’s promise to Abraham.—Gen. 17:20; 25:14-16; 28:9; 1 Chron. 1:30.
The Ishmaelite Dumah evidently gave his name to a region in N Arabia about midway between Palestine and S Babylonia. The name continues in that of the oasis Dumat al-Ghandal. Ancient inscriptions from Assyria and Babylon give the name as Adummatu and Adummu and show it to have been conquered by Sennacherib and Esar-haddon of Assyria and later by the Babylonian Nabonidus.
2. A city listed among those assigned to the tribe of Judah after the conquest of the land by Joshua. (Josh. 15:52) It was in the mountainous region and is evidently identified with modern ed-Domeh, about ten miles (16 kilometers) SW of Hebron.
3. At Isaiah 21:11 a pronouncement is made against “Dumah.” However, mention is immediately made of “Seir,” and this may indicate that the message is directed against Edom. (Gen. 32:3) The Septuagint Version at Isaiah 21:11 says “Idumaea” (Edom) rather than “Dumah.”