(Shamʹmah) [object of astonishment].
2. An older brother of King David, also called Shimea(h) and Shimei. (1 Chron. 2:13; 2 Sam. 13:3; 21:21) As the third son of Jesse, Shammah was the third possible choice rejected from being anointed as king by Samuel. (1 Sam. 16:6-9) He was in Saul’s army that was being taunted by Goliath when David brought provisions. (1 Sam. 17:13, 14, 20, 23) One of Shammah’s sons, Jonathan, killed a Philistine giant. (2 Sam. 21:20, 21; 1 Chron. 20:6, 7) Some suggest Shammah’s son Jonathan was also called Jehonadab and was the wily adviser of Amnon.—2 Sam. 13:3, 32.
3. One of David’s top three warriors; son of Agee the Hararite. On one occasion, Shammah defended a whole field against the Philistines, striking down many of them. (2 Sam. 23:11, 12) He and the other two principal mighty men made their way in to the cistern of Bethlehem (at the time held by the Philistines), to get water for David, which he refused to drink. (2 Sam. 23:13-17) Comparison of the similar lists at 1 Chronicles 11:33, 34 and 2 Samuel 23:32, 33 (where in the latter text the generally suggested reading is “Jonathan the son of Shammah the Hararite”) would indicate that Shagee is an alternate name for Shammah, and that Shammah had a son Jonathan who also became a distinguished warrior of David.—See SHAGEE.
4. One of David’s thirty mighty men; a Harodite. (2 Sam. 23:8, 25) Varied spellings of his name seemingly occur at 1 Chronicles 11:27 (Shammoth) and 27:8 (Shamhuth), which latter text identifies him as head of the fifth monthly service division.