1. In Jesus’ day, what was Gehenna, and of what punishment was it used as a symbol?
GEHENNA, or the Valley of Hinnom, is mentioned twelve times in the Christian Greek Scriptures. In the days of Jesus Christ on earth it was a fiery place and, being a valley outside the walls of Jerusalem, it was on earth. It became a symbol of the worst punishment that could befall a person. For instance, in Matthew 5:22, in his Sermon on the Mount, Jesus said: “Everyone who continues wrathful with his brother will be accountable to the court of justice; but whoever addresses his brother with an unspeakable word of contempt [Raca] will be accountable to the Supreme Court; whereas whoever says, ‘You despicable fool!’ will be liable to the fiery Gehenna.” Thus Jesus grades the “fiery Gehenna” as third and worst. Why? Because the one who called another a despicable fool and who was sentenced to the fiery Gehenna is put to death and not given a burial. His corpse is burned up in the fires of Gehenna and the ashes are never collected for preserving in an urn. So he was pictured as not going to Haʹdes.
2, 3. What does Matthew 5:29, 30 show as to a sinner’s corpse?
2 A few verses later on in the same Sermon on the Mount Jesus shows that the sinner’s corpse is thrown into Gehenna as a crematory. In Matthew 5:29, 30 Jesus says:
3 “If, now, that right eye of yours is making you stumble, tear it out and throw it away from you. For it is more beneficial to you for one of your members to be lost to you than for your whole body to be pitched into Gehenna. Also, if your right hand is making you stumble, cut it off and throw it away from you [not, torment it]. For it is more beneficial for one of your members to be lost to you than for your whole body to land in Gehenna.”
4. In what sense did Jesus there use Gehenna, and how is this shown?
4 From this language we see that Jesus used in a symbolical manner the ancient Gehenna that was located outside the walls of Jerusalem. Jesus did not mean that his followers should pluck out a literal eye or chop off a literal right hand. Rather, Jesus was talking about something precious that causes us to sin with the right eye or the right hand. Accordingly, then, as the eye and right hand were spoken of symbolically, Gehenna must also have been spoken of in a symbolical way, not literally.
5. In Matthew 18:8, 9, with what does Jesus contrast one’s being thrown into the symbolical Gehenna?
5 Notice how Jesus contrasts one’s being thrown into Gehenna with one’s entering into life. This indicates that the symbolical Gehenna is a place of no life at all. In Matthew 18:8, 9 Jesus said: “If, then, your hand or your foot is making you stumble, cut it off and throw it away from you; it is finer for you to enter into life maimed or lame than to be thrown with two hands or two feet into the everlasting fire. Also, if your eye is making you stumble, tear it out and throw it away from you [not, torment it]; it is finer for you to enter one-eyed into life than to be thrown with two eyes into the fiery Gehenna.” In this “fiery Gehenna” is where the “everlasting fire” burns, symbolically speaking.
6, 7. (a) Besides fire, what other destructive things were present in the Gehenna outside Jerusalem? (b) How did Jesus point this out in Mark 9:43-48?
6 Jesus reminds us that in the Gehenna outside Jerusalem there were also worms or maggots, not, of course, in the fire, but on decaying organic matter near the fire. These are, of course, not earthworms such as crawl through the ground and feed on human bodies buried in graves. They are like the worms from which King Herod Agrippa I died, according to these words of Acts 12:23: “Instantly the angel of Jehovah struck him, because he did not give the glory to God; and he became eaten up with worms and expired.” Using this same Greek word (skólex), Jesus said:
7 “If ever your hand makes you stumble, cut it off; it is finer for you to enter into life maimed than with two hands to go off into Gehenna, into the fire that cannot be put out. And if your foot makes you stumble, cut it off; it is finer for you to enter into life lame than with two feet to be pitched into Gehenna. And if your eye makes you stumble, throw it away; it is finer for you to enter one-eyed into the kingdom of God than with two eyes to be pitched into Gehenna, where their maggot [skólex] does not die and the fire is not put out.”—Mark 9:43-48; Isa. 66:24.
8. Thus Gehenna was pictured as a place of what, and how does M’Clintock and Strong’s Cyclopædia speak about Gehenna?
8 So, if the dead body pitched into the Gehenna outside Jerusalem did not land in the fire mingled with sulphur, it would be consumed anyhow. How? By the maggots from the eggs that flies would lay in the decaying corpse. Gehenna was thus a place of total destruction or consumption, into which the dead bodies of those persons who were considered unworthy of being buried in a marked grave or memorial tomb were pitched. Concerning Gehenna, page 764 of Volume 3 of the Cyclopædia by M’Clintock and Strong says:
In consequence of these abominations the valley was polluted by Josiah (2 Kings 23:10); subsequently to which it became the common lay-stall of the city, where the dead bodies of criminals, and the carcasses of animals, and every other kind of filth was cast, and, according to late and somewhat questionable authorities, the combustible portion consumed with fire. From the depth and narrowness of the gorge, and, perhaps, its ever-burning fires, as well as from its being the receptacle of all sorts of putrefying matter, and all that defiled the holy city, it became in later times the image of the place of everlasting punishment, “where their worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched;” in which the Talmudists placed the mouth of Hell: “There are two palm-trees in the valley of Hinnom, between which a smoke ariseth . . . and this is the door of Gehenna.”a
WHAT IT SYMBOLIZES
9. (a) What did Jesus say about Gehenna in Matthew 10:28 and Luke 12:4, 5? (b) When God destroys both body and soul, what results?
9 Regardless of what any reference authorities have to say regarding Gehenna, what did Jesus Christ, the Son of God, have to say about it? What did it mean for the person sentenced by God the Almighty to the symbolical Gehenna? Jesus plainly answered when he sent his twelve apostles out on missionary work and said: “And do not become fearful of those who kill the body but cannot kill the soul; but rather be in fear of him that can destroy both soul and body in Gehenna.” (Matt. 10:28) On another occasion Jesus said to a crowd of thousands: “Moreover, I say to you, my friends, Do not fear those who kill the body and after this are not able to do anything more. But I will indicate to you whom to fear: Fear him who after killing has authority to throw into Gehenna. Yes, I tell you, fear this One.” (Luke 12:4, 5) When Almighty God destroys both body and soul of a human creature, what is left? There is complete destruction; and, because this destruction is everlasting, such destruction of human body and soul is an everlasting punishment. There is no resurrection out of such destruction.
10. What is to be understood by the “fire” of the symbolic Gehenna’s being an “everlasting fire”?
10 Jesus thus used Gehenna as a symbol of complete, endless destruction, just as fire is destructive. Because the destruction is everlasting, the fire of the symbolic Gehenna is said to be “everlasting fire.” This means that such a Gehenna will always exist; it will never give up those in it; it will never be emptied, never be wiped out as Adamic death and Haʹdes will be. (Rev. 20:13) Figuratively speaking, the symbolic Gehenna always burns and will always be available for executing any who rebel against God throughout everlasting time, all eternity.
11. Why is there no resurrection from the symbolic Gehenna?
11 Since the symbolic Gehenna is the place of everlasting destruction, Jesus correctly set a person’s entering into Gehenna as the opposite of one’s entering into life. Hence if anyone enters into the symbolic Gehenna, in which God destroys both body and soul, how can anyone have a resurrection to an opportunity for everlasting life in God’s heavenly kingdom or in Paradise restored here on earth under God’s kingdom? There is no resurrection from the symbolic Gehenna.
12, 13. (a) The uncontrolled tongue can inflame how many and spot up what? (b) Like Gehenna, what can it cause?
12 Because fiery Gehenna is destructive, the disciple James ties it in with the uncontrolled human tongue, in these words: “Well, [like the little fire setting aflame a great woodland] the tongue is a fire. The tongue is constituted a world of unrighteousness among our members, for it spots up all the body and sets the wheel of natural life aflame and it is set aflame by Gehenna.”—Jas. 3:6.
13 Hence, all the world of mankind, not one particular person, has to watch the tongue, for all the world is born in unrighteousness. The tongue, by its propaganda that spreads from tongue to tongue, can inflame a whole world of people and incite them to unrighteousness. It spots up not just the mouth in which it wags, but all the human body; so that, if one has a beautiful body but an uncontrolled tongue, it takes away from the fine impression made by the attractive body. This is especially so before God, because, as Jesus tells us, by our words we shall be declared righteous and by our words we shall be condemned. (Matt. 12:37) Like Gehenna, the tongue can cause destruction that is beyond repair.
14. To what can the tongue, when “set aflame by Gehenna,” cause one to be sentenced?
14 One’s whole round of living can be affected by fiery words that defile the speaker’s body, inflaming it to destructive action. James 3:8 well says: “But the tongue, not one of mankind can get it tamed. An unruly injurious thing, it is full of death-dealing poison.” The tongue, when “set aflame by Gehenna,” can cause the user to be sentenced by God to go to the symbolic Gehenna, as it denotes a bad heart condition.—See Psalm 5:9; Romans 3:13.
THE “LAND OF NO RETURN”
15. (a) How is what Gehenna stands for symbolized in Revelation? (b) How did fire and sulphur from heaven affect Sodom and Gomorrah?
15 In the last book of the Bible, A Revelation to John, the word “Gehenna” does not occur. However, what Gehenna stands for is there symbolized by “the fiery lake that burns with sulphur,” or, “the lake of fire and sulphur, “the lake of fire,” “the lake that burns with fire and sulphur.” (Rev. 19:20; 20:10, 14, 15; 21:8) We know what the effect of fire mingled with sulphur is upon combustible things. In the days of Abraham and his nephew Lot, as Genesis 19:24 tells us, “then Jehovah made it rain sulphur and fire from Jehovah, from the heavens, upon Sodom and upon Gomorrah.” How this affected Sodom and Gomorrah Jesus tells us, saying: “On the day that Lot came out of Sodom it rained fire and sulphur from heaven and destroyed them all.”—Luke 17:29.
16. (a) In Sodom’s case, how was a lake associated with fire and sulphur? (b) What was the temporary effect and the final effect of the fire and sulphur rained down on the people?
16 Moreover, Sodom was close to the Dead Sea or Sea of Salt. This is a big inland lake in which nothing alive exists; which fact adds to the thought of the complete deadness caused by the literal fire and sulphur that rained down upon the cities of that district. Thus, too, as in Revelation, we have a deadly lake associated with fire and sulphur (brimstone). The people upon whom the fire and sulphur rained may have been tormented for the time that they continued conscious, but the final effect of the fire and sulphur together was to destroy them.b This destruction preceded by torment is the thought conveyed in Revelation 14:10, 11, and also in Psalm 11:5, 6, where fire and sulphur are mentioned together, evidently in a symbolic sense.
17. What will be rained down upon the army of Gog of Magog, and what will be the effect of this?
17 Among the destructive forces that God will pour down upon the army of Gog of the land of Magog when it attacks Jehovah’s restored people, “fire and sulphur” are included, in Ezekiel 38:22. While these elements may torment and agonize the army of Gog for a while, they at last destroy the enemy army, killing them off. That this is the case is shown in the next chapter, in Ezekiel 39:11-20, which describes how the dead bodies of the army of Gog of Magog are disposed of down to the very last bone.
18. In Revelation 20:14, how is the difference between Haʹdes or Sheol and the lake of fire and sulphur shown?
18 From all the foregoing it is unmistakably evident that Haʹdes or Sheol is different from Gehenna and the “lake that burns with fire and sulphur.” Otherwise, how could Revelation 20:14 state: “Death and Haʹdes were hurled into the lake of fire”? This verse also shows the meaning of the “lake of fire,” saying: “This means the second death, the lake of fire.”
19. (a) Does the “second death” (“lake of fire”) deliver up those hurled into it? (b) Hence of what is Gehenna or the lake of fire and sulphur a symbol?
19 Thus the death that spread to all men by birth from Adam will be put to death in the “second death.” Death will be destroyed in the “second death” and will not be tormented there forever. Neither will Haʹdes be forever tormented in the “second death,” but it will be destroyed forever in this symbolic “lake of fire.” This “lake of fire” or “second death” never delivers up “death and Haʹdes” that are hurled into it. Hence Gehenna or the lake that burns with fire and sulphur is a Bible picture of eternal or absolute destruction from which there is no resurrection. That is why resurrected persons who have been given up by inherited death and by Haʹdes can later be “hurled into the lake of fire” and undergo the “second death,” because they do not get their names written on the scroll of life.—Rev. 20:15.
20. (a) Into what are the “wild beast” and the “false prophet” hurled, when, and for how long? (b) What is symbolized thereby?
20 According to Revelation 19:20, the symbolic “wild beast” and the “false prophet” are to be “hurled into the fiery lake that burns with sulphur” during the coming “war of the great day of God the Almighty.” This occurs just before the Devil, Satan, and his demons are bound and cast into the abyss for the thousand years of Christ’s reign. At the end of the thousand years the symbolic “wild beast” and the “false prophet” are still in that symbolic “lake of fire and sulphur” and are not released from it even when Satan and his demons are released from the abyss to try to mislead mankind. The symbolic “wild beast” and the “false prophet” are never released from that place of destruction, “the second death,” but they are still there when they are joined by all those who are later on hurled into the “lake of fire.” (Rev. 20:10, 15) Thus in the coming “war of the great day” at Armageddon the symbolic “wild beast” and the “false prophet” are to be destroyed for all time, with no hope of resurrection ever.
21. (a) Where is Satan the Devil hurled after his brief release from the abyss, and how is Hebrews 2:14 thus completely fulfilled? (b) How is his place of everlasting punishment symbolized in Matthew 25:41?
21 At the end of the thousand years of Christ’s successful rule over redeemed mankind, Satan and his demons will be released from the abyss. Thus, in effect, that abyss will cease to exist, being emptied of them. During their little time of freedom they try to mislead into destruction as many of the earthly subjects of God’s kingdom as they can. After that they are hurled into the “second death,” where the “wild beast” and the “false prophet” have been all this time. (Rev. 20:1-3, 7-10) In this way it is that Jehovah God works out his glorious purpose through his self-sacrificing Son Jesus Christ, “that through his death he might bring to nothing the one having the means to cause death, that is, the Devil.” (Heb. 2:14) This punishment of “everlasting destruction” is what is symbolized by the “everlasting fire prepared for the Devil and his angels,” to which also the cursed goatish people of the earth will be sent at Armageddon, according to Jesus’ words in Matthew 25:31-33, 41, 46.
UNDESERVING OF RESURRECTION
22, 23. (a) In what terms did Jesus warn the Jewish religious leaders, but with what effect? (b) How did Stephen’s words to the Jerusalem Sanhedrin show whether those judges had heeded Jesus’ warning?
22 Nineteen centuries ago, in his days as a man on earth, Jesus Christ warned the Jews of that generation of the danger of their going into everlasting destruction symbolized by Gehenna. He told the hypocritical religious leaders of the Jews that they made the Gentile people whom they proselytized a “subject for Gehenna twice as much so as yourselves.” He called the hypocritical Jewish scribes and Pharisees serpents and offspring of vipers, thus identifying them as children of Satan the Devil the “original Serpent.” Then he asked how they could “flee from the judgment of Gehenna” when they willfully kept on opposing God’s kingdom and the preachers of that kingdom. (Matt. 23:13-15, 29-36) They kept on in the lying, murderous deeds of their “father the Devil.” (John 8:44) And just before they killed Stephen, “a man full of faith and holy spirit,” he said to the Jewish judges in the courtroom:
23 “Obstinate men and uncircumcised in hearts and ears, you are always resisting the holy spirit; as your forefathers did, so you do. Which one of the prophets did your forefathers not persecute? Yes, they killed those who made announcement in advance concerning the coming of the righteous One, whose betrayers and murderers you have now become, you who received the Law as transmitted by angels but have not kept it.”—Acts 6:5; 7:51-60.
24. (a) Into what did the unrepentant Jewish religious leaders go at death, and with what possibility of resurrection? (b) Who went there with them, according to Matthew 15:12-14?
24 Any of such Jewish religious leaders as did not repent of this course of resisting the holy spirit and of opposing God’s Messianic kingdom and of persecuting the Kingdom preachers did not “flee from the judgment of Gehenna.” At their death, whenever this occurred, they went into Gehenna. For this reason they will have no resurrection on earth under God’s kingdom. They may have been honored with solemn funeral rites but they did not go to Haʹdes or Sheol. From God they suffered the “judgment of Gehenna.” They were “blind guides,” and the religiously blinded Jews and proselytes who followed these hypocritical blind guides in such a course ended up with them in Gehenna. Both guides and guided ones “will fall into the pit,” said Jesus in Matthew 15:12-14. They go into “second death,” and Christ’s sacrifice does not procure for them a resurrection from the dead. He did not die for those who go to Gehenna.—Matt. 23:16, 17, 19, 24, 26.
25, 26. (a) What question arises as to the entire Jewish generation throughout the earth in that day? (b) According to Jesus’ words in Matthew 12:39-42, by whom would that generation be condemned?
25 What about that generation of Jews as a whole, scattered throughout the then known inhabited earth, in that first century of our Common Era? Because of not becoming Christians with a heavenly hope, did they all come under a Jewish community responsibility that doomed them to Gehenna at death, making them all undeserving of a resurrection? To help us to the right answer, Jesus made a comparison of that Jewish generation with others and referred to the prophet Jonah and the queen of Sheba, saying:
26 “A wicked and adulterous generation keeps on seeking for a sign, but no sign will be given it except the sign of Jonah the prophet. For just as Jonah was in the belly of the huge fish three days and three nights, so the Son of man will be in the heart of the earth three days and three nights. Men of Nineveh will rise up [anastesontai] in the judgment [krisis] with this generation and will condemn it; because they repented at what Jonah preached, but, look! something more than Jonah is here. The queen of the south will be raised up in the judgment with this generation and will condemn it; because she came from the ends of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon, but, look! something more than Solomon is here.”—Matt. 12:39-42; Luke 11:29-32.
27. For the Assyrian Ninevites to do this, what will they have to have, agreeably to other scriptures?
27 For the “men of Nineveh” to rise up or come forward in the judgment as witnesses it will be necessary for them to have a resurrection from the dead. Nineveh was the royal capital of ancient Assyria. We remember that Ezekiel 32:21, 22 reveals to us that it is in Sheol or Haʹdes “where Assyria and all her congregation are. His burial places are round about him.” Inasmuch as Haʹdes or Sheol will give up all the dead people in it on the day of judgment (Rev. 20:11-15), we can appreciate that this will mean a resurrection of the dead Ninevites from their burial places on earth during the thousand-year reign of Jesus Christ.
28. Would the Ninevites do such condemning without the resurrection of that generation of Jews, and how would they condemn these?
28 Examining the language of Jesus, we note that he said that the men of Nineveh will rise up in the judgment “with this generation,” not against this generation. This indicates that not all the Jews of that generation in the days of Jesus and his apostles were sentenced with the “judgment of Gehenna” at their death. Under God’s mercy they went to Haʹdes or Sheol, despite the fact that they did not die Christian converts. They will be resurrected the same as the Assyrians and Ninevites will be, to stand alongside one another in the judgment before the “great white throne.” Then by their mere conduct long ago in Jonah’s day those Ninevites of the eighth century before our Common Era will condemn those Jews of Jesus’ day. Why? Because the Assyrian Ninevites repented at the preaching by Jehovah’s prophet Jonah, although they did not become Jewish proselytes, whereas the Jews did not repent at the preaching of Jesus Christ, who was far greater and more important than Jonah.
29. (a) Will the condemning by the Ninevites mean the sentencing of the Jews? (b) How will it be proved whether they came forth in a resurrection to adverse judgment or not?
29 The Ninevites will thus condemn the Jews of that generation for their unbelief and hardheartedness, but they will not sentence such Jews to Gehenna. Only the heavenly Judge, Jehovah God, and his Deputy Jesus Christ, can do that. By what the Jews of that condemned generation do on earth during the remaining years of the millennial reign of Christ, they will prove one of two things. What? Whether they deserve to be sentenced to Gehenna or the “lake of fire,” “the second death,” or deserve to have their names entered on the “scroll of life.” They will thus have to prove whether they came forth from Haʹdes or Sheol to a resurrection of life or to a resurrection of adverse judgment.—John 5:28, 29.
30. (a) By whom else will a condemnation come upon that Jewish generation? (b) To that end what will the queen of Sheba have to have?
30 Similar condemnation of those Jews of Jesus’ day will come from another quarter besides that of the men of Assyrian Nineveh, namely, from the “queen of the south.” According to 1 Kings 10:1-10 and; 2 Chronicles 9:1-9, she was the queen of Sheba. Her country, Sheba or the land of the Sabaeans, lay over a thousand miles to the south of Jerusalem, in southwest Arabia, probably in the eastern area of what is today known as Yemen. Her land or people is not named in Ezekiel, chapters 31 and 32, among those nations whose dead are declared to be in Sheol or Haʹdes, but her land was in that general land area. This queen of the south or of Sheba will “be raised up in the judgment with [not, against] this generation.” This will require a resurrection of her, and it is not reasonable to think that she will be the only one of her people to rise up in that judgment before the “great white throne” during the thousand years of Christ’s reign. Like those others whom Ezekiel named, the queen of the south and her people are in Sheol or Haʹdes and will therefore have a resurrection.
31. (a) Why was the queen of the south’s conduct condemnatory of the Jewish generation of Jesus’ days? (b) How should this affect them on Judgment Day?
31 Among her resurrected people the queen in particular will condemn the Jewish generation of Jesus’ day, by her conduct a thousand years before Jesus’ day. She came all that distance by the transportation of that time to hear the wisdom of King Solomon and to behold his works at Jerusalem; and as a result she acknowledged the God of King Solomon. But Jesus Christ was far greater and more important than King Solomon; and yet the Jewish generation of Jesus’ day, for the most part, would not listen to his heavenly wisdom. So, on the judgment day during Christ’s reign, the contrast between them and the queen of the south will be something additional to humiliate them. This ought to help them to be obedient to the millennial kingdom of the Greater Solomon.
32. What question arises as to King Solomon himself, and how do 1 Kings 11:43 and; 2 Chronicles 9:31 throw light upon the matter?
32 The queen of Sheba will be favored with a resurrection from Sheol or Haʹdes, but what about King Solomon whom she visited? His father David is mentioned in Hebrews 11:32 as being among the approved ancient witnesses of Jehovah, but Solomon, the wisest king of ancient times and the writer of three Bible books, is not mentioned there. Some time after the queen of Sheba visited him, he yielded to the influence of his hundreds of wives and concubines and fell away to the foolish worship of pagan idols. (1 Ki. 11:1-8; Neh. 13:25, 26; Rom. 1:25) However, both 1 Kings 11:43 and; 2 Chronicles 9:31 say that “Solomon lay down with his forefathers” and was buried “in the city of David his father.” So, since Solomon lay down to sleep in death with his forefathers, including David, that puts him in Sheol or Haʹdes, with the prospect of being brought forth therefrom under the kingdom of the Greater Solomon.—Compare Deuteronomy 31:16; 2 Samuel 7:12; 1 Kings 1:21; 2 Kings 20:21.
a On page 18 of the Alphabetical Appendix to the New Testament of The Emphatic Diaglott by Benjamin Wilson we read:
“GEHENNA, the Greek word translated hell in the common version, occurs 12 times. It is the Grecian mode of spelling the Hebrew words which are translated, ‘The valley of Hinnom.’ This valley was also called Tophet, a detestation, an abomination. Into this place were cast all kinds of filth, with the carcasses of beasts, and the unburied bodies of criminals who had been executed. Continual fires were kept to consume these. . . . Gehenna, then, as occurring in the New Testament, symbolizes death and utter destruction, but in no place signifies a place of eternal torment.”
Under HINNOM the Cyclopædia by M’Clintock and Strong says:
“We learn from Josephus that the last terrible struggle between the Jews and Romans took place here (War, VI, 8, 5), and here, too, it appears the dead bodies were thrown out of the city after the siege (V, 12, 7). . . . Most commentators follow Buxtorf, Lightfoot, and others, in asserting that perpetual fires were kept up for the consumption of the bodies of criminals, carcasses of animals, and whatever else was combustible; but the combined authorities usually brought forward in support of this idea appear insufficient. . . . ”—Volume 4 (edition of 1891), page 266.
b Since the elements making up the human body are over 90 percent water, it would require a fire with volcanic heat, a fire reaching a temperature of from 3000 to 5000 degrees Fahrenheit, to destroy it. Thus we can appreciate why sulphur (brimstone) was added to the fires burning in the Gehenna outside the walls of ancient Jerusalem in order to speed up and effect as far as possible the total destruction of the dead bodies pitched into it.
Dr. Wilton Krogman, professor of physical anthropology at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, has said that he has watched a body in a crematorium burn at 2000 degrees Fahrenheit for more than eight hours, burning under the best possible conditions as regards heat and combustion, everything being controlled; but at the end of that time he saw scarcely a bone that was not still present and altogether recognizable as a human bone. True, it was calcined, but it had not become an ash or powder. It was only at more than 3000 degrees Fahrenheit that he saw a bone turn liquid and run and become volatile.—See the article “The Baffling Burning Death,” by Allan W. Eckert, in the magazine entitled “True The Man’s Magazine,” as of May 1964, pages 33, 105-112.