7 Jehovah then said to Moses: “See, I have made you like God* to Pharʹaoh, and Aaron your own brother will become your prophet.+ 2 You are to repeat everything that I will command you, and Aaron your brother will speak to Pharʹaoh, and he will send the Israelites away from his land. 3 As for me, I will allow Pharʹaoh’s heart to become obstinate,+ and I will multiply my signs and my miracles in the land of Egypt.+ 4 But Pharʹaoh will not listen to you, and I will lay my hand upon Egypt and bring my multitudes,* my people, the Israelites, out of the land of Egypt with great judgments.+ 5 And the Egyptians will certainly know that I am Jehovah+ when I stretch out my hand against Egypt and bring the Israelites out from among them.” 6 Moses and Aaron did what Jehovah had commanded them; they did just so. 7 Moses was 80 years old and Aaron was 83 years old when they spoke to Pharʹaoh.+
8 Jehovah now said to Moses and Aaron: 9 “If Pharʹaoh says to you, ‘Perform a miracle,’ then tell Aaron, ‘Take your rod and throw it down before Pharʹaoh.’ It will become a big snake.”+ 10 So Moses and Aaron went in to Pharʹaoh and did exactly as Jehovah had commanded. Aaron threw his rod down before Pharʹaoh and his servants, and it became a big snake. 11 However, Pharʹaoh summoned the wise men and the sorcerers, and the magic-practicing priests of Egypt+ also did the same thing with their magic.*+ 12 Each one threw down his rod, and they became big snakes; but Aaron’s rod swallowed up their rods. 13 Still, Pharʹaoh’s heart became obstinate,+ and he did not listen to them, just as Jehovah had said.
14 Then Jehovah said to Moses: “Pharʹaoh’s heart is unresponsive.+ He has refused to send the people away. 15 Go to Pharʹaoh in the morning. Look! He is going out to the water! And you should station yourself to meet him by the edge of the Nile River; and take with you in your hand the rod that turned into a serpent.+ 16 And you must say to him, ‘Jehovah the God of the Hebrews has sent me to you,+ and he says: “Send my people away so that they may serve me in the wilderness,” but you have not obeyed until now. 17 This is what Jehovah says: “By this you will know that I am Jehovah.+ Here I am striking the water that is in the Nile River with the rod that is in my hand, and it will turn into blood. 18 And the fish that are in the Nile will die, and the Nile will stink, and the Egyptians will find it impossible to drink water from the Nile.”’”
19 Then Jehovah said to Moses: “Say to Aaron, ‘Take your rod and stretch out your hand over the waters of Egypt,+ over its rivers, over its canals,* over its marshes,+ and over all its reservoirs, that they may become blood.’ There will be blood in all the land of Egypt, even in the wooden and stone containers.” 20 Immediately Moses and Aaron did just as Jehovah had commanded. He lifted up the rod and struck the water that was in the Nile River before the eyes of Pharʹaoh and his servants, and all the water that was in the river was turned into blood.+ 21 And the fish that were in the river died,+ and the river began to stink, and the Egyptians were unable to drink water from the Nile,+ and there was blood throughout the land of Egypt.
22 Nevertheless, the magic-practicing priests of Egypt did the same thing with their secret arts,+ so that Pharʹaoh’s heart continued to be obstinate, and he did not listen to them, just as Jehovah had said.+ 23 Then Pharʹaoh returned to his house, and he did not take this to heart either. 24 So all the Egyptians were digging all around the Nile for water to drink, because they could not drink any water of the Nile. 25 And seven full days passed after Jehovah struck the Nile.
8 Then Jehovah said to Moses: “Go in to Pharʹaoh and say to him, ‘This is what Jehovah says: “Send my people away so that they may serve me.+ 2 If you keep refusing to send them away, I will plague all your territory with frogs.+ 3 And the Nile River will swarm with frogs, and they will come up and enter into your house, into your bedroom, on your bed, into the houses of your servants and on your people, into your ovens, and into your kneading troughs.*+ 4 On you, on your people, and on all your servants, the frogs will come up.”’”
5 Jehovah later said to Moses: “Say to Aaron, ‘Stretch out your hand with your rod over the rivers, the Nile canals, and the marshes, and make the frogs come up over the land of Egypt.’” 6 So Aaron stretched out his hand over the waters of Egypt, and the frogs began to come up and to cover the land of Egypt. 7 However, the magic-practicing priests did the same thing by their secret arts, and they too made the frogs come up over the land of Egypt.+ 8 Pharʹaoh then called Moses and Aaron and said: “Plead with Jehovah to remove the frogs from me and my people,+ as I want to send the people away so that they may sacrifice to Jehovah.” 9 Then Moses said to Pharʹaoh: “I leave to you the honor of telling me when I should plead to have the frogs removed from you, your servants, your people, and your houses. Only in the Nile River will they be left.” 10 To this he said: “Tomorrow.” So he said: “It will be according to your word so that you may know that there is no one else like Jehovah our God.+ 11 The frogs will depart from you, your houses, your servants, and your people. They will be left only in the Nile.”+
12 So Moses and Aaron went out from Pharʹaoh, and Moses pleaded with Jehovah about the frogs that He had brought upon Pharʹaoh.+ 13 Then Jehovah did as Moses asked, and the frogs began to die in the houses, the courtyards, and the fields. 14 They were piling them up in countless heaps, and the land began to stink. 15 When Pharʹaoh saw that there was relief, he hardened his heart+ and he refused to listen to them, just as Jehovah had said.
16 Jehovah now said to Moses: “Say to Aaron, ‘Stretch out your rod and strike the dust of the earth, and it must become gnats in all the land of Egypt.’” 17 And they did this. Aaron stretched out his hand with his rod and struck the dust of the earth, and the gnats came on man and beast. All the dust of the earth became gnats in all the land of Egypt.+ 18 The magic-practicing priests tried to do the same and produce gnats by their secret arts,+ but they could not. And the gnats came on man and beast. 19 So the magic-practicing priests said to Pharʹaoh: “It is the finger of God!”+ But Pharʹaoh’s heart continued to be obstinate, and he did not listen to them, just as Jehovah had said.
20 Then Jehovah said to Moses: “Get up early in the morning and station yourself in front of Pharʹaoh. Look! He is coming out to the water! And you must say to him, ‘This is what Jehovah has said: “Send my people away so that they may serve me. 21 But if you do not send my people away, I will send on you, your servants, and your people and into your houses the gadfly;* and the houses of Egypt will be full of gadflies, and they will even cover the ground they* stand on. 22 On that day I will certainly set apart the land of Goʹshen, where my people are dwelling. No gadflies will exist there,+ and by this you will know that I, Jehovah, am here in the land.+ 23 And I will make a distinction between my people and your people. Tomorrow this sign will take place.”’”
24 And Jehovah did so, and heavy swarms of gadflies began to invade the house of Pharʹaoh and the houses of his servants and all the land of Egypt.+ The land was ruined by the gadflies.+ 25 Finally, Pharʹaoh called Moses and Aaron and said: “Go, sacrifice to your God in the land.” 26 But Moses said: “It is not proper to do so, because what we would sacrifice to Jehovah our God would be detestable to the Egyptians.+ If we would make a sacrifice that was detestable to the Egyptians right before their eyes, would they not stone us? 27 We will make a three-day journey into the wilderness, and there we will sacrifice to Jehovah our God, just as he has said to us.”+
28 Pharʹaoh now said: “I will send you away to sacrifice to Jehovah your God in the wilderness. Only, you must not go so far away. Plead in my behalf.”+ 29 Then Moses said: “Now I am going away from you, and I will plead with Jehovah, and the gadflies will depart from Pharʹaoh, his servants, and his people tomorrow. But Pharʹaoh must stop trifling* with us by refusing to send the people away to sacrifice to Jehovah.”+ 30 Moses then went out from Pharʹaoh and pleaded with Jehovah.+ 31 So Jehovah did according to Moses’ word, and the gadflies departed from Pharʹaoh, his servants, and his people. Not one was left. 32 However, Pharʹaoh again hardened his heart and did not send the people away.
9 So Jehovah said to Moses: “Go in to Pharʹaoh and say to him, ‘This is what Jehovah the God of the Hebrews has said: “Send my people away so that they may serve me.+ 2 But if you refuse to send them away and you keep holding them, 3 look! Jehovah’s hand+ will come against your livestock in the field. On the horses, the donkeys, the camels, the herd, and the flock, there will be a devastating plague.+ 4 And Jehovah will certainly make a distinction between the livestock of Israel and the livestock of Egypt, and nothing that belongs to the Israelites will die.”’”+ 5 Moreover, Jehovah set an appointed time, saying: “Tomorrow Jehovah will do this in the land.”
6 And Jehovah did this on the very next day, and all sorts of livestock of Egypt began to die,+ but not one of Israel’s livestock died. 7 When Pharʹaoh inquired, look! not so much as one of Israel’s livestock had died. Nevertheless, Pharʹaoh’s heart continued to be unresponsive, and he did not send the people away.+
8 Jehovah then said to Moses and Aaron: “Fill both of your hands with soot from a kiln, and Moses must throw it into the air in front of Pharʹaoh. 9 And it will become a fine dust on all the land of Egypt, and it will become festering boils on man and beast in all the land of Egypt.”
10 So they took soot from a kiln and stood before Pharʹaoh, and Moses tossed it into the air, and it became festering boils breaking out on man and beast. 11 The magic-practicing priests were unable to stand before Moses because of the boils, for they had developed on the magic-practicing priests and on all the Egyptians.+ 12 But Jehovah allowed Pharʹaoh’s heart to become obstinate, and he did not listen to them, just as Jehovah had told Moses.+
13 Then Jehovah said to Moses: “Get up early in the morning and station yourself in front of Pharʹaoh, and say to him, ‘This is what Jehovah the God of the Hebrews has said: “Send my people away so that they may serve me. 14 For now I am directing all my blows to strike your heart, your servants, and your people, so that you may know that there is no one like me in all the earth.+ 15 For by now I could have thrust my hand out to strike you and your people with a devastating plague, and you would have been wiped out* from the earth. 16 But for this very reason I have kept you in existence: to show you my power and to have my name declared in all the earth.+ 17 Are you still behaving arrogantly against my people by not sending them away? 18 Here I will cause a very great hail to rain down tomorrow about this time, such as has never occurred in Egypt from the day it was founded until now. 19 Therefore, send word to bring all your livestock and all that is yours in the field under shelter. Every man and beast caught in the field and not brought into the house will die when the hail comes down on them.”’”
20 Anyone among Pharʹaoh’s servants who feared Jehovah’s word quickly brought his own servants and his livestock into the houses, 21 but whoever did not take Jehovah’s word to heart left his servants and his livestock in the field.
22 Jehovah now said to Moses: “Stretch out your hand toward the heavens, so that hail may come down on all the land of Egypt,+ on man and beast and all the vegetation of the field in the land of Egypt.”+ 23 So Moses stretched out his rod toward the heavens, and Jehovah sent thunder and hail, and fire* fell down to the earth, and Jehovah kept making it rain down hail on the land of Egypt. 24 There was hail, and there was fire flashing in the midst of the hail. It was very heavy; there had never been any like it in the land since Egypt had become a nation.+ 25 The hail struck everything in the field throughout the land of Egypt, from man to beast, and it struck down all the vegetation and shattered all the trees of the field.+ 26 Only in the land of Goʹshen, where the Israelites were, there was no hail.+
27 So Pharʹaoh sent for Moses and Aaron and said to them: “I have sinned this time. Jehovah is righteous, and I and my people are in the wrong. 28 Plead with Jehovah that there may be an end to God’s thunder and hail. Then I will be willing to send you away, and you will not stay any longer.” 29 So Moses said to him: “As soon as I go out of the city, I will spread out my hands before Jehovah. The thunder will stop and the hail will not continue any longer, so that you may know that the earth belongs to Jehovah.+ 30 But as for you and your servants, I know already that even then, you will not fear Jehovah God.”
31 Now the flax and the barley had been struck down, because the barley was in the ear and the flax had flower buds. 32 But the wheat and the spelt had not been struck down, because they were later crops.* 33 Moses now went out of the city from Pharʹaoh and spread out his hands before Jehovah, and the thunder and the hail stopped and the rain quit pouring down on the earth.+ 34 When Pharʹaoh saw that the rain, the hail, and the thunder had stopped, he sinned again and hardened his heart,+ he as well as his servants. 35 And Pharʹaoh’s heart continued obstinate, and he did not send the Israelites away, just as Jehovah had stated through Moses.+
10 Then Jehovah said to Moses: “Go in to Pharʹaoh, for I have allowed his heart and the hearts of his servants to become unresponsive,+ so that I may display these signs of mine right before him,+ 2 and in order that you may declare to your sons and your grandsons how severely I have dealt with Egypt and what signs I have performed among them;+ and you will certainly know that I am Jehovah.”
3 So Moses and Aaron went in to Pharʹaoh and said to him: “This is what Jehovah the God of the Hebrews has said, ‘How long will you refuse to submit to me?+ Send my people away so that they may serve me. 4 For if you keep refusing to send my people away, here I am bringing locusts within your boundaries tomorrow. 5 And they will cover the surface of the earth, and it will not be possible to see the ground. They will eat up what escaped the hail and was left for you, and they will eat all your trees that are growing in the field.+ 6 They will fill your houses, the houses of all your servants, and the houses of all Egypt to an extent that your fathers and your grandfathers never saw from the time they have been in this land until today.’”+ With that he turned and went out from Pharʹaoh.
7 Then Pharʹaoh’s servants said to him: “How long will this man continue to menace* us? Send the men away so that they may serve Jehovah their God. Do you not yet realize that Egypt has been ruined?” 8 So Moses and Aaron were brought back to Pharʹaoh, and he said to them: “Go, serve Jehovah your God. But just who will be going?” 9 Then Moses said: “We will go with our young people, our old people, our sons, our daughters, our sheep, and our cattle,+ because we will hold a festival to Jehovah.”+ 10 He said to them: “If I ever send you and your children away, then Jehovah is indeed with you!+ It is clear that you intend to do something evil. 11 No! Only your men may go and serve Jehovah, for that is what you requested.” With that they were driven out from before Pharʹaoh.
12 Jehovah now said to Moses: “Stretch out your hand over the land of Egypt for the locusts, so that they may come up over the land of Egypt and eat up all the vegetation of the land, everything that the hail has let remain.” 13 At once Moses stretched out his rod over the land of Egypt, and Jehovah caused an east wind to blow on the land all that day and all night. The morning came, and the east wind brought the locusts. 14 And the locusts came up over all the land of Egypt and settled down on the whole territory of Egypt.+ It was extremely severe;+ never before had there been so many locusts, nor would there ever be so many again. 15 They covered the surface of the entire land, and the land grew dark with them; they devoured all the vegetation of the land and all the fruit of the trees that the hail had left; nothing green was left on the trees or on the vegetation of the field in all the land of Egypt.
16 So Pharʹaoh quickly called Moses and Aaron and said: “I have sinned against Jehovah your God and against you. 17 Now, please, pardon my sin just this once, and plead with Jehovah your God that he just remove this deadly plague from upon me.” 18 So he* went out from Pharʹaoh and pleaded with Jehovah.+ 19 Then Jehovah caused the wind to shift, and it became a very stiff west wind, and it carried the locusts away and drove them into the Red Sea. Not a single locust remained in all the territory of Egypt. 20 However, Jehovah allowed Pharʹaoh’s heart to become obstinate,+ and he did not send the Israelites away.
21 Jehovah then said to Moses: “Stretch out your hand toward the heavens so that there may be darkness over the land of Egypt, a darkness so thick that it can be felt.” 22 Moses immediately stretched out his hand toward the heavens, and there was a dense darkness in all the land of Egypt for three days.+ 23 They did not see one another, and none of them got up from where they were for three days; but all the Israelites had light in their dwellings.+ 24 Pharʹaoh then called Moses and said: “Go, serve Jehovah.+ Only your sheep and your cattle will remain behind. Even your children may go with you.” 25 But Moses said: “You yourself will also provide us with* sacrifices and burnt offerings, and we will offer them to Jehovah our God.+ 26 Our livestock will also go with us. Not an animal* will be allowed to remain, because we will be using some of them to worship Jehovah our God, and we do not know what we will offer in worship to Jehovah until we arrive there.” 27 So Jehovah allowed Pharʹaoh’s heart to become obstinate, and he did not consent to send them away.+ 28 Pharʹaoh said to him: “Get out of my sight! Make sure that you do not try to see my face again, for on the day you see my face, you will die.” 29 To this Moses said: “Just as you have spoken, I will not try to see your face again.”
11 Then Jehovah said to Moses: “One more plague I am going to bring upon Pharʹaoh and Egypt. After that he will send you away from here.+ When he does send you away, he will literally drive you out of here.+ 2 Now tell the people that all the men and women should ask their neighbor for articles of silver and of gold.”+ 3 And Jehovah gave the people favor in the eyes of the Egyptians. Moreover, Moses himself had become highly esteemed in the land of Egypt among Pharʹaoh’s servants and among the people.
4 Moses then said: “This is what Jehovah has said, ‘About midnight I am going out into the midst of Egypt,+ 5 and every firstborn in the land of Egypt will die,+ from the firstborn of Pharʹaoh who is sitting on his throne to the firstborn of the slave girl who is working at the hand mill, and every firstborn of the livestock.+ 6 Throughout all the land of Egypt, there will be a great outcry such as has never occurred nor will ever occur again.+ 7 But not even a dog will bark* at the Israelites, at the men or their livestock, so that you may know that Jehovah can make a distinction between the Egyptians and the Israelites.’+ 8 And all your servants will certainly come down to me and prostrate themselves to me, saying, ‘Go, you and all the people who follow you.’+ And after that I will go out.” With that he went out from Pharʹaoh in the heat of anger.
9 Jehovah then said to Moses: “Pharʹaoh will not listen to you,+ in order for my miracles to be multiplied in the land of Egypt.”+ 10 Moses and Aaron performed all these miracles before Pharʹaoh,+ but Jehovah allowed Pharʹaoh’s heart to become obstinate, so that he did not send the Israelites away from his land.+
12 Jehovah now said to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt: 2 “This month will be the beginning of the months for you. It will be the first of the months of the year for you.+ 3 Speak to the entire assembly of Israel, saying, ‘On the tenth day of this month, they should each take for themselves a sheep+ for their father’s house, a sheep to a house. 4 But if the household is too small for the sheep, they and their* nearest neighbor should share it between themselves in their house according to the number of people.* When making the calculation, determine how much of the sheep each one will eat. 5 Your sheep should be a sound,+ one-year-old male. You may choose from the young rams or from the goats. 6 You must care for it until the 14th day of this month,+ and the whole congregation of the assembly of Israel must slaughter it at twilight.*+ 7 They must take some of the blood and splash it on the two doorposts and the upper part of the doorway of the houses in which they eat it.+
8 “‘They must eat the meat on this night.+ They should roast it over the fire and eat it along with unleavened bread+ and bitter greens.+ 9 Do not eat any of it raw or boiled, cooked in water, but roast it over the fire, its head together with its shanks and its inner parts. 10 You must not save any of it until morning, but any of it left over until morning you should burn with fire.+ 11 And this is how you should eat it, with your belt fastened,* sandals on your feet, and your staff in your hand; and you should eat it in a hurry. It is Jehovah’s Passover. 12 For I will pass through the land of Egypt on this night and strike every firstborn in the land of Egypt, from man to beast;+ and I will execute judgment on all the gods of Egypt.+ I am Jehovah. 13 The blood will serve as your sign on the houses where you are; and I will see the blood and pass over you, and the plague will not come on you to destroy you when I strike the land of Egypt.+
14 “‘This day will serve as a memorial for you, and you must celebrate it as a festival to Jehovah throughout your generations. As a lasting statute, you should celebrate it. 15 Seven days you are to eat unleavened bread.+ Yes, on the first day you are to remove the sourdough from your houses, because anyone eating what is leavened from the first day down to the seventh, that person* must be cut off* from Israel. 16 On the first day you will hold a holy convention, and on the seventh day, another holy convention. No work is to be done on these days.+ Only what every person* needs to eat, that alone may be prepared for you.
17 “‘You must keep the Festival of Unleavened Bread,+ for on this very day, I will bring your multitudes* out of the land of Egypt. And you must keep this day throughout your generations as a lasting statute. 18 In the first month, on the 14th day of the month, in the evening, you are to eat unleavened bread until the 21st day of the month, in the evening.+ 19 No sourdough is to be found in your houses for seven days, because if anyone eats what is leavened, whether he is a foreigner or a native of the land,+ that person* must be cut off* from the assembly of Israel.+ 20 You should not eat anything leavened. In all your homes, you are to eat unleavened bread.’”
21 Moses promptly called all the elders of Israel+ and said to them: “Go and select young animals* for each of your families, and slaughter the Passover sacrifice. 22 Then you must dip a bunch of hyssop into the blood that is in a basin and strike the upper part of the doorway and the two doorposts with the blood; and none of you should go out of the entrance of his house until morning. 23 Then when Jehovah passes through to plague the Egyptians and sees the blood on the upper part of the doorway and on the two doorposts, Jehovah will certainly pass over the entrance, and he will not allow the plague of death* to enter into your houses.+
24 “You must observe this event as a lasting regulation for you and your sons.+ 25 And when you come into the land that Jehovah will give you just as he has stated, you must keep this observance.+ 26 And when your sons ask you, ‘What does this observance mean to you?’+ 27 you must say, ‘It is the sacrifice of the Passover to Jehovah, who passed over the houses of the Israelites in Egypt when he plagued the Egyptians, but he spared our houses.’”
Then the people bowed low and prostrated themselves. 28 So the Israelites went and did just as Jehovah had commanded Moses and Aaron.+ They did just so.
29 Then at midnight, Jehovah struck down every firstborn in the land of Egypt,+ from the firstborn of Pharʹaoh who was sitting on his throne to the firstborn of the captive who was in the prison,* and every firstborn of the animals.+ 30 Pharʹaoh got up that night along with all his servants and all the other Egyptians, and there was a great outcry among the Egyptians, because there was not a house where someone was not dead.+ 31 At once he called Moses and Aaron+ by night and said: “Get up, get out from among my people, both you and the other Israelites. Go and serve Jehovah, just as you have said.+ 32 Take also your flocks and your herds and go, just as you have said.+ But you must also bless me.”
33 And the Egyptians began to urge the people to depart quickly+ out of the land “because,” as they said, “we are all as good as dead!”+ 34 So the people carried their flour dough before it was leavened, with their kneading troughs* wrapped up in their clothing on their shoulder. 35 The Israelites did what Moses had told them and asked the Egyptians for articles of silver and of gold as well as clothing.+ 36 Jehovah gave the people favor in the eyes of the Egyptians, so that they gave them what they asked for, and they plundered the Egyptians.+
37 Then the Israelites departed from Ramʹe·ses+ for Sucʹcoth,+ about 600,000 men on foot, besides children.+ 38 And a vast mixed company*+ also went with them, as well as flocks and herds, a great number of livestock. 39 They began to bake the dough that they brought from Egypt into round loaves of unleavened bread. It was not leavened, because they had been driven out of Egypt so suddenly that they had not prepared any provisions for themselves.+
40 The dwelling of the Israelites, who had dwelled in Egypt,+ was 430 years.+ 41 At the end of the 430 years, on this very day, all the multitudes* of Jehovah went out of the land of Egypt. 42 It is a night on which they will celebrate Jehovah’s bringing them out of the land of Egypt. This night is to be observed to Jehovah by all the people of Israel throughout their generations.+
43 Then Jehovah said to Moses and Aaron, “This is the statute of the Passover: No foreigner may eat of it.+ 44 But if someone has a slave man who was purchased with money, you should circumcise him.+ Only then may he share in eating it. 45 A settler and a hired worker may not eat of it. 46 In one house it is to be eaten. You must not take any of the meat outside of the house, and you must not break any of its bones.+ 47 All the assembly of Israel are to celebrate it. 48 If a foreigner resides with you and he wants to celebrate the Passover to Jehovah, every male of his must be circumcised. Then he may come near to celebrate it, and he will become like a native of the land. But no uncircumcised man may eat of it.+ 49 One law will apply for the native and for the foreigner who is residing among you.”+
50 So all the Israelites did just as Jehovah had commanded Moses and Aaron. They did just so. 51 On this very day, Jehovah brought the Israelites along with their multitudes* out of the land of Egypt.