The fraudulent, oppressive, luxury-loving despoilers dwelling in Samaria are referred to as “cows of Bashan.” (Amos 3:15; 4:1) Ephraim is likened to a “trained heifer loving to thresh.” (Hos. 10:11) This comparison takes on added meaning when considering that the animals doing the threshing were not muzzled and, therefore, could eat of the grain, thus receiving direct and immediate benefits from their labor. (Deut. 25:4) Because of becoming fat as a result of God’s blessing, Israel “kicked,” rebelled against Jehovah (Deut. 32:12-15), and is therefore, appropriately referred to as a stubborn cow, one that is unwilling to bear the yoke. (Hos. 4:16) Egypt is compared to a pretty heifer that would come to disaster at the hand of the Babylonians. (Jer. 46:20, 21, 26) The Babylonians, in their pillaging ‘God’s inheritance,’ Judah, are likened to a frisky heifer pawing in the tender grass.—Jer. 50:11.
In prophecy the peaceful conditions that result from the reign of the Messiah, Christ Jesus, are appropriately represented by amicable relations between the relatively harmless cow and the rapacious bear.—Isa. 11:7; see BULL; CALF.
Daughter of Zur, a Midianite chieftain. At the time 24,000 Israelites died for immorality in connection with Baal of Peor, Cozbi was killed along with the Simeonite Zimri, who had brought her into his tent, by having her genital parts pierced through by Phinehas. (Num. 25:1, 6-9, 15, 18) Shortly afterward Cozbi’s father was also killed.—Num. 31:7.
A site in Judah where descendants of Shelah the son of Judah resided. (1 Chron. 4:21, 22) Most authorities consider Cozeba to be the same as Achzib (“Chezib” in some versions) mentioned at Genesis 38:5 and Joshua 15:44, and on this basis it is tentatively identified with Tell el-Beida, somewhat less than sixteen miles (25.7 kilometers) SW of Bethlehem between the suggested locations of Adullam and Lachish. The men of Cozeba are apparently included in the expression “they were the potters.”—1 Chron. 4:23; see ACHZIB No. 1.
One skilled in a manual trade or art. The Hebrew word hha·rashʹ is most frequently translated (NW) by the general term “craftsman,” but when it occurs along with some particular material, the phrase is rendered more specifically, for example, “wood-and-metal worker” (Deut. 27:15), “workers in wood and workers in stone” (2 Sam. 5:11), “carver of iron,” “wood carver” (Isa. 44:12, 13), also as “smith” (1 Sam. 13:19) and “manufacturers.” (Isa. 45:16) Further illustrating the many specialties that come under the designation “craftsmanship” is the description of Bezalel who, along with Oholiab, was a worker with metals, precious stones, wood, a weaver and dyer, skilled “in every sort of craftsmanship.”—Ex. 35:30-35; see also 2 Kings 12:11, 12.
Many crafts, such as toolmaking, carpentry, brickmaking, spinning, weaving, textile finishing, making pottery and jewelry, to mention a few, were at one time simple household duties performed by ordinary men or women. Settled communal living, however, with emphasis on developing higher skills, brought about specialization. Even before the Flood certain men were known as specialized craftsmen. (Gen. 4:21, 22) Nebuchadnezzar took the craftsmen along with the princes and military engineers captive to Babylon in 617 B.C.E., the second time he came against Jerusalem. (2 Ki. 24:14, 16; Jer. 24:1; 29:2) In some towns craftsmen of a particular trade lived together in the same section where they eventually associated together in guilds, and became known by their occupation and exercised great influence in the affairs of the town. (Neh. 3:8, 31, 32; 11:35; Jer. 37:21; Acts 19:24-41) Details of how these specialized craftsmen carried on their work are not too well preserved, except those writings and artworks that come from Egypt and which vividly describe and illustrate the various craftsmen at work.
The prohibition against idolatry incorporated into the law of Moses kept the Jews from much of the then-common art of making figurines and the like as objects of devotion. (Ex. 20:4; Deut. 4:15-18; 27:15) Indeed, image worship and the development of art and carving grew side by side in nations such as Assyria and Babylonia. (Ps. 115:2, 4-8; Isa. 40:19, 20; 44:11-20; 46:1, 6, 7; Jer. 10:2-5) Demetrius and his fellow craftsmen in Ephesus made a living by manufacturing silver shrines of Artemis.—Acts 19:24-27.
For detailed considerations of the various crafts themselves, see the individual subjects such as CARPENTER; CARVING; DYES, DYEING; MASON; METALWORKER; POTTER; TANNER and others.
The act of creating or causing the existence of someone or something, or the state or fact of having been created or brought into existence.
Throughout the Scriptures Jehovah God is identified as the Creator. He is “the Creator of the heavens, . . . the Former of the earth and the Maker of it.” (Isa. 45:18) He is “the Former of the mountains and the Creator of the wind” (Amos 4:13), and is “the One who made the heaven and the earth and the sea and all the things in them.” (Acts 4:24; 14:15; 17:24) “God . . . created all things.” (Eph. 3:9) Jesus Christ recognized Jehovah as the One who created humans, making them male and female. (Matt. 19:4; Mark 10:6) Hence, Jehovah is fittingly and uniquely called “the Creator.”—Isa. 40:28.
While Jehovah, who is a Spirit (John 4:24; 2 Cor. 3:17), has always existed, the matter of which the universe is made is not eternal. Hence, when creating the literal heavens and earth, Jehovah did not use preexistent material. This is clear from Genesis 1:1, which says: “In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.” If matter had always existed, it would have been inappropriate to use the term “beginning” with reference to material things. However, after creating the earth, God did form “from the ground every wild beast of the field and every flying creature of the heavens.” (Gen. 2:19) He also formed man “out of dust from the ground,” blowing into his nostrils the breath of life so that the man became a living soul.—Gen. 2:7.
Appropriately Psalm 33:6 says: “By the word of Jehovah the heavens themselves were made, and by the spirit of his mouth all their army.” While the earth was yet “formless and waste” with “darkness upon the surface of the watery deep,” it was God’s active force that was moving to and fro over the surface of the waters. (Gen. 1:2) Thus, God used his active force or “spirit” (Heb., ruʹahh) to accomplish his creative purpose. The things he has created testify not only to his power but to his Godship. (Jer. 10:12; Rom. 1:19, 20) And, as Jehovah “is a God, not of disorder, but of peace” (1 Cor. 14:33), orderliness, rather than chaos or chance, marks his creative work. Jehovah reminded Job that He had taken specific steps in founding the earth and barricading the sea and indicated that there exist “statutes of the heavens.” (Job 38:1, 4-11, 31-33) Furthermore, God’s creative and other works are perfect.—Deut. 32:4; Eccl. 3:14.
Jehovah’s first creation was his “only-begotten Son” (John 3:16), “the beginning of the creation by God.” (Rev. 3:14) This one, “the first-born of all creation,” was used by Jehovah in creating all other things, those in the heavens and those upon the earth, “the things visible and the things invisible.” (Col. 1:15-17) John’s inspired testimony concerning this Son, the Word, is that “all things came into existence through him, and apart from him not even one thing came into existence,” and the apostle identifies the Word as Jesus Christ, who had become flesh. (John 1:1-4, 10, 14, 17) As wisdom personified, this One is represented as saying, “Jehovah himself produced me as the beginning of his way,” and tells of his association with God the Creator as Jehovah’s “master worker.” (Prov. 8:12, 22-31) In view of the close association of Jehovah and his only-begotten Son in creative activity and because that Son is “the image of the invisible God” (Col. 1:15; 2 Cor. 4:4), it was evidently to His only-begotten Son and master worker that Jehovah spoke in saying, “Let us make man in our image.”—Gen. 1:26.
After creating his only-begotten Son, Jehovah used him in bringing the heavenly angels into existence. This preceded the founding of the earth, as Jehovah revealed when questioning Job and asking him: “Where did you happen to be when I founded the earth . . . when the morning stars joyfully cried out together, and all the sons of God began shouting in applause?” (Job 38:4-7) It was after the creation of these heavenly spirit creatures that the material heavens and earth and all elements were made or brought into existence. And, since Jehovah is the one primarily responsible for all this creative work, it is ascribed to him.—Neh. 9:6; Ps. 136:1, 5-9.
The Scriptures, in stating, “In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth” (Gen. 1:1), leave matters indefinite as to time. Their reference to “the beginning” is therefore unassailable, regardless of the age scientists may seek to attach to the earthly globe and to the various planets and other heavenly bodies. The actual time of creation of the material heavens and earth may have been billions of years ago.
FURTHER CREATIVE ACTIVITIES INVOLVING THE EARTH
Genesis, chapter one through chapter two, verse three, after telling about the creation of the material heavens and earth (1:1, 2), provides an outline of further creative activities on the earth. Chapter two of Genesis, from verse five onward, is a parallel account that supplies details not furnished in the broad outline found in Genesis 1:1–22:3. The inspired Record tells of six creative periods called “days,” and of a seventh period or “seventh day” in which time God desisted from earthly creative works and proceeded to rest. (Gen. 2:1-3) While the Genesis account of creative activity relating to the earth does not set forth detailed botanical and zoological distinctions such as those current today, the terms employed therein adequately cover the major divisions of life and show that these were created and made so that they reproduce only according to their respective “kinds.”—Gen. 1:11, 12, 21, 24, 25; see KIND.
The following chart may make it easier to grasp God’s creative activities during the six “days” outlined in Genesis.
EARTHLY CREATIVE WORKS OF JEHOVAH
Day No. Creative Works Texts
1 Light; division between Gen. 1:3-5
day and night
2 Expanse, a division between
waters on earth and watery
canopy above Gen. 1:6-8
3 Dry land; vegetation Gen. 1:9-13
4 Heavenly luminaries become
discernible from earth Gen. 1:14-19
5 Marine souls and
flying creatures Gen. 1:20-23
6 Land animals; man Gen. 1:24-31
Genesis 1:1, 2 relates to a time before the six “days” outlined above. When these “days” commenced, the sun, moon and stars were already in existence, their creation being referred to at Genesis 1:1. However, prior to these six “days” of creative activity “the earth proved to be formless and waste and there was darkness upon the surface of the watery deep.” (Gen. 1:2) Just what caused this “darkness” and what process resulted in the “watery deep” covering the earthly globe the Bible does not say. But such circumstances were in accord with the divine will for that time. (Isa. 45:6, 7) Nonetheless, on Day One the obstruction causing the darkness, or the darkness itself, was dispelled when God proceeded to say: “Let light come to be.” In response to his words, “then there came to be light,” which God saw to be good. The source of this light evidently was the sun, already in existence, but now that light could reach earth’s vicinity. God brought about a division between the light and the darkness, calling the light Day and the darkness Night. This indicates that the earth was rotating on its axis as it revolved around the sun, so that its hemispheres, eastern and western, could enjoy periods of light and darkness.—Gen. 1:3, 4.
On Day Two God made an expanse by causing a division to occur “between the waters and the waters.” Some waters remained on the earth, but a great amount of water was raised high above the surface of the earth, and in between these two there came to be an expanse. God called the expanse Heaven, but this was with relation to the earth, as the waters suspended above the expanse are not said to have enclosed stars or other bodies of the outer heavens.—Gen. 1:6-8; see EXPANSE.
On Day Three by God’s miracle-working power the waters on the earth were brought together and dry land appeared, God calling it Earth. It was also on this day that, through no chance factors or evolutionary processes, God acted to superimpose the life principle upon atoms of matter, so that grass, vegetation and fruit trees were brought into existence or created. Each of these three general divisions was capable of reproducing according to its “kind.”—Gen. 1:9-13.
The divine will concerning luminaries was accomplished on Day Four, it being stated: “God proceeded to make the two great luminaries, the greater luminary for dominating the day and the lesser luminary for dominating the night, and also the stars. Thus God put them in the expanse of the heavens to shine upon the earth, and to dominate by day and by night and to make a division between the light and the darkness.” (Gen. 1:16-18) In view of the description of these luminaries, the greater luminary was quite apparently the sun and the lesser luminary the moon, though the sun and moon are not specifically named in the Bible until after its account of the Flood of Noah’s day.—Gen. 15:12; 37:9.
It is noteworthy that at Genesis 1:16 the Hebrew verb ba·raʼʹ, meaning “create,” is not used. Instead, the Hebrew verb ʽa·sahʹ, meaning “make,” is employed. Since the sun, moon and stars are included in the “heavens” mentioned in Genesis 1:1, they were created long before Day Four. On the fourth day God proceeded to “make” these celestial bodies occupy a new relationship toward earth’s surface and the expanse above it. When it is said, “God put them in the expanse of the heavens to shine upon the earth,” this seems to indicate that they now became discernible through the water canopy surrounding the earth, as though they were in the expanse. Perhaps because the atmosphere in the expanse had cleared of murkiness, their light reached the earth’s surface. Also, the luminaries were to “serve as signs and for seasons and for days and years,” thus later providing guidance for man in various ways.—Gen. 1:14.
Day Five was marked by the creation of the first conscious life on earth. Not just one creature purposed by God to evolve into other forms, but literally