of a dominant feeling or activating force. Exodus 35:21 places heart and spirit in parallel in saying that “everyone whose heart impelled him, . . . everyone whose spirit incited him” brought contributions for the tabernacle construction. Conversely, on learning of Jehovah’s powerful works on behalf of Israel the Canaanites’ ‘hearts began to melt and no spirit arose among them,’ that is, there was no urge or activating force to initiate action against the Israelite forces. (Josh. 2:11; 5:1; compare Ezekiel 21:7.) References are also made to ‘pain of heart and breakdown of spirit’ (Isa. 65:14) or similar expressions. (Compare Psalm 34:18; 143:4, 7; Proverbs 15:13.) Evidently because of the forceful effect of the heart on the mind, Paul admonishes: “You should be made new in the force [pneuʹma] actuating your mind, and should put on the new personality which was created according to God’s will in true righteousness and loyalty.” (Eph. 4:23, 24) The apostle possibly had in mind the earlier exhortations through Ezekiel to “make for yourselves a new heart and a newspirit” (Ezek. 18:31; compare 11:19, 20); also David’s humble prayer on recovering from a sinful situation. (Ps. 51:10-12) By purifying their heart it would send forth a different motivation, along with a new spirit.—Contrast Deuteronomy 2:30; Daniel 5:20.
The vital necessity to control one’s spirit is strongly emphasized. “As a city broken through, without a wall, is the man that has no restraint for his spirit.” (Prov. 25:28) Under provocation he may act as the stupid one who impatiently ‘lets all his spirit out,’ whereas the wise one “keeps it calm to the last.” (Prov. 29:11; compare 14:29, 30.) Moses allowed himself to become unduly provoked when the Israelites “embittered his spirit” on one occasion, and he “began to speak rashly with his lips,” to his own loss. (Ps. 106:32, 33) Thus, “he that is slow to anger is better than a mighty man, and he that is controlling his spirit than the one capturing a city.” (Prov. 16:32) Humility is essential for this (Prov. 16:18, 19; Eccl. 7:8, 9), and the one “humble in spirit will take hold of glory.” (Prov. 29:23) Knowledge and discernment keep a man “cool of spirit,” in control of his tongue. (Prov. 17:27; 15:4) Jehovah makes “an estimate of spirits” and judges those who fail to ‘guard themselves respecting their spirit.’—Prov. 16:2; Mal. 2:14-16.
Spirit shown by a body of persons
As an individual may show a certain spirit, so too a group or body of people may manifest a certain spirit or dominant feeling and attitude. (Gal. 6:18; 1 Thess. 5:23) The Christian congregation was to be united in spirit, reflecting the spirit of their Head, Christ Jesus.—2 Cor. 11:4; Phil. 1:27; compare 2 Corinthians 12:18; Philippians 2:19-21.
Paul refers to “the spirit of the world” in contrast with God’s spirit. (1 Cor. 2:12) Under the control of God’s adversary (1 John 5:19), the world shows a spirit of catering to the desires of the fallen flesh, of selfishness, bringing enmity toward God. (Eph. 2:1-3; Jas. 4:5) Like unfaithful Israel, the world’s unclean motivation promotes fornication, either physical or spiritual, with idolatry.—Hos. 4:12, 13; 5:4; Zech. 13:2; compare 2 Corinthians 7:1.
The belief or doctrine that the spirits of the human dead, surviving the death of the physical body, can and do communicate with the living, especially through a person (a medium) particularly susceptible to their influence; spiritualism. Both the Bible and secular history reveal that spiritism existed from very early times. Egypt’s religion was permeated with it. (Isa. 19:3) And the religion of Babylon (which city was also the chief religious center for Assyria) was spiritistic.—Isa. 47:12, 13.
The Greek word for “spiritism” is phar·ma·keiʹa. W. E. Vine’s Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words (Vol. IV, pp. 51, 52) says of the word: “(Eng., pharmacy etc.) primarily signified the use of medicine, drugs, spells; then, poisoning; then, sorcery, Gal. 5:20, R.V., ‘sorcery’ (A.V., ‘witchcraft’), mentioned as one of ‘the works of the flesh.’ See also Rev. 9:21; 18:23. In the Sept[uagint], Ex. 7:11, 22; 8:7, 18; Isa. 47:9, 12. In sorcery, the use of drugs, whether simple or potent, was generally accompanied by incantations and appeals to occult powers, with the provision of various charms, amulets, etc., professedly designed to keep the applicant or patient from the attention and power of demons, but actually to impress the applicant with the mysterious resources and powers of the sorcerer.”
A major feature of spiritism is claimed communication with the dead. Since the dead “are conscious of nothing at all,” communication with such dead persons is actually impossible. (Eccl. 9:5) God’s law to Israel forbade anyone’s inquiring of the dead, making the practice of spiritism a capital offense. (Lev. 19:31; 20:6, 27; Deut. 18:9-12; compare Isaiah 8:19.) And in the Christian Greek Scriptures the statement is made that those who practice spiritism “will not inherit God’s kingdom.” (Gal. 5:20, 21; Rev. 21:8) It, therefore, logically follows that any claimed communication with dead persons, if not a deliberate lie on the part of the claimant, must be from an evil source, a source that stands in opposition to Jehovah God.
The Bible clearly indicates that wicked spirits, demons, are this evil source. (See DEMON; DEMON POSSESSION.) A case in point is a “certain servant girl” in the city of Philippi. She used to furnish her masters with much gain by practicing “the art of prediction,” one of the things related to spiritism. (Deut. 18:11) The account plainly says that the source of her predictions was, not God, but a “demon of divination,” a wicked spirit. Hence, when the apostle Paul expelled the wicked spirit, this girl lost her powers of prediction.—Acts 16:16-19.
Even though God had legislated strictly against spiritism, spirit mediums appeared from time to time in the land of Israel. These were probably foreigners who came into the land or some of those who had been spared from destruction by the Israelites. King Saul removed them from the land during his reign, but evidently toward the end of his rule some spirit mediums again began their practice. Saul demonstrated how far he had removed himself from God when he went to consult the “mistress of spirit mediumship in En-dor.”—1 Sam. 28:3, 7-10.
KING SAUL’S VISIT TO A MEDIUM
When Saul went to the medium, Jehovah’s spirit had for some time been removed from him, and, in fact, God would not answer his inquiries either by dreams or by the Urim (used by the high priest), nor by the prophets. (1 Sam. 28:6) God would have no more to do with him; and God’s prophet Samuel had not seen Saul for a long period of time, from before David’s anointing to be king. So it would be unreasonable to think that Samuel, even if still alive, would now come to give Saul advice. And God would certainly not cause Samuel, whom he had not sent to Saul before his death, to come back from the dead to talk to Saul.—1 Sam. 15:35.
That Jehovah would in no way approve or cooperate with Saul’s action is shown by his later statement through Isaiah: “And in case they should say to you people: ‘Apply to the spiritistic mediums or to those having a spirit of prediction who are chirping and making utterances in low tones,’ is it not to its God that any people should apply? Should there be application to dead persons in behalf of living persons? To the law and to the attestation!”—Isa. 8:19, 20.
Therefore, when the account reads: “When the woman saw ‘Samuel’ she began crying out at the top of her voice,” it obviously recounts the event