(A·biʹel) [my father is God; God is father].
1. A son of Zeror, and descendant of Bechorath and Aphiah, of the tribe of Benjamin. A comparison of 1 Chronicles 8:29-33 and 9:35-39 with 1 Samuel 9:1, 2 and 14:50, 51 gives basis for believing that Abiel is also called “Jeiel” in the Chronicles account, since Jeiel is there shown to be the father of Ner, who became the father of Kish, Saul’s father. First Samuel 14:50, 51 also shows Abiel (or Jeiel) to be the father of Ner. The record in Chronicles indicates that Jeiel (or Abiel) had nine other sons, of whom one was named Kish, and this older Kish would thus be the uncle of the son of Ner who bore the same name.
Assuming Abiel and Jeiel both to be names of the same person, we arrive at a genealogy such as is set forth in this chart.
Aphiah (a descendant of Benjamin)
Abiel or Jeiel
Abdon Zur Kish Baal Ner Nadab Gedor Ahio Zechariah Mikloth
Therefore, when we read at 1 Samuel 9:1 that Kish (that is, the second Kish, the father of Saul) was “the son of Abiel,” it appears that the meaning is that he was ‘the grandson of Abiel,’ as is often the case in Bible genealogy where one or more links in the genealogy are simply omitted. (Thus, while the “family of the Matrites” is mentioned at 1 Samuel 10:21 as including Kish and Saul, the name of Matri does not appear in the accounts we are considering, nor in the rest of the Bible.)
2. Also a Benjamite.—See ABI-ALBON.
(Aʹbi-eʹzer) [father of help; helpful].
1. One of the “sons of Gilead” the grandson of Manasseh, Joseph’s firstborn. A comparison of the accounts at Numbers 26:28-30 and Joshua 17:1, 2 shows that he is also called Iezer (Jeezer, AV), which is a shortened form of Abi-ezer, the prefix “Ab” (father) being removed.
Abi-ezer was a family head and an ancestor of Judge Gideon. (Judg. 6:11, 24, 34; 8:2) It appears that after the division of land among the tribes of Israel, Abi-ezer’s family either originally or at a later time settled in the area of Ophrah, in the territory of Manasseh W of the Jordan.
The name is also used to stand for the “house of Abi-ezer” in a collective sense.—Judg. 8:2.
2. A son of Hammolecheth, who was sister of Manasseh’s grandson Gilead. (1 Chron. 7:18) Some commentators view this Abi-ezer as being the same as No. 1 above.
3. A Benjamite from Anathoth, one of King David’s thirty-seven most valiant fighters. (2 Sam. 23:27, 39) He was head of a paternal house, and divisional head over a force of 24,000 fellow tribesmen, serving the king during the ninth month of each year. (1 Chron. 11:28; 27:1, 12) Along with other Benjamites, by his valor in war he fulfilled the prophecy at Genesis 49:27. His town of Anathoth lay a few miles NE of Jerusalem, within the territory of Benjamin.—1 Chron. 6:60.
A descendant of Abi-ezer of the family of Abi-ezer. (Judg. 6:11, 24; 8:32) Numbers 26:30 reads: “Iezerites” (Jeezerites in AV), which is a contraction of Abi-ezrites. This term is applied in the Bible to those descended from Abi-ezer the ‘son of Gilead,’ rather than to the Abi-ezer of David’s time.—See ABI-EZER No. 1.
(Abʹi·gail) [father (i.e., source) of joy; or, the father is rejoicing].
1. A wife of David. Originally, a woman of the city of Carmel who became the wife of wealthy Nabal from neighboring Maon, both places being on the edge of the wilderness of Judah, W of the Dead Sea. (1 Sam. 25:2, 3; Josh. 15:20, 55) She was “good in discretion and beautiful in form,” while her first husband, whose name means “Senseless” or “Stupid,” was “harsh and bad in his practices.”
Following the prophet Samuel’s death, David and his men moved into the area where the flocks of Abigail’s husband were pastured. David’s men thereafter were like a protective “wall” around Nabal’s shepherds and flocks, night and day. So, when shearing time came, David sent some young men up to Carmel to call Nabal’s attention to the good service rendered him and to request an offering of food from him. (1 Sam. 25:4-8, 15, 16) But miserly Nabal screamed rebukes at them and insulted David as if he were an inconsequential person, and all of them as if they were possibly runaway slaves. (Vss. 9-11, 14) This so angered David that he girded on his sword and led about four hundred men toward Carmel to wipe out Nabal and the men of his household.—Vss. 12, 13, 21, 22.
Abigail, hearing of the incident through a disturbed servant, showed her wise perception by immediately rounding up an ample supply of food and grain and then sent these ahead of her in care of her servants, much as Jacob had done before making contact with Esau. (1 Sam. 25:14-19; Gen. 32:13-20) Without saying anything to her husband, she rode to meet David and, in a long and fervent plea, which manifested wisdom and logic as well as respect and humility, she convinced David that her husband’s senseless words did not justify the unrighteous shedding of blood nor the failure to trust in Jehovah to settle the matter in a right way himself. (1 Sam. 25:14-20, 23-31) David thanked God for the woman’s good sense and quick action.—Vss. 32-35; compare Proverbs 25:21, 22; 15:1, 2.
Returning home, Abigail waited for her husband to sober up from a drunken feast and then informed him of her actions. Now “his heart came to be dead inside him, and he himself became as a stone” and after ten days Jehovah caused him to expire. When the news reached David he sent a marriage proposal to Abigail, which she did not hesitate to accept. She shared David’s affections along with Ahinoam, a Jezreelitess, whom David had previously taken as wife. David’s first wife, Michal, had already been given by her father Saul to another man.—1 Sam. 25:36-44.
Abigail was with David in Gath on the plains of Philistia and later back in the hill country at Ziklag. During David’s absence a raiding party of Amalekites from the S burned Ziklag and carried off all the women and children, including Abigail and Ahinoam. Assured by Jehovah of success, David led his men in pursuit and, in a surprise attack, overcame the Amalekites and retrieved the captives and possessions.—1 Sam. 30:1-19.
Back at Ziklag, three days later, the news arrived of Saul’s death. (2 Sam. 1:1, 2) Abigail now accompanied her husband to Hebron of Judah, where David was first anointed as king. Here she gave birth to a son, Chileab (2 Sam. 3:3), also called Daniel at 1 Chronicles 3:1. David’s wives increased to six in Hebron, and neither Abigail nor her son receive further mention in the account.—2 Sam. 3:2-5.
2. One of David’s two sisters. (1 Chron. 2:13-17) Some authorities believe that she was only a half sister, being related by mother but not by father. At 2 Samuel 17:25 Abigail is called “the daughter of Nahash.” Rabbinical tradition holds that Nahash is simply another name for Jesse, David’s father. The Septuagint