A term generally understood to refer to a native of Teman in Edom. An early Edomite king, Husham, came from the “land of the Temanites,” and Eliphaz, one of Job’s three companions, was a Temanite. (Gen. 36:31-34; Job 2:11; 4:1; 42:7) That Eliphaz came from Teman in Edom is suggested by the understanding that the land of Uz, where Job lived, was near Edom. Some scholars, however, believe that there is a possibility that the Eliphaz named in the book of Job was, not from Teman, but from Tema, a place identified with an oasis on the Arabian Peninsula about 250 miles (402 kilometers) SE of Ezion-geber.—Job 6:19.
[Heb., heh·khalʹ, temple, palace; Gr., hi·e·ronʹ, temple; na·osʹ, sanctuary, a dwelling (specifically, of a god), temple]. Temples, literal, visionary and symbolic, are described in the Scriptures, the primary ones being the temples built by (1) Solomon, (2) Zerubbabel and (3) Herod the Great, and (4) the visionary temple of Ezekiel and (5) the spiritual temple.
King David entertained a strong desire to build a house for Jehovah, to contain the ark of the covenant, which was “dwelling in the middle of tent cloths.” Jehovah was pleased with David’s proposal, but told him that, due to the fact that he had shed much blood in warfare, his son (Solomon) would be privileged to do the building. This was not to say that God did not approve David’s wars fought in behalf of Jehovah’s name and His people. But the temple was to be built in peace by a man of peace, foreshadowing the Great Temple Builder and Prince of Peace Jesus Christ.—2 Sam. 7:1-16; 1 Ki. 5:3-5; 8:17; 1 Chron. 17:1-14; 22:6-10.
Later David purchased the threshing floor of Ornan (Araunah) the Jebusite on Mount Moriah as the temple site. (2 Sam. 24:24, 25; 1 Chron. 21:24, 25) He amassed 100,000 talents of gold, one million talents of silver, and copper and iron in great abundance, besides contributing from his personal fortune 3,000 talents of gold and 7,000 talents of silver. He also received as contributions from the princes, 5,000 talents and 10,000 darics of gold and 10,000 talents of silver, as well as much iron and copper. (1 Chron. 22:14; 29:3-7) This total, 108,000 talents and 10,000 darics of gold and 1,017,000 talents of silver, would be worth $5,623,273,830 at current values. His son Solomon did not spend the entire amount in building the temple; the remainder he put in the temple treasury.—1 Ki. 7:51; 2 Chron. 5:1.
King Solomon began building the temple in the fourth year of his reign (1034 B.C.E.), in the second month, Ziv, following the architectural plan that David had received by inspiration. (1 Ki. 6:1; 1 Chron. 28:11-19) The work continued over a seven-year period. (1 Ki. 6:37, 38) In exchange for wheat, barley, oil and wine, Hiram king of Tyre supplied timbers from Lebanon and skilled workers in wood and stone, and one special expert, also named Hiram, whose father was a Tyrian and his mother an Israelitess of the tribe of Naphtali. This man was a fine workman in gold, silver, copper, iron, wood, stones and fabrics.—1 Ki. 5:8-11, 18; 7:13, 14, 40, 45; 2 Chron. 2:13-16.
In organizing the work, Solomon conscripted 30,000 men out of Israel, sending them to Lebanon in shifts of 10,000 for a month, with a two-month stay at home between shifts. (1 Ki. 5:13, 14) As burden bearers he conscripted 70,000 from among the “alien residents” in the land, and as cutters 80,000. (1 Ki. 5:15; 9:20, 21; 2 Chron. 2:2) As foremen over the work Solomon appointed 550 men and apparently 3,300 as assistants. (1 Ki. 5:16; 9:22, 23) It appears that, of these, 250 were Israelites and 3,600 were “alien residents” in Israel.—2 Chron. 2:17, 18.
Length of “cubit” used
In the following discussion of the measurements of the three temples built by Solomon, Zerubbabel and Herod, we shall calculate them on the basis of the cubit of 17.5 inches (c. 44.4 centimeters). However, it is possible that they used the longer cubit of about 20.4 inches (51.8 centimeters).—Compare 2 Chronicles 3:3 (which mentions a “length in cubits by the former measurement,” this perhaps being a longer measure than the cubit that came to be commonly in use), and Ezekiel 40:5; see CUBIT.
Plan and materials
The temple, a most magnificent structure, followed the general plan of the tabernacle. The Holy and Most Holy were of the same proportions, but their inside dimensions were twice those of the tabernacle. The Holy was forty cubits (c. 58.3 feet; 17.8 meters) long and twenty cubits (c. 29.2 feet; 8.9 meters) wide and high. The Most Holy was a cube twenty cubits on a side. (1 Ki. 6:20; 2 Chron. 3:8) Additionally, there were roof chambers that were approximately ten cubits (c. 14.6 feet; 4.4 meters) high, since the building reached a height of thirty cubits (c. 43.8 feet; c. 13.3 meters). (1 Ki. 6:2; 1 Chron. 28:11) There were also other buildings around it, containing storage chambers, dining rooms, and so forth.—1 Ki. 6:4-6, 10.
Materials used were primarily stone and wood. The floors of these rooms were overlaid with juniper wood, the inside walls were of cedar engraved with