one such as a prophet or a king. (2 Ki. 2:8; Jonah 3:6) The prophet’s official garment was likely made of camel’s or goat’s hair. (2 Ki. 1:8; Matt. 3:4; Mark 1:6; compare Genesis 25:25.) Elijah appointed Elisha as his successor by throwing his official garment upon him, and Elisha took up this garment after Elijah was carried away in a windstorm. (1 Ki. 19:19; 2 Ki. 2:13) It was an official garment from Shinar that Achan took from the “devoted” city of Jericho, in violation of Jehovah’s command.—Josh. 7:1, 21.
The Greek word enʹdy·ma is used with reference to a wedding garment (Matt. 22:11, 12), to the clothing of the angel at Jesus’ tomb (Matt. 28:3), to John the Baptist’s camel-hair clothing and to garments in general.—Matt. 3:4; 6:25, 28; Luke 12:23.
The woman’s “headdress” or “veil” that the apostle Paul speaks of in connection with the symbol of woman’s subjection to headship is pe·ri·boʹlai·on (Gr.), something that is thrown around, a wrap. (1 Cor. 11:15) It is different from the face veil or covering worn by Moses when his face shone so that the Israelites could not look upon it. (Ex. 34:33-35; 2 Cor. 3:13) Rebekah put on a headcloth when meeting Isaac, her espoused, to denote her subjection. (Gen. 24:65) The Hebrew word tsaʽiphʹ, used here, is translated “shawl” (NW), “veil” (AT, AV, RS) at Genesis 38:14, 19.
Sash, belt or girdle
A sash was often worn over the inner or the outer garments. When one engaged in some form of physical activity or work, he would ‘gird up his loins’ by wearing a sash, often pulling the ends of the garment up between his legs and tucking these ends under the sash so that he would have freedom of movement. (1 Ki. 18:46; 2 Ki. 4:29; 9:1) The high priest wore a woven sash over his linen robe and, when wearing the ephod, a girdle of the same material was worn to hold the back and front parts of the apronlike ephod close to the waist. (Ex. 28:4, 8, 39; 39:29) A belt or girdle was a commonly worn item because of its additional convenience for placing in it sheathed daggers or swords, for holding money, the inkhorn of the recorder, and so forth.—Judg. 3:16; 2 Sam. 20:8; Ezek. 9:3.
Since those engaged in some form of work, and servants or slaves, wore a sash or girdle, it came to be symbolic of service or of one ministering to others. Jesus’ expression “let your loins be girded” figuratively describes readiness for spiritual activity on the part of God’s servants. (Luke 12:35) Jesus laid aside his outer garments and girded himself with a towel. He then ministered to the apostles by washing their feet, as an example to teach them to serve their brothers. The angels seen in vision by John had golden girdles, signifying a most precious service.—John 13:1-16; Rev. 15:6.
God commanded the Israelites to make fringed edges on the skirts of their garments, with a blue string above the fringe. This seems to have been peculiar to Israelite dress and provided a visual reminder that they were set aside as a people holy to Jehovah. It would keep before their eyes the fact that they should obey Jehovah’s commandments. (Num. 15:38-41) Tassels were also to be put on the four extremities of their clothing; possibly this had reference to the four corners of the mantle. (Deut. 22:12) The hem of the high priest’s blue sleeveless coat was fringed with alternate golden bells and pomegranates of cloth material.—Ex. 28:33, 34.
Where a robe or a sash needed fastening, the Hebrews may have used a toggle pin. Specimens found in the Middle East are pointed on one end and had a hole like a needle’s eye at the middle, into which a cord was tied. The garment would be fastened by inserting the pin into it and then winding the cord around the pin’s protruding ends. It appears that about the tenth century B.C.E. a form of safety pin somewhat resembling our modern safety pin may have been introduced into Palestine.
RIGHT AND WRONG VIEW OF DRESS
Jehovah’s people are told not to be unduly anxious about having sufficient clothing. (Matt. 6:25-32) The Christian woman is warned not to let expensive, showy dress or style be the thing she seeks, but, rather, to let her clothing be modest yet well arranged, showing soundness of mind. She should therefore give attention to her dress, but should put the primary stress on the apparel of a quiet and mild spirit. (1 Tim. 2:9; 1 Pet. 3:3-5) The wise writer of Proverbs describes a good wife as seeing that her family is well clothed, industriously making garments with her own hands.—Prov. 31:13, 21, 24.
On the other hand, many women of Bible times used their attire as a means of gaining their selfish objectives. It was a custom for women of pagan cities, when about to be captured by the enemy, to put on their finest apparel in order to attract soldiers who might take them as wives. But, in case a captive woman was taken by an Israelite soldier, she was required to set aside her items of dress, some of which might be connected with pagan religion, before he could marry her.—Deut. 21:10-13.
After Israel had fallen into many idolatrous and immoral practices, Jehovah condemned the women of the nation who haughtily garbed and decorated themselves in order to attract men, even men of other nations, and for decking themselves with the ornaments of false religion.—Isa. 3:16-23; compare Proverbs 7:10.
Jehovah portrays Jerusalem as once figuratively attired by him in beautiful garments. But she trusted in her prettiness and consorted with the pagan nations, decking herself out to be attractive, as a prostitute.—Ezek. 16:10-14; see also Ezekiel 23:26, 27; Jeremiah 4:30, 31.
Clothing is used symbolically in many Bible passages. Jehovah portrays himself as clothed with dignity, splendor, eminence, light, righteousness, zeal and vengeance. (Ps. 93:1; 104:1, 2; Isa. 59:17) He is said to clothe his people in garments of righteousness and salvation. (Ps. 132:9; Isa. 61:10) His enemies will be clothed with shame and humiliation. (Ps. 35:26) Paul commands Christians to strip off the old personality and to clothe themselves with the new personality, some of the features of which are the tender affections of compassion, kindness, lowliness of mind, long-suffering and, especially, love.—Col. 3:9-14.
Many other symbolic references are made to clothing. Just as a uniform or special attire identifies one as belonging to a certain organization or supporting a certain movement, so clothing, as used symbolically in the Bible, indicates the identification of a person by the stand he takes and his activities in harmony with it, as in the case of Jesus’ illustration of the marriage garment.—Matt. 22:11, 12; see HEADDRESS; SANDAL.
The condition of being intoxicated due to excessive drinking of alcoholic beverages. A drunkard is a person who habitually overindulges in strong drink to the point of drunkenness.
Intoxicating drinks in ancient Biblical lands included wine made from grapes (Deut. 32:14), and