“honor.” Various original-language words convey the thought of according honor, respect or wholesome fear to others.
TOWARD JEHOVAH AND HIS REPRESENTATIVES
By reason of his being Creator, Jehovah God is worthy of the greatest honor from all his intelligent creatures. (Rev. 4:11) Such honor calls for individuals to render faithful obedience to him, obedience based on love for him and an appreciation for what he has done in their behalf. (Mal. 1:6; 1 John 5:3) It also includes the use of one’s valuable things on behalf of true worship.—Prov. 3:9.
One who appropriates to himself that which belongs to the Creator shows disrespect for sacred things. This was done by Hophni and Phinehas, the sons of High Priest Eli. They seized the best of every offering made to Jehovah. And Eli, by failing to take firm measures against his sons for this, honored them more than Jehovah.—1 Sam. 2:12-17, 27-29.
Whereas the honor given by men to Jehovah God is manifest by faithful obedience to him and furthering the interests of his worship, God honors humans by blessing and rewarding them. (1 Sam. 2:30) Thus King David, who served Jehovah faithfully and desired to build a temple for housing the sacred ark of the covenant, was honored or rewarded with a covenant for a kingdom.—2 Sam. 7:1-16; 1 Chron. 17:1-14.
As Jehovah’s spokesmen the prophets, especially God’s Son Christ Jesus, were deserving of respect. But instead of being accorded such by the Israelites, they were abused verbally and physically, even to the point of being put to death. Israel’s disrespect for Jehovah’s representatives reached its climax in their killing his Son. For this reason Jehovah used the Roman armies to execute his vengeance upon unfaithful Jerusalem in 70 C.E.—Matt. 21:33-44; Mark 12:1-9; Luke 20:9-16; compare John 5:23.
In the Christian congregation
Those entrusted with special responsibilities as teachers in the Christian congregation deserved the support and cooperation of fellow believers. (Heb. 13:7, 17) They were “worthy of double honor,” including voluntary material assistance for their hard work in behalf of the congregation.—1 Tim. 5:17, 18: see OLDER MAN.
However, all Christians were entitled to honor from fellow believers. The apostle Paul counseled: “In showing honor to one another take the lead.” (Rom. 12:10) As the individual Christian knows his own weaknesses and failings better than fellow believers, it is only right that he put others ahead of himself, honoring or highly valuing them on account of their faithful work. (Phil. 2:1-4) Needy and deserving widows were honored by receiving material assistance from the congregation.—1 Tim. 5:3, 9, 10.
Among family members
A wife is rightly to manifest wholesome fear or deep respect for her husband as head of the family. (Eph. 5:33) This harmonizes with the preeminence given to the man in God’s arrangement. Not the woman, but the man, was created first, and he is “God’s image and glory.” (1 Cor. 11:7-9; 1 Tim. 2:11-13) Sarah was a notable example of a woman who had deep respect for her husband. Her respect came from the heart, for Sarah referred to her husband as “lord,” not merely for others to hear, but even “inside herself.”—1 Pet. 3:1, 2, 5, 6; compare Genesis 18:12.
On the other hand, husbands are admonished: “Continue dwelling in like manner with [your wives] according to knowledge, assigning them honor as to a weaker vessel, the feminine one, since you are also heirs with them of the undeserved favor of life.” (1 Pet. 3:7) Thus spirit-anointed Christian husbands were to take into consideration that their wives had an equal standing as joint heirs of Christ (compare Romans 8:17; Galatians 3:28) and should be treated in an honorable way because of their having less strength than men.
In relation to their children, parents are God’s representatives, authorized to train, discipline and direct them. Parents are therefore entitled to honor or respect. (Ex. 20:12; Eph. 6:1-3; Heb. 12:9) This would not be limited to a child’s obedience and his manifesting a high regard for his parents. When necessary, it would include lovingly caring for parents in later life. (Compare Matthew 15:4-6.) In the Christian congregation, one who failed to provide for an aged and needy parent was considered as being worse than a person without faith. (1 Tim. 5:8) As the apostle Paul pointed out to Timothy, the congregation was not to take on the burden of caring for widows who had children or grandchildren that were able to render material assistance.—1 Tim. 5:4.
TOWARD RULERS AND OTHERS
Honor or respect is also due men in high governmental station. A Christian shows such respect, not to gain some favor, but because it is God’s will. Personally these men may be corrupt. (Compare Luke 18:2-6; Acts 24:24-27.) But respect is rendered to them out of regard for the position of responsibility that their office stands for. It is not a matter of rendering respect because of the persons of these men. (Rom. 13:1, 2, 7; 1 Pet. 2:13, 14) Similarly, slaves were to consider their owners worthy of full honor, doing their assigned work and not giving cause for bringing reproach upon God’s name.—1 Tim. 6:1.
When others demanded that a Christian give a reason for his hope, he was to do so “with a mild temper and deep respect.” Though questions might be propounded in an insulting manner, the Christian would present his reasons with calmness and gentleness not responding in an irritated, angry or resentful way. Though not cowed by fear of men, the Christian would manifest deep respect or a wholesome fear, as if in the presence of Jehovah God. (1 Pet. 3:14, 15) In this regard he could take as an example the angels, who, though greater in strength and power, do not present accusations in abusive terms.—2 Pet. 2:11.
The Greek word a·po·ka·taʹsta·sis occurs only once in the Scriptures, at Acts 3:21. Peter there speaks of the “times of restoration of all things of which God spoke through the mouth of his holy prophets of old time,” until which times heaven must hold within itself the “Christ appointed,” Jesus.
The Authorized Version here renders a·po·ka·taʹsta·sis as “restitution.” The Greek word itself comes from a·poʹ, meaning “back” or “again,” and ka·thiʹste·mi, meaning “to set in order.” (Compare the use of the verb form, uniformly translated “restore(d)” at Matthew 12:13; Mark 3:5; Luke 6:10.) The Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, edited by G. Kittel, states that the basic meaning of the term is “restitution to an earlier state” or “restoration.” (Vol. I, p. 389) It was used by Jewish historian Josephus in referring to the return of the Jews from exile. In papyrus writings it is used of the repair of certain buildings, the restoration of estates to rightful owners, and a balancing of accounts.
The text itself does not specify what the things to be restored are, hence the “all things” must be ascertained by the study of God’s message spoken through his prophets.
[Gr., a·naʹsta·sis, a raising up, or rising (from a·naʹ, up, and hiʹste·mi, to cause to stand)] .
The word is used frequently in the Christian Greek Scriptures referring to the resurrection of the dead. The Hebrew Scriptures at Hosea 13:14, quoted by the apostle Paul (1 Cor. 15:54, 55), speak of the abolition of death and the rendering powerless of Sheol (Heb., sheʼohlʹ; Gr., haiʹdes). Sheʼohlʹ is rendered in various versions as “grave” and “pit.” The dead are spoken of as going there. (Gen. 37:35; 1 Ki. 2:6; Eccl. 9:10) Its usage in the Scriptures, along with