he beheld four huge beasts coming up out of the sea, these creatures representing human governments. (Dan. 7:1, 3, 17; see BEASTS, SYMBOLIC.) Daniel also saw the Ancient of Days, from whom “someone like a son of man” received lasting “rulership and dignity and kingdom.”—Dan. 7:13, 14.
Joel foretold the figurative dreaming of dreams under the influence of God’s spirit, evidently indicating that Jehovah’s servants would see fulfilled the dreams the prophets saw in ancient times. (Joel 2:28) One fulfillment occurred at the outpouring of the holy spirit on Pentecost of 33 C.E., when persons speaking many languages understood Jesus’ disciples who spoke to them in various tongues “about the magnificent things of God.” (Acts 2:1-18) The major fulfillment would be realized during the last days of this system of things.
When Jesus Christ stood on trial before Pontius Pilate, the Roman governor’s wife sent him this message respecting Jesus: “Have nothing to do with that righteous man, for I suffered a lot today in a dream because of him.” (Matt. 27:19) The Bible does not state that the dream was of divine origin, but if it was from God, the report of it may have served to warn Pilate that Christ’s case was one of extreme importance.
Natural dreams may be stimulated by certain thoughts or emotions, sensations or daily activities (anxiety, one’s physical condition, his occupation, and so forth). These dreams are of no great significance. (Ps. 73:20) A hungry person may dream of eating, a thirsty one of drinking, but he awakes unsatisfied. Comparable delusion was in store for all the nations “waging war against Mount Zion.”—Isa. 29:7, 8.
Concerning the pagan view of dreams, it is stated: “Babylonians had such trust in dreams that on the eve of important decisions they slept in temples, hoping for counsel. Greeks desiring health instruction slept in shrines of Aesculapius, and Romans in temples of Serapis. Egyptians prepared elaborate books for dream interpretation.” (Harper’s Bible Dictionary, 7th ed., 1961, p. 141) But such practices did not exist among faithful Hebrews and early Christians. The Scriptures warn against looking for omens, whether in natural dreams or in various incidents.—Deut. 18:10-12; see DIVINATION.
False dreams are Biblically condemned. According to the Law, a false dreamer who urged the committing of idolatry was to be put to death. (Deut. 13:1-5) God might sometimes speak to his true prophets by means of dreams (Num. 12:6), but he was against the “prophets of false dreams,” who led his people away from true worship. (Jer. 23:25-32; 27:9, 10) Practicers of divination were described as speaking “valueless dreams.”—Zech. 10:2.
The Bible speaks of dreams in a figurative sense in describing the ungodly defilers of the flesh who slipped into the Christian congregation. Jude warned fellow believers against such men “indulging in dreams,” these persons apparently dreaming (imagining) that they could with impunity violate God’s Word and defile flesh in the congregation. This was a mistake, for they would inescapably receive adverse judgment from the Supreme Judge, Jehovah.—Jude 8; 1 Cor. 6:9, 10, 18-20.
In the Scriptures the term occurs five times, always in the plural (Heb., shema·rimʹ). It is generally rendered “lees” by Bible translators, and has reference to suspended particles that precipitate and settle to the bottom when wine is allowed to stand undisturbed. Keeping a good wine “on the dregs” for a long time to age fully gives it clarity, strength and mellowness. (Isa. 25:6) On the other hand, when a wine that is bad to start with due to a poor quality of grape is left to congeal on the dregs, it does not improve in taste or smell, facts to which the prophets refer in illustrations. (Jer. 48:11; Zeph. 1:12) Also, in a figure of speech the psalmist says that “all the wicked ones of the earth” will be compelled to drain the cup of Jehovah’s anger, drinking the dregs and all, down to the last bitter drop.—Ps. 75:8; compare Ezekiel 23:32-34; see WINE AND STRONG DRINK.
Apart from mention, with some description, of various articles of clothing in the Bible, there is little historical information as to the dress worn by the Hebrews—far less than that of the Egyptians and Assyrians. The reason is that the nation of Israel did not erect monuments or make inscriptions lauding their military victors, with figures of themselves from which we could get an idea as to their style of dress. Numerous Egyptian and Assyrian bas-reliefs, and those of other nations, illustrate the dress of their own peoples, and several show captives of different nationalities. Some of those depicted are believed to be Hebrews, but this cannot be proved. It seems reasonable, however, that some of the clothing worn today by people in many parts of the Bible lands may be roughly similar to what was worn centuries ago, since the same purposes are served, and since some customs have remained unchanged for centuries. On the other hand, archaeological evidence seems to show that the Hebrews used color in their dress to a greater extent than the modern Arab bedouins. Additionally, the dress worn by modern-day Jews and by other people in those lands has often been greatly influenced by religion and by Greek, Roman and Western customs, so that we can at best get only a general idea by comparison.
The very earliest clothing material was the fig leaf, Adam and Eve sewing fig leaves together to make loin coverings. (Gen. 3:7) Later, Jehovah made them long garments of skin. (Gen. 3:21) A “hair garment” was used by Elijah and by Elisha as the “official garment” of the prophetic ministry. Elijah also wore a belt of leather. John the Baptist dressed similarly. (2 Ki. 1:8; 2:13; Heb. 11:37; Matt. 3:4) Sackcloth, usually made of hair (Rev. 6:12), was worn by mourners. (Esther 4:1; Ps. 69:10, 11; Rev. 11:3) Linen and wool were the principal fabrics. (Lev. 13:47-59; Prov. 31:13) The coarser fabrics of the poor were made of goat’s hair and camel’s hair, although they also used wool. Linen was a more expensive material. Cotton may also have been used. In only one place in the Bible is it certain that silk is mentioned, it being listed as an article of Babylon the Great’s commerce. (Rev. 18:12) Garments were of various colors, variegated and striped, and some were embroidered. (Judg. 5:30) Varieties of weave existed. The high priest’s white linen robe was woven “in checker work.” (Ex. 28:39) The Israelites might wear a garment of linen and another of wool, but were forbidden by God’s law to wear a garment of two sorts of thread, mixed.—Lev. 19:19; Deut. 22:11; see CLOTH; DYES, DYEING.
The general term for garment most often used in the Hebrew Scriptures is beʹghedh. Other terms were used, sometimes in a general way, but they also appear in places as applying to specific articles of clothing.
There seems to have been an innermost garment in the form of a loincloth, or perhaps drawers, worn next to the skin, for the exposure of absolute nakedness was shameful. The priests were required to wear linen drawers (Heb., mikh·nesaʹyim) to prevent indecent exposure when they served at the altar. Pagan priests sometimes served naked, a thing disgusting to Jehovah.—Ex. 28:42, 43.
The sa·dhinʹ (Heb.) was an “undergarment” worn by both men and women. (Isa. 3:23) Some think that one form of this inner article of clothing was in the nature of a wraparound garment. It would be worn