Studies on the Inspired Scriptures and Their Background
Study Number 2—Time and the Holy Scriptures
Describing time divisions used in the Bible, the calendars in common use, pivotal dates for the Bible, and interesting points with regard to “the stream of time.”
1, 2. What did Solomon write concerning time, and in view of the fleeting nature of time, what should we do with it?
MAN is deeply conscious of the passing of time. With each tick of the clock, he progresses a step farther down time’s corridor. He is wise, indeed, if he makes proper use of his time. As King Solomon wrote: “For everything there is an appointed time, even a time for every affair under the heavens: a time for birth and a time to die; a time to plant and a time to uproot what was planted; a time to kill and a time to heal; a time to break down and a time to build; a time to weep and a time to laugh.” (Eccl. 3:1-4) How fleeting is time! The 70 years of the normal life span is far too short a time for a person to take in the abundance of knowledge and to enjoy all the other good things Jehovah has provided for man on this earth. “Everything he has made pretty in its time. Even time indefinite he has put in their heart, that mankind may never find out the work that the true God has made from the start to the finish.”—Eccl. 3:11; Ps. 90:10.
2 Jehovah himself lives in an eternity of time. As for his creatures, it has pleased him to set them in the stream of time. The angels of heaven, including even the rebellious Satan, are fully aware of the passage of time. (Dan. 10:13; Rev. 12:12) Of mankind it is written, “Time and unforeseen occurrence befall them all.” (Eccl. 9:11) Happy is the man who at all times includes God in his thoughts and who welcomes God’s provision of “food at the proper time”!—Matt. 24:45.
3. What do time and space have in common?
3 Time Is One-Directional. Though time is universal, no man living is able to say what it is. It is as unfathomable as space. No one can explain where the stream of time began or where it is flowing. These things belong to the limitless knowledge of Jehovah, who is described as being God “from time indefinite to time indefinite.”—Ps. 90:2.
4. What can be said as to the movement of time?
4 On the other hand, time has certain characteristics that can be understood. Its apparent rate of flow can be measured. Additionally, it moves in one direction only. Like traffic on a one-way street, time moves relentlessly in that one direction—onward, ever onward. Whatever the speed of its forward movement, time can never be thrown into reverse. We live in a momentary present. However, this present is in motion, flowing continually into the past. There is no stopping it.
5. Why may it be said that the past has been won or lost?
5 The Past. The past is gone, it is history, and it can never be repeated. Any attempt to call back the past is as impossible as trying to make a waterfall tumble uphill or an arrow fly back to the bow that shot it. Our mistakes have left their mark in the stream of time, a mark that only Jehovah can wipe out. (Isa. 43:25) In like manner, a man’s good deeds in the past have made a record that “will come back to him” with blessing from Jehovah. (Prov. 12:14; 13:22) The past has been won or lost. No longer is there any control over it. Of the wicked it is written: “For like grass they will speedily wither, and like green new grass they will fade away.”—Ps. 37:2.
6. How is the future different from the past, and why should we be especially interested in it?
6 The Future. The future is different. It is always flowing toward us. By the help of God’s Word, we can identify obstacles that loom ahead of us and prepare to meet them. We can store up for ourselves “treasures in heaven.” (Matt. 6:20) These treasures will not be swept away by the stream of time. They will stay with us and will endure into an eternal future of blessing. We are interested in the wise use of time, as it affects that future.—Eph. 5:15, 16.
7. What time indicators has Jehovah provided for man?
7 Time Indicators. Our modern-day watches and clocks are time indicators. They serve as rulers for measuring time. In similar manner Jehovah, the Creator, has set in motion giant time indicators—the earth spinning on its axis, the moon revolving around the earth, and the sun—so that from his standpoint on earth, man may be accurately advised of the time. “And God went on to say: ‘Let luminaries come to be in the expanse of the heavens to make a division between the day and the night; and they must serve as signs and for seasons and for days and years.’” (Gen. 1:14) Thus, as a multitude of objects with interlocking purposes, these heavenly bodies move in their perfect cycles, unendingly and unerringly measuring the one-directional movement of time.
8. In what different senses is the word “day” used in the Bible?
8 Day. The word “day” in the Bible is used with several different meanings, even as it has a variety of applications in modern times. As the earth makes one complete rotation on its axis, it measures out one day of 24 hours. In this sense, a day is made up of daytime and nighttime, a total of 24 hours. (John 20:19) However, the daylight period itself, usually averaging 12 hours, is also called day. “And God began calling the light Day, but the darkness he called Night.” (Gen. 1:5) This gives rise to the time term “night,” the period usually averaging 12 hours of darkness. (Ex. 10:13) Another sense is where the word “day(s)” refers to a period of time contemporaneous with some outstanding person. For example, Isaiah saw his vision “in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz and Hezekiah” (Isa. 1:1), and the days of Noah and of Lot are mentioned as being prophetic. (Luke 17:26-30) Another example of the flexible or figurative use of the word “day” is Peter’s saying that “one day is with Jehovah as a thousand years.” (2 Pet. 3:8) In the Genesis account, the creative day is an even longer period of time—millenniums. (Gen. 2:2, 3; Ex. 20:11) The Bible context indicates the sense in which the word “day” applies.
9. (a) How did the division of the day into 24 hours of 60 minutes each originate? (b) What time indicators are mentioned in the Hebrew Scriptures?
9 Hour. The division of the day into 24 hours is traced to Egypt. Our modern-day division of the hour into 60 minutes originated from Babylonian mathematics, which was a sexagesimal system (based on the number 60). There is no mention of division into hours in the Hebrew Scriptures.* Instead of dividing the day into specific hours, the Hebrew Scriptures use expressions such as “morning,” “noon,” “midday,” and “evening time” as time indicators. (Gen. 24:11; 43:16; Deut. 28:29; 1 Ki. 18:26) The night was divided into three periods called “the night watches” (Ps. 63:6), two of which are specifically named in the Bible: “the middle night watch” (Judg. 7:19) and “the morning watch.”—Ex. 14:24; 1 Sam. 11:11.
10. How did the Jews count hours in Jesus’ time, and how does knowing this help us fix the time of Jesus’ death?
10 There is, however, frequent mention of the “hour” in the Christian Greek Scriptures. (John 12:23; Matt. 20:2-6) Hours were counted from sunrise, or about 6 a.m. The Bible mentions the “third hour,” which would be about 9 a.m. The “sixth hour” is mentioned as the time when darkness fell on Jerusalem at Jesus’ impalement. This would correspond to our 12 noon. Jesus’ expiration in death on the torture stake is stated to have occurred “about the ninth hour,” or about 3 p.m.—Mark 15:25; Luke 23:44; Matt. 27:45, 46.*
11. How old is the use of the “week” as a measurement of time?
11 Week. It was early in his history that man began to count his days in cycles of seven. In doing this, he followed the example of his Creator, who proceeded to crown his six creative days with a seventh period also called a day. Noah counted days in cycles of seven. In Hebrew, “week” literally refers to a sevenfold unit or period.—Gen. 2:2, 3; 8:10, 12; 29:27.
12. What is a lunar month, and how does it differ from our modern months?
12 Lunar Months. The Bible speaks of “lunar months.” (Ex. 2:2; Deut. 21:13; 33:14; Ezra 6:15) Our modern months are not lunar months, for they are not determined by the moon. They are merely 12 arbitrary divisions of the solar year. A lunar month is a month that is determined by the new moon. There are four phases of the moon, which make up one lunation averaging 29 days, 12 hours, and 44 minutes. One has only to look at the shape of the moon to tell approximately the day of the lunar month.
13. How was the Flood accurately recorded as to time?
13 Instead of using strictly lunar months, Noah appears to have recorded events by months of 30 days each. By the log that Noah kept on the ark, we understand that the waters of the Flood kept overwhelming the earth for a period of five months, or “a hundred and fifty days.” It was after 12 months and 10 days that the earth had dried off so that the ark’s passengers could go out. Thus, those epoch-making events were accurately recorded as to time.—Gen. 7:11, 24; 8:3, 4, 14-19.
14. (a) How did Jehovah make provision for the seasons? (b) How long will the arrangement of seasons continue?
14 Seasons. In preparing the earth for habitation, Jehovah made the wise and loving provision of the seasons. (Gen. 1:14) These follow as a consequence of the earth’s being tilted, or inclined, at a 23.5° angle to the plane of its travel around the sun. This results in first the Southern Hemisphere’s and then, six months later, the Northern Hemisphere’s being tilted toward the sun, so that the seasons proceed in order. This change of the seasons provides for variety and contrast and controls the times for planting and harvesting. God’s Word assures us that this arrangement for change and contrast of the seasons through the year is to continue forever. “For all the days the earth continues, seed sowing and harvest, and cold and heat, and summer and winter, and day and night, will never cease.”—Gen. 8:22.
15, 16. (a) How may the rainy season in the Promised Land be subdivided? (b) Describe the seasons of the rains and the relationship of these seasons to agricultural activity.
15 The year in the Promised Land can generally be divided into the rainy season and the dry season. From about mid-April to mid-October, very little rain falls. The rainy season may be divided into the early, or “autumn,” rain (October-November); the heavy winter rains and colder weather (December-February); and the late, or “spring,” rain (March-April). (Deut. 11:14; Joel 2:23) These divisions are approximate, the seasons overlapping because of variations in climate in different parts of the land. The early rain softens up the dry ground, so that October-November is the time for “plowing” and for “the sowing of seed.” (Ex. 34:21; Lev. 26:5) During the heavy winter rains from December to February, snowfalls are not uncommon, and in January and February, the temperature may drop below freezing on the higher elevations. The Bible speaks of Benaiah, one of David’s mighty men, as killing a lion “on a day of snowfall.”—2 Sam. 23:20.
16 The months of March and April (approximately the Hebrew months of Nisan and Iyyar) are the months of “the spring rain.” (Zech. 10:1) This is the late rain, which is needed to make the grain planted in autumn swell, so that a good harvest may result. (Hos. 6:3; Jas. 5:7) This is also the season of the early harvest, and God commanded Israel to offer the firstfruits of the harvest on Nisan 16. (Lev. 23:10; Ruth 1:22) It is a time of beauty and delight. “Blossoms themselves have appeared in the land, the very time of vine trimming has arrived, and the voice of the turtledove itself has been heard in our land. As for the fig tree, it has gained a mature color for its early figs; and the vines are abloom, they have given their fragrance.”—Song of Sol. 2:12, 13.
17. (a) How are the crops sustained during the dry season? (b) Consider the chart “The Year of the Israelites” and divide off the year according to seasons as discussed in paragraphs 15-17. (c) When was the early harvest, the grain harvest, and the time when all the fruits were gathered in, and what festivals coincided with these events?
17 About mid-April the dry season begins, but almost throughout this period, and especially on the coastal plains and the western slopes of the mountains, an abundance of dew sustains the summer crops. (Deut. 33:28) During May, grain is harvested, and it was at the end of this month that the Festival of Weeks (Pentecost) was celebrated. (Lev. 23:15-21) Then, as the weather becomes warmer and the ground drier, the grapes on the vines ripen and are harvested, followed by the other summer fruits, such as olives, dates, and figs. (2 Sam. 16:1) With the ending of the dry season and the beginning of the early rains, all the produce of the land has been harvested, and it was then (about the beginning of October) that the Festival of Booths, or Tabernacles, was held.—Ex. 23:16; Lev. 23:39-43.
18. (a) Why is the meaning of the Hebrew word for “year” appropriate? (b) What is the true solar year as regards the earth?
18 Year. Our study of time in the Bible now brings us to the expression “year.” From the beginning of man’s history, it is mentioned. (Gen. 1:14) The Hebrew word for “year,” sha·nahʹ, comes from a root meaning “repeat; do again” and carries the idea of a cycle of time. This was appropriate, since each year the cycle of seasons was repeated. An earthly year is the time it takes for the earth to make one complete revolution, or trip, around the sun. The actual time that it takes for us here on earth to complete this trip is 365 days 5 hours 48 minutes 46 seconds, or approximately 365 1/4 days. This is called the true solar year.
19. (a) How were ancient Bible years reckoned? (b) What “sacred year” did Jehovah later decree?
19 Bible Years. According to the ancient Biblical reckoning, the year ran from autumn to autumn. This was particularly suited to an agricultural life, the year beginning with plowing and sowing, toward the first part of our month of October, and ending with the gathering in of the harvest. Noah counted the year as beginning in the autumn. He recorded the Deluge as beginning “in the second month,” which would correspond to the latter half of October and the first half of November. (Gen. 7:11, footnote) To this day, many peoples of the earth still start their new year in the autumn. At the time of the Exodus from Egypt, in 1513 B.C.E., Jehovah decreed that Abib (Nisan) should become “the start of the months” for the Jews, so that they now had a sacred year, running from spring to spring. (Ex. 12:2) However, Jews in our day observe a secular, or civil, year beginning in the autumn, Tishri being the first month.
20. How was the lunar year adjusted to correspond to the solar year, and what are lunisolar years?
20 Lunisolar Year. Until the time of Christ, most nations used lunar years for counting time, employing various ways of adjusting the year to coincide more or less with the solar year. The common lunar year of 12 lunar months has 354 days, with the months having 29 or 30 days, depending on the appearance of each new moon. The lunar year is therefore about 11 1/4 days short of the true solar year of 365 1/4 days. The Hebrews followed the lunar year. Just how they adjusted this year to coincide with the solar year and the seasons is not explained in the Bible, but they must have added additional, or intercalary, months when needed. The arrangement of intercalary months was later systematized in the fifth century B.C.E. into what is now known as the Metonic cycle. This allowed for the intercalary month to be added seven times every 19 years, and in the Jewish calendar, it was added after the 12th month, Adar, and was called Veadar, or “second Adar.” As the lunar calendar is thus adjusted to the sun, the years, which are of 12 or 13 months, are known as lunisolar years.
21. (a) What is the Julian calendar? (b) Why is the Gregorian calendar more accurate?
21 Julian and Gregorian Calendars. A calendar is a system of fixing the beginning, length, and divisions of the year and arranging these divisions in order. The Julian calendar was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 B.C.E., to give the Roman people a solar-year time arrangement in place of the lunar year. The Julian calendar consists of 365 days in a year, with the exception that on each fourth year (leap year), one day is added, to make it 366 days. However, in the course of time, it was found that the Julian calendar year is actually a little more than 11 minutes longer than the true solar year. By the 16th century C.E., a discrepancy of ten full days had accumulated. Thus, in 1582, Pope Gregory XIII introduced a slight revision, instituting what is now known as the Gregorian calendar. By papal bull ten days were omitted from the year 1582, so that the day after October 4 became October 15. The Gregorian calendar provides that centuries not divisible by 400 are not to be considered leap years. For example, unlike the year 2000, the year 1900 was not made a leap year because the number 1,900 is not divisible by 400. The Gregorian calendar is now the one in general use in most parts of the world.
22, 23. How long is a prophetic year?
22 Prophetic “Year.” In Bible prophecy the word “year” is often used in a special sense as the equivalent of 12 months, each month having 30 days, for a total of 360 days. Note what one authority says in commenting on Ezekiel 4:5, 6: “We must suppose that Ezekiel knew a year of 360 days. This is neither a true solar year nor is it a lunar year. It is an ‘average’ year in which each month has 30 days.”*
23 A prophetic year is also called a “time,” and a study of Revelation 11:2, 3 and Re 12:6, 14 reveals how one “time” is reckoned as 360 days. In prophecy a year is occasionally also represented symbolically by a “day.”—Ezek. 4:5, 6.
24. How did many ancient peoples start their counting?
24 No Zero Year. Ancient peoples, including the learned Greeks, the Romans, and the Jews, had no concept of zero. To them, everything began counting from one. When you studied Roman numerals in school (I, II, III, IV, V, X, etc.), did you learn a figure for zero? No, because the Romans had none. Since the Romans did not use the number zero, the Common Era began, not with a zero year, but with 1 C.E. This also gave rise to the ordinal arrangement of numbers, such as first (1st), second (2nd), third (3rd), tenth (10th), and hundredth (100th). In modern mathematics, man conceives of everything as starting from nothing, or zero. The zero was probably invented by the Hindus.
25. How do ordinal numbers differ from cardinal numbers?
25 Thus it is that whenever ordinal numbers are used, we must always subtract one to get the full number. For example, when we speak of a date in the 20th century C.E., does it mean that there have been a full 20 centuries? No, it means 19 full centuries plus some years. To express full numbers, the Bible, as well as modern mathematics, employs cardinal numbers, such as 1, 2, 3, 10, and 100. These are also called “whole numbers.”
26. How would you figure (a) the years from October 1, 607 B.C.E., to October 1, 1914 C.E.? (b) 2,520 years from October 1, 607 B.C.E.?
26 Now, since the Common Era did not begin with the year zero but began with 1 C.E., and the calendar for the years before the Common Era did not count back from a zero year but began with 1 B.C.E., the figure used for the year in any date is in reality an ordinal number. That is, 1990 C.E. really represents 1989 full years since the beginning of the Common Era, and the date July 1, 1990, represents 1,989 years plus a half year since the beginning of the Common Era. The same principle applies to B.C.E. dates. So to figure how many years elapsed between October 1, 607 B.C.E., and October 1, 1914 C.E., add 606 years (plus the last three months of the previous year) to 1,913 (plus the first nine months of the next year), and the result is 2,519 (plus 12 months), or 2,520 years. Or if you want to figure what date would be 2,520 years after October 1, 607 B.C.E., remember that 607 is an ordinal number—it really represents 606 full years—and since we are counting, not from December 31, 607 B.C.E., but from October 1, 607 B.C.E., we must add to 606 the three months at the end of 607 B.C.E. Now subtract 606 1/4 from 2,520 years. The remainder is 1,913 3/4. That means that 2,520 years from October 1, 607 B.C.E., takes us 1,913 3/4 years into the Common Era—1,913 full years brings us to the beginning of 1914 C.E., and three fourths of a year in addition brings us to October 1, 1914 C.E.*
27. What are pivotal dates, and why are they of great value?
27 Pivotal Dates. Reliable Bible chronology is based on certain pivotal dates. A pivotal date is a calendar date in history that has a sound basis for acceptance and that corresponds to a specific event recorded in the Bible. It can then be used as the starting point from which a series of Bible events can be located on the calendar with certainty. Once this pivotal point is fixed, calculations forward or backward from this date are made from accurate records in the Bible itself, such as the stated life spans of people or the duration of the reigns of kings. Thus, starting from a pegged point, we can use the reliable internal chronology of the Bible itself in dating many Bible events.
28. What pivotal date is provided for the Hebrew Scriptures?
28 Pivotal Date for the Hebrew Scriptures. A prominent event recorded both in the Bible and in secular history is the overthrow of the city of Babylon by the Medes and Persians under Cyrus. The Bible records this event at Daniel 5:30. Various historical sources (including Diodorus, Africanus, Eusebius, Ptolemy, and the Babylonian tablets) support 539 B.C.E. as the year for the overthrow of Babylon by Cyrus. The Nabonidus Chronicle gives the month and day of the city’s fall (the year is missing). Secular chronologers have thus set the date for the fall of Babylon as October 11, 539 B.C.E., according to the Julian calendar, or October 5 by the Gregorian calendar.*
29. When was Cyrus’ decree issued, allowing opportunity for what?
29 Following the overthrow of Babylon, and during his first year as ruler of conquered Babylon, Cyrus issued his famous decree permitting the Jews to return to Jerusalem. In view of the Bible record, the decree was likely made late in 538 B.C.E. or toward the spring of 537 B.C.E. This would give ample opportunity for the Jews to resettle in their homeland and to come up to Jerusalem to restore the worship of Jehovah in “the seventh month,” Tishri, or about October 1, 537 B.C.E.—Ezra 1:1-4; 3:1-6.*
30. How does a pivotal date along with fulfilled prophecy fix the time of Jesus’ baptism, and of his birth?
30 Pivotal Date for the Christian Greek Scriptures. A pivotal date for the Christian Greek Scriptures is determined by the date that Tiberius Caesar succeeded Emperor Augustus. Augustus died on August 17, 14 C.E. (Gregorian calendar); Tiberius was named emperor by the Roman Senate on September 15, 14 C.E. It is stated at Luke 3:1, 3 that John the Baptizer began his ministry in the 15th year of Tiberius’ reign. If the years were counted from the death of Augustus, the 15th year ran from August of 28 C.E. to August of 29 C.E. If counted from when Tiberius was named emperor by the Senate, the year ran from September of 28 C.E. to September of 29 C.E. Soon after this, Jesus, who was about six months younger than John the Baptizer, came to be baptized, when he was “about thirty years old.” (Luke 3:2, 21-23; 1:34-38) This agrees with the prophecy at Daniel 9:25 that 69 “weeks” (prophetic weeks of 7 years each, thus totaling 483 years) would elapse from “the going forth of the word to restore and to rebuild Jerusalem” and its wall until the appearance of Messiah. (Dan. 9:24, footnote) That “word” was authorized by Artaxerxes (Longimanus) in 455 B.C.E. and was put into effect by Nehemiah in Jerusalem in the latter part of that year. And 483 years later, in the latter part of 29 C.E., when he was baptized by John, Jesus was also anointed by holy spirit from God, thus becoming the Messiah, or Anointed One. That Jesus was baptized and began his ministry in the latter part of the year also agrees with the prophecy that he was to be cut off “at the half of the week” of years (or after three and a half years). (Dan. 9:27) Since he died in the spring, his ministry of three and a half years must have begun toward the fall of 29 C.E.* Incidentally, these two lines of evidence also prove that Jesus was born in the autumn of 2 B.C.E., since Luke 3:23 shows that Jesus was about 30 years of age when he commenced his work.*
31. (a) Why does the rate of the passage of time appear to vary? (b) What advantage do young people therefore have?
31 How Time Moves Faster. There is an old saying that “a watched kettle never boils.” It is true that when we are watching time, when we are conscious of it, when we are waiting for something to happen, then it seems to pass ever so slowly. However, if we are busy, if we are interested in and preoccupied with what we are doing, then it really appears that “time flies.” Moreover, with older people time seems to pass much more quickly than with young children. Why is this? One year added to the life of a one-year-old means a 100-percent increase in life’s experiences. One year added to the life of a 50-year-old means just 2 percent more. To the child, a year seems a long, long time. The older person, if busy and in good health, finds that the years seem to fly faster and faster. He comes to a deeper understanding of Solomon’s words: “There is nothing new under the sun.” On the other hand, young people still have the seemingly slower, formative years with them. Instead of “striving after wind” with a materialistic world, they may use these years profitably in piling up a wealth of godly experience. Timely are Solomon’s further words: “Remember, now, your Grand Creator in the days of your young manhood, before the calamitous days proceed to come, or the years have arrived when you will say: ‘I have no delight in them.’”—Eccl. 1:9, 14; 12:1.
32. How may humans come to appreciate more fully Jehovah’s view of time?
32 Time—When People Live Forever. However, there are joyous days ahead that will be far from calamitous. Lovers of righteousness, whose ‘times are in Jehovah’s hand,’ may look forward to everlasting life in the realm of God’s Kingdom. (Ps. 31:14-16; Matt. 25:34, 46) Under the Kingdom, death will be no more. (Rev. 21:4) Idleness, illness, boredom, and vanity will have vanished. There will be work to do, absorbing and intriguing, calling for expression of man’s perfect abilities and bringing intense satisfaction in accomplishment. The years will seem to flow faster and faster, and appreciative and retentive minds will be continually enriched with memories of happy events. As millenniums pass, humans on this earth will no doubt come to appreciate more fully Jehovah’s view of time: ‘For a thousand years in Jehovah’s eyes are but as yesterday when it is past.’—Ps. 90:4.
33. With regard to time, what blessing has Jehovah commanded?
33 Viewing the stream of time from our present human standpoint and taking into account God’s promise of a new world of righteousness, how joyous in prospect are the blessings of that day: “For there Jehovah commanded the blessing to be, even life to time indefinite”!—Ps. 133:3.
The word “hour” appears in the King James Version at Daniel 3:6, 15; 4:19, 33; 5:5, from the Aramaic; however, Strong’s Concordance, Hebrew and Chaldee Dictionary, gives the meaning of the word as “a look, i.e. a moment.” It is translated “moment” in the New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures.
See footnotes on these scriptures.
Biblical Calendars, 1961, by J. Van Goudoever, page 75.
[Chart on page 281]
THE YEAR OF THE ISRAELITES
Name of Month Nisan (Abib)
Corresponds to March - April
Sacred Year 1st month
Secular Year 7th month
Festivals Nisan 14 Passover
Nisan 15-21 Festival of Unfermented Cakes
Nisan 16 Offering of firstfruits
Name of Month Iyyar (Ziv)
Corresponds to April - May
Sacred Year 2nd month
Secular Year 8th month
Citations 1 Ki. 6:1
Name of Month Sivan
Corresponds to May - June
Sacred Year 3rd month
Secular Year 9th month
Citations Esther 8:9
Festivals Sivan 6 Festival of Weeks
Name of Month Tammuz
Corresponds to June - July
Sacred Year 4th month
Secular Year 10th month
Citations Jer. 52:6
Name of Month Ab
Corresponds to July - August
Sacred Year 5th month
Secular Year 11th month
Citations Ezra 7:8
Name of Month Elul
Corresponds to August - September
Sacred Year 6th month
Secular Year 12th month
Citations Neh. 6:15
Name of Month Tishri (Ethanim)
Corresponds to September - October
Sacred Year 7th month
Secular Year 1st month
Citations 1 Ki. 8:2
Festivals Tishri 1 Day of the trumpet blast
Tishri 10 Day of Atonement
Tishri 15-21 Festival of Booths
Tishri 22 Solemn assembly
Name of Month Heshvan (Bul)
Corresponds to October - November
Sacred Year 8th month
Secular Year 2nd month
Citations 1 Ki. 6:38
Name of Month Chislev
Corresponds to November - December
Sacred Year 9th month
Secular Year 3rd month
Citations Neh. 1:1
Name of Month Tebeth
Corresponds to December - January
Sacred Year 10th month
Secular Year 4th month
Citations Esther 2:16
Name of Month Shebat
Corresponds to January - February
Sacred Year 11th month
Secular Year 5th month
Citations Zech. 1:7
Name of Month Adar
Corresponds to February - March
Sacred Year 12th month
Secular Year 6th month
Citations Esther 3:7
Name of Month Veadar
Corresponds to (Intercalary month)
Sacred Year 13th month