1. Grandson of Noah and first-named son of Japheth, born after the Flood. (Ge 10:1, 2; 1Ch 1:4, 5) He and his sons, Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah, are listed among “the families of the sons of Noah according to their family descents” from whom the nations were spread about after the Deluge.—Ge 10:3, 32.
The nation that descended from Gomer is historically associated with the ancient Cimmerians, an Aryan race who evidently settled in the region N of the Black Sea. In the eighth century B.C.E., during the reign of Assyrian King Sargon, they apparently were driven by the Scythians across the Caucasus (the mountainous region between the Black and Caspian Seas). The Cimmerians swept through Asia Minor, attacking the kingdom of Urartu (Ararat) and penetrating eastern Asia Minor, where the Armenian name for Cappadocia, Gamirkʽ, doubtless reflects their invasion. Faced with a strong Assyrian Empire to the E, the Cimmerians pushed westward and warred against the Phrygians and the Lydians. They were finally expelled from Lydia by Lydian King Alyattes (predecessor of Croesus).
Ezekiel’s prophecy (the writing of which was evidently completed by about 591 B.C.E.) concerning the assault by “Gog of the land of Magog” against the regathered people of Jehovah lists “Gomer and all its bands” among Gog’s forces along with Togarmah “of the remotest parts of the north, and all its bands.”—Eze 38:2-8; see GOG No. 2; MAGOG No. 2; TOGARMAH.
2. The daughter of Diblaim who became the wife of Hosea in accord with Jehovah’s instructions to that prophet. (Ho 1:2, 3) Gomer thereafter gave birth to three children, whose significant names were used by God to foretell the disastrous results of Israel’s spiritual adultery in the form of idolatry. In relating the birth of the first child, a son named Jezreel, the account states that Gomer “bore to him [Hosea] a son.” In connection with the births of the next two children, however, no reference is made to the prophet as the father, and this has been the basis for regarding them as probably illegitimate. (Ho 1:3-9) Hosea 3:1-3 appears to describe Gomer’s being brought back from an adulterous course to the prophet, being purchased as though a slave, thus illustrating Israel’s being received back by God on the basis of their repentance.