An Egyptian king that is known as Sheshonk (I) from Egyptian records. Shishak, regarded as the founder of the “Libyan dynasty,” is generally credited with a rule of about 21 years. His son Osorkon I succeeded him to the throne.
When Jeroboam fled to Egypt to escape the wrath of King Solomon, Shishak ruled there. (1Ki 11:40) Some years later, in the fifth year of Solomon’s successor Rehoboam (993 B.C.E.), Shishak invaded Judah with a mighty force of chariots and horsemen. He captured fortified cities in Judah and then came to Jerusalem. But Jehovah did not allow him to bring Jerusalem to ruin, for Rehoboam and the princes of Judah humbled themselves upon receiving a message from the prophet Shemaiah. Shishak, however, did strip the city of its treasures.—2Ch 12:1-12.
There is archaeological evidence concerning Shishak’s invading the area of Palestine. A fragment of a stele found at Megiddo mentions Sheshonk (Shishak), possibly indicating that the stele was erected there to commemorate his victory. (Ancient Near Eastern Texts, edited by J. Pritchard, 1974, pp. 263, 264) Also, a relief on a temple wall at Karnak (the N part of the ancient Egyptian city of Thebes) lists numerous cities or villages that Shishak conquered. (PICTURE, Vol. 1, p. 952; Supplements to Vetus Testamentum, Leiden, 1957, Vol. IV, pp. 59, 60) A considerable number of the places that can be identified with Biblical sites were located in the territory of the ten-tribe kingdom. This would indicate that the purpose of Shishak’s campaign was, not to assist the ten-tribe kingdom, but to gain control of the important trade routes and thereby extend Egypt’s power and influence.