(Zaʹdok) [just, righteous].
1. A priest prominently associated with King David. Zadok was a descendant of Aaron through the high-priestly line of Eleazar. (1 Chron. 6:3-8, 50-53) He is also called a seer. (2 Sam. 15:27) Zadok, as a young man mighty in valor, was one of the tribal chiefs who threw in his support for David’s kingship. (1 Chron. 12:27, 28) From that time on he was loyal to David.—2 Sam. 8:15, 17; 20:25; 1 Chron. 18:16.
Zadok and Abiathar (whenever the two are mentioned, Zadok is named first) accompanied the ark of the covenant when David had it brought up to Jerusalem, after which Zadok continued to officiate for a time at Gibeon, where the tabernacle was located. (1 Chron. 15:11, 14; 16:39) When Absalom rebelled, Zadok and the Levites started to bring the Ark along as they accompanied David in his flight from Jerusalem, but David sent them back to the city, designating Zadok and others to act as intelligence intermediaries. (2 Sam. 15:23-29, 35, 36; 17:15, 16; 18:19-27) After the rebellion was over, Zadok and Abiathar were instrumental in securing David’s favorable reception in Jerusalem. (2 Sam. 19:11-14) When, late in his reign, David organized the Levitical services for the temple, Zadok and Ahimelech the son of Abiathar both assisted him. Zadok also had the post of leader over the house of Aaron.—1 Chron. 24:3, 6, 30, 31; 27:16, 17.
In contrast with Abiathar, Zadok did not support the attempted usurpation of the throne by Adonijah; for this David appointed Zadok as the one to anoint Solomon as king. (1 Ki. 1:7, 8, 26, 32-46) During the reigns of Saul and David, Zadok served only as an associate priest, but for his loyalty as contrasted with the wavering allegiance of High Priest Abiathar, Solomon expelled Abiathar from Jerusalem and made Zadok high priest. This fulfilled Jehovah’s prophecy spoken against Eli’s house. (1 Ki. 2:26, 27, 35) The later listing of “Zadok and Abiathar” at 1 Kings 4:4 is probably in a historical sense. Josephus claims that Zadok was the first high priest at Solomon’s temple. (Antiquities of the Jews, Book X, chap. VIII, par. 6) The Bible traces the line of Zadok as holding the office of high priest down to the time of Darius the Persian (likely Darius II). (1 Ki. 4:2; 1 Chron. 6:8-15; 2 Chron. 31:10) The priests seen in Ezekiel’s visionary temple were “sons of Zadok.”—Ezek. 40:46; 43:19; 44:15; 48:11.
4. One of Jerusalem’s postexilic wall rebuilders; son of Baana. (Neh. 3:4) Either he, or a representative of a family of the same name, signed the national covenant proposed shortly thereafter.—Neh. 9:38; 10:1, 14, 21.
5. Another who helped rebuild Jerusalem’s wall; son (or descendant) of Immer, who possibly belonged to the priestly family.—Neh. 3:29.
6. A copyist whom Nehemiah made jointly responsible with Shelemiah and Pedaiah for the Levitical stores. (Neh. 13:13) Perhaps the same as No. 5 above.
7. A postexilic ancestor of Jesus’ foster father Joseph.—Matt. 1:14.