World Translation, 1955 edition. (See, for instance, Hosea 1:1; Amos 1:1 and footnotes on 2 Kings 13:9, 12-14, 25.) He ruled for sixteen years in the middle of the ninth century B.C.E. During the first part of the reign of this Jehoash (son of Jehoahaz) over the northern kingdom of Israel, Jehoash son of Ahaziah was king over the southern kingdom of Judah.—2 Ki. 13:10.
Jehoash generally did what was bad in Jehovah’s eyes and allowed calf worship to continue throughout the land. Nevertheless, when the prophet Elisha was sick and near death Jehoash went down and wept over him, saying: “My father, my father, the war chariot of Israel and his horsemen!” (2 Ki. 13:11, 14) In response to the prophet’s request Jehoash shot an arrow out the window toward Syria, and then beat the earth with his arrows. However, he only beat three times. Elisha was incensed at this, for had he continued to beat the earth five or six times, Elisha said, then Jehoash would have been completely victorious over the Syrians; but now, the prophet declared, he would enjoy only three partial victories. (2 Ki. 13:15-19) In Jehoash’s three campaigns against the Syrians he did have a measure of success, recovering a number of Israelite cities that Ben-hadad’s father Hazael had taken from the northern kingdom.—2 Ki. 13:24, 25.
Jehoash also hired out a hundred thousand of his troops to the king of Judah to fight against the Edomites. However, on the advice of a “man of the true God” they were dismissed, and although they had been paid a hundred silver talents, equivalent to $142,359, in advance, they were angered at being sent home, probably because of losing out on their anticipated share of the booty. So after their return N they plundered towns of the southern kingdom, from Samaria (perhaps their base of operations) as far as Beth-horon.—2 Chron. 25:6-10, 13.
It was probably in retaliation for this that the king of Judah provoked Jehoash to fight. In the battle that followed Judean King Amaziah was captured at Beth-shemesh, and in the follow-up Jehoash’s forces broke through the wall of Jerusalem, looting the temple and house of the king of their gold and silver and taking hostages back to Samaria. (2 Ki. 14:8-14; 2 Chron. 25:17-24) Finally, Jehoash died and was buried in Samaria and his son Jeroboam II ruled in his place.—2 Ki. 13:12, 13; 14:15, 16.
(Je·ho·haʹnan) [Jehovah has been gracious].
1. A Korahite gatekeeper during the reign of David; the sixth son of Meshelemiah.—1 Chron. 26:1-3.
3. Father of the Ishmael who stood up with Jehoiada and other chiefs to depose Athaliah and put Jehoash on Judah’s throne. (2 Chron. 23:1-3) Possibly the same as No. 2 above.
6. Son of Eliashib. Ezra retired to Jehohanan’s temple dining hall to mourn over the unfaithfulness of the people.—Ezra 10:6.
8. Son of Nehemiah’s antagonist Tobiah the Ammonite. Jehohanan married an Israelite girl.—Neh. 6:17-19.
9. A priest positioned at the temple during the inauguration of Jerusalem’s rebuilt wall.—Neh. 12:40-42.
(Je·hoʹia·chin) [Jehovah firmly establishes].
At the age of eighteen Jehoiachin became king and continued the bad practices of his father. (2 Ki. 24:8, 9; 2 Chron. 36:9 [see NW, 1955 ed., ftn.]) Jehoiachin’s father, Jehoiakim, had been under subjection to Babylonian King Nebuchadnezzar, but rebelled in his third year of such vassalage (618 B.C.E.). (2 Ki. 24:1) This resulted in a siege being laid against Jerusalem. The expression “during that time” (2 Ki. 24:10) may not necessarily refer to Jehoiachin’s brief reign, but may refer to the general period in which it fits, hence allowing for the siege to have begun during his father Jehoiakim’s reign, as Daniel 1:1, 2 seems to indicate. It appears that Jehoiakim died during this siege and Jehoiachin ascended the throne of Judah. His rule ended, however, a mere three months and ten days later, when he surrendered to Nebuchadnezzar (617 B.C.E., in the month of Adar, according to the Babylonian Chronicles). (2 Ki. 24:11, 12; 2 Chron. 36:9) In fulfillment of Jehovah’s word through Jeremiah, he was taken into Babylonian captivity. (Jer. 22:24-27; 24:1; 27:19, 20; 29:1, 2) Other members of the royal household, court officials, craftsmen and warriors were also exiled.—2 Ki 24:14-16.
The record at 2 Kings 24:12-16 states that Nebuchadnezzar took these captives into exile, along with “all the treasures of the house of Jehovah and the treasures of the king’s house.” The account at Daniel 1:1, 2 refers to only “a part of the utensils” as being taken to Babylon. The explanation may be that the treasures referred to at Second Kings involved particularly the gold utensils, which are emphasized in that account, and that other utensils were allowed to remain. Another possibility is that, when Jerusalem yielded to the Babylonian siege (which came as a result of Jehoiakim’s rebellion against the king of Babylon), “some of the utensils of the house of Jehovah” were taken to Babylon, and that a short time later, when Jehoiachin himself was transferred to Babylon, other “desirable articles of the house of Jehovah” were taken along. This possibility is suggested by the account at 2 Chronicles 36:6-10. From the Chronicles account, it appears that Nebuchadnezzar, after successfully conquering Jerusalem, returned to Babylon and from there “sent and proceeded to bring [Jehoiachin] to Babylon with desirable articles of the house of Jehovah.” In a similar way, ten years later, in the final conquest and destruction of Jerusalem (607 B.C.E.), Nebuchadnezzar retired to Riblah “in the land of Hamath,” leaving the post-conquest details to his chief of the bodyguard, Nebuzaradan.—2 Ki. 25:8-21.
While in Babylon, Jehoiachin fathered seven sons. (1 Chron. 3:16-18) In this way the royal line leading to the Messiah was preserved. (Matt. 1:11, 12) But, as prophecy had indicated, none of Jehoiachin’s descendants ever ruled from earthly Jerusalem. It therefore was as though Jehoiachin had been childless, with no offspring to succeed him as king.—Jer. 22:28-30
In the fifth year of Jehoiachin’s exile, Ezekiel began his prophetic work. (Ezek. 1:2) About thirty-two years later, in 580 B.C.E., Jehoiachin was released from prison by Nebuchadnezzar’s successor Evil-merodach and given a position of favor above all the other captive kings. Thereafter he ate at Evil-merodach’s table and received a daily allowance.—2 Ki. 25:27-30; Jer. 52:31-34.
Babylonian administrative documents have been found listing rations for Jehoiachin and five of his sons.
[Picture on page 878]
Seal impression found in Judah, with the inscription “[Belonging] to Eliakim, steward of YWKN [perhaps an abbreviation for Jehoiachin]”
(Je·hoiʹa·da) [Jehovah knows].
1. Father of the Benaiah who is almost always identified as “Benaiah the son of Jehoiada,” and who was one of David’s mighty men and also Solomon’s army chief. (2 Sam. 23:8, 20, 22, 23; 1 Ki. 2:35) Jehoiada himself is connected with the priesthood, being called “the chief priest.” He is referred to as “the leader of the sons of Aaron” and was among those flocking to David when he became king over all Israel at Hebron.—1 Chron. 27:5; 12:27, 38.
2. A counselor of King David; son of Benaiah and apparently grandson of No. 1 above.—1 Chron. 27:33, 34.
3. The high priest in the time of Jehoram, Ahaziah, Athaliah and Jehoash. Jehoiada was married to King Jehoram’s daughter Jehosheba, also called Jehosha-beath (the only recorded instance of a high priest marrying into the royal family). Jehoiada was noted especially for overthrowing Athaliah and elevating true worship in Judah. After Athaliah’s ruling son Ahaziah was slain, she proceeded to kill off all the royal offspring and placed herself on the throne. However, Jehosheba, herself a sister of Ahaziah though not necessarily Athaliah’s daughter, took Ahaziah’s infant son Jehoash away and kept him hidden for six years. In the seventh year, Jehoiada secured the support of the Levites, the chiefs of the Carian bodyguard and of the runners, as well as the heads of the paternal house of Israel. He then produced Jehoash, whom they proclaimed as king. Jehoiada next ordered Athaliah taken outside the temple grounds and slain.—2 Ki. 11:1-16; 2 Chron. 22:10–23:15.
Jehoiada thereafter wasted no time in advancing Jehovah’s worship. He renewed Israel’s covenant relationship with Jehovah, whereupon the people tore down the house of Baal and removed its altars, images and priesthood. Jehoiada then restored full temple services. He had a strong influence for good upon the life of Jehoash. Jehoiada and the king repaired the temple and made various utensils for Jehovah’s house. When, at the age of 130, Jehoiada finally died, he was given the exceptional honor of burial with the kings “because he had done good in Israel and with the true God and His house.” Unfortunately, his good influence died with him, for Jehoash then listened to the princes of Judah and turned aside from Jehovah, even to the point of ordering the killing of Jehoiada’s son Zechariah, who issued the unfaithful people a rebuke.—2 Ki. 11:17–12:16; 2 Chron. 23:16–24:22.
4. A priest who was replaced by Zephaniah the son of Maaseiah during Jeremiah’s time.—Jer. 29:24-27.
(Je·hoiʹa·kim) [Jehovah raises up].
One of the last Judean kings, son of Josiah by Zebidah, and originally called Eliakim. (2 Ki. 23:34, 36; 1 Chron. 3:15) Jehoiakim’s bad rule of about eleven years (628-618 B.C.E.) was marked by injustices, oppression and murder. (2 Chron. 36:5; Jer. 22:17; 52:2) Also, during his reign Judah experienced harassment from Chaldean, Syrian, Moabite and Ammonite marauder bands.—2 Ki. 24:2.
After the death of King Josiah, the people of Judah for some reason constituted Eliakim’s younger brother Jehoahaz king. About three months later Pharaoh Nechoh (Necho) took King Jehoahaz captive and made twenty-five-year-old Eliakim king, changing the new ruler’s name to Jehoiakim. Nechoh also imposed a heavy fine on the kingdom of Judah. The silver and gold for this fine King Jehoiakim exacted from his subjects by taxation. (2 Ki. 23:34-36; 2 Chron. 36:3-5) Despite the financial burden that was therefore already on the people, Jehoiakim made plans for building a new, luxurious palace. Probably to keep down the cost, he oppressively withheld the laborers’ wages. Consequently Jehovah, through Jeremiah, pronounced woe upon this wicked ruler, indicating that he would have the burial of a he-ass.—Jer. 22:13-19.
Early in Jehoiakim’s reign Jeremiah warned that, unless the people repented, Jerusalem and her temple would be destroyed. Thereafter the prophet was threatened with death. However, the prominent man Ahikam stood up for Jeremiah and saved the prophet from harm. Previously, like prophesying by Urijah had so enraged Jehoiakim that he determined to kill him. Although fearful Urijah fled to Egypt, he did not escape the king’s wrath. Jehoiakim had Urijah brought back and then killed him with the sword.—Jer. 26:1-24.
The fourth year of Jehoiakim’s reign (625 B.C.E.) saw Nebuchadnezzar defeat Pharaoh Necho in a battle over the domination of Syria-Palestine. The battle took place at Carchemish by the Euphrates, some four hundred miles (c. 644 kilometers) N of Jerusalem. (Jer. 46:1, 2) In that same year Jeremiah began dictating to his secretary Baruch Jehovah’s words directed against Israel, Judah and all the nations, recording messages that had begun to be delivered from the thirteenth year of Josiah’s reign (at which time Jehoiakim had been about six years old) onward. Nearly a year later, in the ninth lunar month (Chislev, November/ December), the scroll containing the dictated message was read before King Jehoiakim. As soon as Jehudi read three or four page-columns, that section was cut off and thrown into the fire burning in the brazier of the king’s winter house. Thus the entire scroll was committed to the flames section by section. Jehoiakim ignored the pleas of three of his princes not to burn the roll. He particularly objected to the prophetic words that pointed to the desolation of Judah at the hands of Babylon’s king. This suggests that Nebuchadnezzar had not yet come against Jerusalem and made Jehoiakim his vassal.—Jer. 36:1-4, 21-29.
Second Kings 24:1 shows that Nebuchadnezzar brought pressure upon the Judean king “and so Jehoiakim became his servant [or vassal] for three years. However, he [Jehoiakim] turned back and rebelled against him [Nebuchadnezzar].” Evidently it is to this third year of Jehoiakim as a vassal king under Babylon that Daniel refers at Daniel 1:1. It could not be Jehoiakim’s third year of his eleven-year reign over Judah, for at that time Jehoiakim was a vassal, not to Babylon, but to Egypt’s Pharaoh Necho. It was not until Jehoiakim’s fourth year of rule over Judah that Nebuchadnezzar demolished Egyptian domination over Syria-Palestine by his victory at Carchemish (625 B.C.E. [after Nisan]). (Jer. 46:2) Since Jehoiakim’s revolt against Babylon led to his downfall after about eleven years on the throne, the beginning of his three-year vassalage to Babylon must have begun toward the end of his eighth year of rule (621/620 B.C.E.).
Daniel’s account (1:1, 2) states that Nebuchadnezzar came against Jerusalem, laid siege to it, and that Jehoiakim, along with some of the temple utensils, was given into the Babylonian king’s hand. However, the account at 2 Kings 24:10-15 describes the siege of Jerusalem by the Babylonians and shows that Jehoiakim’s son Jehoiachin, whose reign lasted only three months and ten days, was the one who finally capitulated and went out to the Babylonians. It therefore appears that Jehoiakim died during the siege of the city, perhaps in the early part thereof. Jehovah’s prophecy through Jeremiah (22:18, 19; 36:30) indicated that Jehoiakim was not to receive a decent burial; his corpse was to lie unattended outside the