knives to cut and break down the grain stalks. Such sledges and roller devices covered an additional swatch each round, and the added weight of the driver riding on top increased the effectiveness.—Compare Isaiah 28:28.
After the grain had been thoroughly threshed, and turned over several times in the process, it was winnowed.—See WINNOWING.
Because of providing an open, level space, threshing floors were often used for other purposes. The mourning rites for Jacob were held on the threshing floor of Atad near the Jordan. (Gen. 50:10, 11) At Jehovah’s direction, David purchased the threshing floor of Araunah (Ornan), built there an altar, and made a sacrifice to Jehovah. (2 Sam. 24:16-25; 1 Chron. 21:15-28) Later this threshing floor became the site of Solomon’s temple. (2 Chron. 3:1) When Jehoshaphat and Ahab conferred about warring against Syria, their thrones were set up on a threshing floor at the entrance of the gate of Samaria.—1 Ki. 22:10.
In a figurative sense, the treatment the stalks of grain receive on the threshing floor is a very fitting symbol of how Jehovah’s enemies will be beaten and cut to pieces. (Isa. 41:15; Jer. 51:33; Mic. 4:12, 13; Hab. 3:12) Threshing also illustrates the crushing treatment men sometimes mete out to others. (Judg. 8:6, 7, 15, 16; 2 Ki. 13:7) Or the separation of wheat from chaff may depict the separation of the righteous from the wicked by Jehovah’s judgment. (Matt. 3:12) In yet another sense, a long and bountiful threshing denotes prosperity and Jehovah’s blessing.—Lev. 26:5; Joel 2:24.
[Heb., kis·seʼʹ; Gr., throʹnos].
The Hebrew term kis·seʼʹ basically means “seat” (1 Sam. 4:13), “chair” (2 Ki. 4:10) or a seat of special importance such as a “throne.” (1 Ki. 22:10) Its application is not limited to the seats of ruling monarchs (1 Ki. 2:19; Neh. 3:7; Esther 3:1; Ezek. 26:16), nor does it strictly refer to a seat with a high back and armrests. Eli, for instance, while at the gate of Shiloh, fell backward from his kis·seʼʹ, evidently a backless seat.—1 Sam. 4:13, 18.
Isaiah 14:9 intimates that thrones were universally used by monarchs, the Bible specifically mentioning the thrones of Egypt (Gen. 41:40; Ex. 11:5; 12:29), Assyria (Jonah 3:6), Babylon (Isa. 14:4, 13; Dan. 5:20), Persia (Esther 1:2; 5:1) and Moab. (Judg. 3:17, 20) Archaeologists believe that they have found thrones used by rulers or their associates of all these powers, except Moab. An ivory panel, thought to depict a Canaanite throne and footstool, was found at Megiddo. Generally, these non-Israelite thrones have backs and armrests, being richly carved or ornamented. One extant Egyptian throne was made of wood overlaid with gold, while an Assyrian one was of wrought iron with ivory carvings. The throne seems customarily to have been placed on a dais or raised platform, and in most cases a footstool was present.
The only throne of a ruler of Israel described in detail is the one Solomon made. (1 Ki. 10:18-20; 2 Chron. 9:17-19) It appears to have been located in the “Porch of the Throne,” one of the buildings that stood on Mount Moriah in Jerusalem. (1 Ki. 7:7) It was ‘a great ivory throne overlaid with refined gold with a round canopy behind it and armrests.’ Although ivory could have been the basic material in this royal chair, the construction technique generally followed at the temple would seem to indicate that it was made of wood, overlaid with refined gold and richly ornamented with inlaid panels of ivory. To the observer such a throne would appear to be made entirely of ivory and gold. After mentioning six steps leading to the throne, the record continues: “Two lions were standing beside the armrests. And there were twelve lions standing there upon the six steps, on this side and on that side.” The symbolism of the lion denoting ruling authority is appropriate. (Gen. 49:9, 10; Rev. 5:5) The twelve lions appear to have corresponded with the twelve tribes of Israel, possibly symbolizing their subjection to and support of the ruler on this throne. Attached in some way to the throne was a footstool of gold. The description of this ivory-and-gold throne in its lofty, canopied position with the majestic lions in front transcends any throne of this time period discovered by archaeologists, depicted on the monuments or described in the inscriptions. As the chronicler truthfully observed: “No other kingdom had any made just like it.”—2 Chron. 9:19.
“Throne” figuratively signifies a seat of ruling authority (1 Ki. 2:12; 16:11), or the kingly authority and sovereignty itself (Gen. 41:40; 1 Chron. 17:14; Ps. 89:44); a reigning government or royal administration (2 Sam. 14:9); sovereign control over a territory (2 Sam. 3:10) and a position of honor.—1 Sam. 2:7, 8; 2 Ki. 25:28.
Jehovah, whom even the “heaven of the heavens” cannot contain, does not have to sit on a literal throne or chair. (1 Ki. 8:27) He does, however, picture his royal authority and sovereignty by the symbol of a throne. Certain ones of God’s servants were privileged to see a vision of his throne. (1 Ki. 22:19; Isa. 6:1; Ezek. 1:26-28; Dan. 7:9; Rev. 4:1-3) The Psalms describe Jehovah’s throne, his majesty or power, his position as Supreme Judge, as being established on righteousness and justice “from long ago.”—Ps. 89:14; 93:2; 97:2.
Jehovah extended his throne to earth in a typical, specific way in his dealings with the sons of Israel. Since the one ruling in Israel was to be “a king whom Jehovah your God will choose,” who would rule in Jehovah’s name over Jehovah’s people and according to Jehovah’s law, his throne was really “Jehovah’s throne.”—Deut. 17:14-18; 1 Chron. 29:23.
Besides his kingly identity with the royal line of Judah, Jehovah was enthroned in Israel in another sense as well. As Jeremiah expressed it: “There is the glorious throne on high from the start; it is the place of our sanctuary.” (Jer. 17:12) Jehovah was spoken of as “sitting upon the cherubs” that were on the propitiatory cover of the ark of the testimony in the sanctuary. (Ex. 25:22; 1 Sam. 4:4) This enthronement was symbolized by a cloud that reportedly produced a miraculous light that later Jewish writers called the Shekhi·nahʹ. (Lev. 16:2) While Jeremiah foretold the absence of the ark of the covenant when Israel would be restored from Babylon, this would not mean that Jehovah no longer purposed to be enthroned at his center of worship: “In that time they will call Jerusalem the throne of Jehovah.” (Jer. 3:16, 17) Ezekiel’s restoration prophecies are in agreement, for in his vision of Jehovah’s temple in which no ark of the covenant was seen, he was told: “Son of man, this [temple] is the place of my throne.”—Ezek. 43:7.
Jehovah covenanted that the throne of David’s seed should “itself become one lasting to time indefinite.” (1 Chron. 17:11-14) In announcing the fulfillment of this promise, the angel Gabriel said to Mary: “Jehovah God will give [Jesus] the throne of David his father, and he will rule as king over the house of Jacob forever, and there will be no end of his kingdom.” (Luke 1:32, 33) Not only would there be an inheritance of an earthly dominion on Jesus’ part, but he would share Jehovah’s throne, which is universal. (Rev. 3:21; Isa. 66:1) In turn, Jesus promised to share his throne of kingly authority with all those who, like his faithful apostles,