have no life in yourselves,” had figurative meaning, but were taken literally by some of his Jewish disciples, and they said: “This speech is shocking; who can listen to it?” This indicated the Jewish view on eating human flesh and blood, as inculcated by the Law.—John 6:53, 60.
Additionally, drinking blood was a violation of God’s law, not only as stated in the Law covenant, but also as declared by Jehovah God himself to Noah, prior to the Law. (Gen. 9:4; Lev. 17:10) The Lord Jesus Christ would never instruct others to violate God’s law. He himself said: “Whoever, therefore, breaks one of these least commandments and teaches mankind to that effect, he will be called ‘least’ in relation to the kingdom of the heavens.” (Matt. 5:19) Furthermore, Jesus commanded: “Keep doing this . . . in remembrance of me,” not in sacrifice of me.—1 Cor. 11:23-25.
The bread and the wine are, therefore, emblems, representing Christ’s flesh and blood in a symbolic way, just as were his words about eating his flesh and drinking his blood. Jesus had said to those offended by his words: “For a fact, the bread that I shall give is my flesh in behalf of the life of the world.” (John 6:51) This was given at his death as a sacrifice on the torture stake. His body was buried and was disposed of by his Father before it could corrupt. (Acts 2:31) No one ever ate any of his flesh or blood, literally.
PROPER, ORDERLY OBSERVANCE
The Christian congregation at Corinth had gotten into a bad spiritual state, in some respects, so that, as the apostle Paul said: “Many among you are weak and sickly, and quite a few are sleeping in death.” This was to a great extent due to their misunderstanding of the Lord’s Evening Meal and its significance. They were failing to respect the sacredness of the occasion. Those of the congregation who had considerable means ate and drank fully at home before attending the celebration, some being drowsy, and some actually intoxicated. Those of little means came hungry, looking forward to the observance of the Memorial to satisfy their appetites. Evidently the hungry ones were going ahead and eating before the others arrived. Both groups did not appreciate that the meal was one picturing unity. They did not have full realization of the seriousness of the matter, that the emblems represented the body and blood of the Lord, and that the meal was a remembrance of his death. Paul emphasized the grave danger to those who partook not discerning these facts.—1 Cor. 11:20-34.
(Lo-ru·haʹmah) [she was not shown mercy].
A girl borne by Gomer, the wife of Hosea. Jehovah told the prophet to give the child this name because He would “no more show mercy again to the house of Israel.” God thus indicated his rejection of Israel as a whole. (Hos. 1:6-8) Earlier, when Jezreel was born, it was said that Gomer “bore to him [Hosea] a son,” but regarding Lo-ruhamah it is only stated that Gomer “proceeded to become pregnant another time and to give birth to a daughter,” without direct personal reference to Hosea. Though the account does not specifically say, it has been suggested that this child was the fruit of Gomer’s adultery and was not the prophet’s own offspring. (Hos. 1:2, 3) There is allusion to her symbolic name in Hosea 2:1, 23.
[Heb., goh·ralʹ, pebble, lot, portion].
The casting of lots is an ancient custom for deciding a question at issue. The method used was to cast pebbles or small bits or tablets of wood or stone into the gathered folds of a garment, “the lap,” or in a vase, and then shake them. The one whose lot fell out was the one chosen, or sometimes the lot was drawn out of the lap or some receptacle. The lot, like the oath, implied a prayer with it. Prayer was either expressed or implied, and Jehovah’s intervention was sought and anticipated. Lot is used in Isaiah 57:6 and Jeremiah 13:25 with the thought of “share” or “portion.”
Proverbs 16:33 says: “Into the lap the lot is cast down, but every decision by it is from Jehovah.” In Israel the proper use of a lot was to end a controversy: “The lot puts even contentions to rest, and it separates even the mighty from one another.” (Prov. 18:18) It was not used for sport, play or gambling. There were no bets, wagers or stakes, no losses or winnings. It was not done to enrich the temple or the priests or for charity. Contrariwise, the Roman soldiers did have selfish gain in mind when they cast lots for Jesus’ garments, as foretold at Psalm 22:18.—Matt. 27:35.
On Atonement Day
The first mention in the Bible of drawing lots is in connection with selecting the goats for Jehovah and for Azazel on Atonement Day. (Lev. 16:7-10) In Jesus’ time this was performed at Herod’s temple by the high priest’s drawing from a receptacle two lots made, it is said, of boxwood or gold. The lots, respectively marked “For Jehovah” and “For Azazel,” were then placed on the heads of the goats.
Division of Promised Land
Jehovah commanded that the division of the Promised Land among the twelve tribes be performed by casting lots. (Num. 26:55, 56) The book of Joshua gives a detailed discussion of this, the word “lot(s)” occurring more than twenty times in chapters 14-21. Lots were drawn before Jehovah at the tent of meeting in Shiloh and under the supervision of Joshua and High Priest Eleazar. (Josh. 17:4; 18:6, 8) The Levite cities were also selected by lot. (Josh. 21:8) Jehovah obviously caused the lot to fall in harmony with his previous prophecy regarding the general location of the tribes.—Gen. chap. 49.
Lots were drawn to determine the order of service at the temple for the twenty-four divisions of the priesthood. (1 Chron. 24:5-18) Here the secretary of the Levites wrote the names of the heads of the paternal houses, and they were evidently picked out in succession. Also, in this manner the Levites were allotted to temple service as singers, gatekeepers, treasurers, etc. (1 Chron. 24:31; chaps. 25, 26; Luke 1:8, 9) The lot was used in selecting men for military duty against Gibeah. (Judg. 20:9) After the return from exile lots were used to arrange for the supplying of wood for temple service and to designate who should move into Jerusalem.—Neh. 10:34; 11:1.
Lots were used to point out offenders. In Jonah’s case the mariners cast lots to find out on whose account the storm had come upon them. (Jonah 1:7, 8) By the use of lots Jonathan was pointed out as the one breaking Saul’s foolish oath.—1 Sam. 14:41, 42.
Lots were used by the enemies of Israel in dividing war booty and captives. (Joel 3:3; Obad. 11) Haman had “Pur, that is, the Lot” cast as a form of divination to determine the auspicious day for the extermination of the Jews throughout the Persian Empire. (Esther 3:7) The plural is pu·rimʹ, from which the Festival of Purim, also called the Festival of Lots, gets its name.—Esther 9:24-26.
Urim and Thummim
Although lots are not mentioned directly in connection with the Urim and Thummim placed by Moses in the breastpiece worn by the high priest (Lev. 8:7-9), and it is not known just what the Urim and Thummim were, nevertheless, they were used to settle a problem in a manner similar to two lots. The Urim and Thummim seem to be connected with the casting of lots at 1 Samuel 14:41, 42. They are sometimes spoken of as sacred lots. When a question