with Dinah and wanted to marry her. But Jacob’s sons were enraged about the affair and, “with deceit,” said that they could make marriage arrangements only with circumcised men. This was agreeable to Shechem and his father Hamor and they convinced the Shechemites to get circumcised. However, before the males of Shechem could recover from being circumcised, Jacob’s sons, Simeon and Levi, attacked the city, killing Hamor, Shechem and all the other men.—Gen. 34:1-31.
3. A son of Shemida of the tribe of Manasseh.—1 Chron. 7:19.
4. An ancient city linked with Nablus or, more precisely, with nearby Tell Balatah. (Ps. 60:6; 108:7) Situated at the E end of the narrow valley running between Mount Gerizim and Mount Ebal, Tell Balatah lies about thirty miles (48 kilometers) N of Jerusalem. A good supply of water is available, and just E of the site there is a fertile plain. Anciently Shechem commanded the E-W and N-S roads traversing central Palestine. (Compare Judges 21:19.) Lacking the military advantage of being built on a mountain, the city depended on its fortifications for security.—Judg. 9:35.
When Abram (Abraham) first entered the Promised Land, he traveled as far as “the site of Shechem” and encamped near the big trees of Moreh, where he later built an altar. (Gen. 12:6-9) Nearly two centuries afterward Jacob, upon returning from Paddan-aram, pitched camp in front of Shechem and purchased some land there. In reaction to their sister Dinah’s being violated by Shechem the son of Hamor, the sons of Jacob, Simeon and Levi, killed the men of the city. (Gen. 33:18–34:31) At God’s direction Jacob left Shechem but, before doing so, took all the foreign gods and earrings in the possession of his household and buried them under the big tree close by Shechem. (Gen. 35:1-4) Later, Jacob’s sons pastured their flocks near the city, being able to do so safely, doubtless because the “terror of God,” which had kept the neighboring peoples from pursuing Jacob, still exercised some effect on them.—Gen. 35:5; 37:12-17.
When Jacob’s descendants, the Israelites, entered the Promised Land after the sojourn of more than two centuries in Egypt, they buried Joseph’s bones “in Shechem in the tract of the field that Jacob had acquired from the sons of Hamor.” (Josh. 24:32) How ever, in his defense before the Jews, Stephen said that Joseph was buried “in the tomb that Abraham had bought . . . from the sons of Hamor in Shechem.” (Acts 7:16) Perhaps Stephen’s statement was an elliptical one. If the ellipses were filled in, Stephen’s statement could read: “Jacob went down into Egypt. And he deceased; and so did our forefathers, and they were transferred to Shechem and were laid in the tomb that Abraham had bought for a price with silver money [and in that bought] from the sons of Hamor in Shechem.” (Acts 7:15, 16) There is also a possibility that, since Jacob was Abraham’s grandson, the purchase could have been ascribed to Abraham as the patriarchal head. This would be using the name Abraham similarly to the way that that of Israel (Jacob) and others were later used, the name of the forefather applying to and being used for the descendants.—Compare Hosea 11:1, 3, 12; Matt. 2:15-18.
Among the tribal allotments in the Promised Land, Shechem seems to have been within Manasseh’s territory, being less than two miles (3.2 kilometers) NW of the border town of Michmethath. (Josh. 17:7) Since Shechem is described as being “in the mountainous region of Ephraim,” it may have been an Ephraimite ‘enclave city’ in Manassite territory. (Josh. 16:9; 1 Chron. 6:67) The city was thereafter assigned with other Ephraimite cities to the Levites and given sacred status as a city of refuge. (Josh. 21:20, 21) Just before his death, Joshua assembled all the tribes of Israel at Shechem (compare Deuteronomy 27:11-13; Joshua 8:32-35), encouraging them to serve Jehovah.—Josh. 24:1-29.
Although the Israelites had covenanted at Shechem to uphold true worship, the inhabitants of that city began worshiping Baal-berith. (Judg. 8:33; 9:4) They also supported the efforts of Abimelech (the son of Judge Gideon and his Shechemite concubine) to become king. But, in time, they revolted against King Abimelech. In crushing the revolt, Abimelech destroyed the city and sowed it with salt, this perhaps being symbolic of desiring lasting desolation.—Judg. 8:31-33; 9:1-49; compare Psalm 107:33, 34; see ABIMELECH No. 4; BAAL-BERITH.
Later Shechem was rebuilt. That it became an important city is suggested by the fact that Rehoboam was installed as king there. (1 Ki. 12:1) After the division of the kingdom, Jeroboam, first king of the northern kingdom, had building work done at Shechem and apparently ruled from there for a time. (1 Ki. 12:25) Centuries later, in 607 B.C.E., after the destruction of Jerusalem by the Babylonians, men from Shechem came to Jerusalem for worship.—Jer. 41:5.
One of the principal animals of pastoral life. (Gen. 24:35; 26:14) Sheep are ruminants or cud chewers. As is the case today, the predominant variety of ancient Palestine may have been the broad-tailed sheep, distinguished by its prominent fatty tail, generally weighing about ten pounds (c. 4.5 kilograms) or more. (Compare Exodus 29:22; Leviticus 3:9.) Generally sheep were white in color (Song of Sol. 6:6), though there were also dark-brown and parti-colored ones. (Gen. 30:32) In a pastoral society men of great wealth, such as Job, had thousands of sheep. (Job 1:3, 16; 42:12) The Israelites probably kept some lambs as pets.—2 Sam. 12:3; Jer. 11:19.
Without a shepherd, domestic sheep are helpless and fearful. They get lost and scattered and are at the complete mercy of their enemies. (Num. 27:16, 17; Jer. 23:4; Ezek. 34:5, 6, 8; Mic. 5:8) Sheep allow themselves to be led and faithfully follow their shepherd. They can learn to recognize his voice and to respond to him alone. (John 10:2-5) Illustrating this is a passage from Researches in Greece and the Levant, as quoted by J. G. Wood in Bible Animals, 1877 edition, page 197:
“Having had my attention directed last night to the words in John x. 3, I asked my man if it were usual in Greece to give names to the sheep. He informed me that it was, and that the sheep obeyed the shepherd when he called them by their names. This morning I had an opportunity of verifying the truth of this remark. Passing by a flock of sheep, I asked the shepherd the same question which I had put to the servant, and he gave me the same answer. I then bade him call one of his sheep. He did so, and it instantly left its pasturage and its companions, and ran up to the hands of the shepherd, with signs of pleasure, and with a prompt obedience which I had never before observed in any other animal.
“It is also true that in this country, ‘a stranger will they not follow, but will flee from him.’ The shepherd told me that many of his sheep were still wild, that they had not learned their names, but that by teaching them they would all learn them.”
Areas anciently suited to the raising of sheep included the Negeb (1 Sam. 15:7, 9), Haran (Gen. 29:2-4), the land of Midian (Ex. 2:16), the mountainous region of Judah, where the city of Carmel was located (1 Sam. 25:2), the land of Uz (Job 1:1, 3), Bashan and Gilead.—Deut. 32:14; Mic. 7:14.
Sheep provided the Hebrews and other peoples with