symbol of the magistrate’s authority the lictor in a Roman colony carried the fasces. This consisted of a bundle of elm or birch rods bound around the handle of an ax, with the blade of the ax projecting from the side of the bundle.
Some of the duties of the Roman constables were police-like in their nature but they differed from modern-day policemen in that the constables were attached strictly to the magistrate, with the responsibility of being in constant attendance upon him. They were not directly subject to the call of the people but only to the orders of their magistrate.
When the magistrate appeared in public his constables announced his approach, cleared his passage through the crowd and saw that he received the respect due his rank. They mounted guard at his house. They delivered magisterial messages, ordered offenders before the magistrate and seized lawbreakers, binding them and scourging them.
The constables were technically nominated for one year, but in actuality they often served longer. The majority of them were freedmen. Roman constables were exempted from military service and were given a salary for their service.
Since Philippi was a Roman colony, it was governed by imperial civil magistrates whose constables did their bidding in beating Paul and Silas. Paul refused to accept relief from the constables but demanded that their superiors, the civil magistrates, acknowledge the wrong done.—Acts 16:19-40; see MAGISTRATE.
The gift, money, or assistance, and so forth, given by a person or persons to another or others. A contribution may or may not involve material giving. Paul thanked God because of the contribution the Philippian Christians made to the good news. In addition to their personal part in spreading the good news, they had materially assisted Paul and probably others, thus loyally supporting the preaching of the good news in this way too.—Phil. 1:3-5; 4:16-18.
The Israelites were privileged to make contributions for erecting and equipping structures for true worship. They donated materials for the tabernacle and its furnishings (Ex. 25:1-9; 35:4-9), “a voluntary offering to Jehovah” that had to be halted because the things given “proved to be enough for all the work to be done, and more than enough.” (Ex. 35:20-29; 36:3-7) King David’s contributions for the construction of the prospective temple included his “special property” of gold and silver, to the amount of more than $125,000,000. In turn, the princes and the chiefs of the people happily contributed well over $200,000,000, in gold and silver, besides copper, iron and stones.—1 Chron. 29:1-9.
Some contributions were required under the Law. When Moses took a census of the Israelites, each male twenty years old and upward was to give a ransom for his soul, “a half shekel [probably about 24 cents] by the shekel of the holy place.” It was “Jehovah’s contribution” so as to make atonement for their souls and “in behalf of the service of the tent of meeting.” (Ex. 30:11-16) According to the Jewish historian Josephus, as well as the Jewish Mishnah, this “sacred tax” was thereafter paid annually.—2 Chron. 24:6-10; Matt. 17:24; see TAXATION.
For the support of the Levites, the priestly tribe, God provided that the Israelites contribute “tenth parts” of the land’s produce. The Levites, in turn, contributed a tenth part to the high priest, to support him and his family. (Num. 18:26-28) Jehovah gave Aaron the high priest custody of the contributions the Israelites made to God, allowing him and his sons to partake of their offerings and of the oil, wine, grain and first ripe fruits of the land, which the people gave to Jehovah, as well as granting them portions of animal sacrifices. A tax from the spoils of war was given to the high priest as “Jehovah’s contribution,” and a portion of the spoils likewise went to the Levites.—Num. 31:1, 2, 28-30.
The Israelites made various offerings and sacrifices to Jehovah, some of which were specifically required by the Law. Others, however, were entirely voluntary, such as thanksgiving and vow offerings.—Lev. 7:15, 16; see OFFERINGS.
In the days of King Jehoash, a chest was placed at the gate of the house of Jehovah to receive contributions for extensive repair work on the temple. The princes and the people then rejoiced to bring in the “sacred tax,” with which it was possible to make the house of God strong, and to make temple utensils.—2 Chron. 24:4-14.
Non-Israelites also contributed to true worship. When Ezra and the Jewish remnant left Babylon for Jerusalem in 468 B.C.E. they carried with them silver, gold and utensils, a contribution to the house of God made by King Artaxerxes of Persia, his counselors and princes, and by Israelites in Babylon. These valuable articles were entrusted to the care of selected men during the journey.—Ezra 7:12-20; 8:24-30.
In performing the ministry, Jesus Christ and his apostles accepted material aid that was contributed. (Luke 8:1-3) Christians in Macedonia and Achaia especially showed eagerness to assist their needy brothers, being “pleased to share up their things by a contribution to the poor of the holy ones in Jerusalem,” evidently by contributing money.—Rom. 15:26; see COLLECTION.
At Romans 15:26 and 2 Corinthians 9:13, the Greek word for “contribution” (koi·no·niʹa) may literally be viewed as meaning to “put fellowship into activity.” This same Greek word is used at Hebrews 13:16: “Do not forget the doing of good and the sharing of things with others, for with such sacrifices God is well pleased.”
It appears that many Jews and proselytes from other places who had become Christians during the time of Pentecost, 33 C.E., remained for a time in Jerusalem in order to learn more about the faith. That none might come to want, they contributed their belongings voluntarily so that “they had all things in common.” (Acts 4:32-37; compare Acts 5:1-4.) Later on, the Jerusalem congregation made a daily distribution of food to needy widows. (Acts 6:1-3) Paul gave instructions as to the use of contributed funds in caring for widows who were truly worthy of help.—1 Tim. 5:9, 10; see RELIEF.
There was no compulsion to make contributions in the early Christian congregation, about which Tertullian wrote: “Even if there is a chest of a sort, it is not made up of money paid in entrance-fees, as if religion were a matter of contract. Every man once a month brings some modest coin—or whenever he wishes, and only if he does wish, and if he can; for nobody is compelled; it is a voluntary offering.” (Apology, XXXIX, 5) An arrangement of this kind harmonized with Paul’s words: “Let each one do just as he has resolved in his heart, not grudgingly or under compulsion, for God loves a cheerful giver.”—2 Cor. 9:7.
The size of a contribution does not necessarily give a true picture of the giver’s generosity. Once Jesus Christ watched as persons deposited money in the temple’s treasury chests. Rich individuals dropped in many coins, but Jesus was impressed with the wholehearted generosity of a needy widow who dropped in only two small coins of very little value, saying: “This widow, although poor, dropped in more than they all did. For all these dropped in gifts out of their surplus, but this woman out of her want dropped in all the means of living she had.” (Luke 21:1-4; Mark 12:41-44) When it came to making contributions to aid poor fellow believers, Paul observed: “If the readiness is there first, it is especially acceptable according to what a person has, not according to what a person does not have.”—2 Cor. 8:12.
Although no one can actually enrich Jehovah, who owns all things (1 Chron. 29:14-17), contributing is