kindness provides, on the basis of Christ’s ransom sacrifice, forgiveness for the sins of the flesh and, additionally, the help of holy spirit. The Christian is in a situation different from that of the non-Christian, as Paul sums it up: “So, then, with my mind I myself am a slave to God’s law, but with my flesh to sin’s law.”—Rom. 7:21-25; Gal. 5:16, 17.
How does the mind win out in the battle? The apostle illuminates the matter further, saying: “Those who are in accord with the flesh set their minds on the things of the flesh, but those in accord with the spirit on the things of the spirit. For the minding of the flesh means death, but the minding of the spirit means life and peace; because the minding of the flesh means enmity with God, for it [fallen, imperfect flesh] is not under subjection to the law of God, nor, in fact, can it be. . . . If, now, the spirit of him that raised up Jesus from the dead dwells in you, he that raised up Christ Jesus from the dead will also make your mortal bodies alive through his spirit that resides in you.”—Rom. 8:5-11.
THE “MIND” OF THE SPIRIT
At Romans 8:26, 27, Paul shows that, when God’s servants are praying, they may not always know exactly what they should pray for as they need to. But God knows that they desire his will to be done. He also knows what his servants need. God has in the past caused many inspired prayers to be recorded in his Word, expressing his will or mind for them. He therefore accepts these inspired prayers as being what his people should like to ask and pray for, and, accordingly, he fulfills them. God knows the right-hearted ones and also knows the meaning of the things that he caused his spirit to speak through the Bible writers. He knows what the “meaning [‘mind,’ AV] of the spirit is” when the spirit thus “pleads” or intercedes for them.
LOVING WITH THE MIND
Jehovah foretold the making of a new covenant under which the holy spirit would work to write his laws in the minds and hearts of his people. (Heb. 8:10; 10:16) In this way they are able to fulfill that upon which the whole Law and the Prophets hung, namely, to ‘love Jehovah your God with your whole heart and with your whole soul and with your whole mind, and your neighbor as yourself.’ (Matt. 22:37-40; Luke 10:27, 28) One must exercise love with his whole heart (primarily related to motivation and affection), his whole soul (his life and entire being) and his whole mind. This latter phrase means that God’s servants not only love with feelings, emotions and strength, but they must also exercise their minds vigorously to take in knowledge of God and Christ (John 17:3), must understand (Mark 12:33; Eph. 3:18), and must apply their minds to serve God and his purposes and share in declaring the good news. They are counseled to ‘keep their minds fixed on the things above’ (Col. 3:2), to ‘brace up their minds for activity’ and to ‘keep their senses completely.’ (1 Pet. 1:13) The apostle Peter saw the importance of ‘arousing their clear thinking faculties’ to keep in mind the things learned. (2 Pet. 3:1, 2) They must ‘keep close in mind the presence of the day of Jehovah.’—2 Pet. 3:11, 12.
When speaking of miraculous gifts of the spirit as exercised in the early Christian congregation, Paul emphasized the need to use the mind. He said that if he were to pray in a tongue that he could not translate, his mind would be unfruitful. Again, if he were to sing praises in the same manner, how would it help the hearer who did not understand the tongue? Consequently, he said that he would rather speak five words with his mind, in order to instruct others, than ten thousand words in a tongue. He then urged his brothers to become full grown in powers of understanding.—1 Cor. 14:13-20.
CHRISTIAN UNITY OF MIND
Jehovah’s servants are commanded to be “fitly united in the same mind and in the same line of thought.” (1 Cor. 1:10; Phil. 2:2; 1 Pet. 3:8) This means, of course, being united where the interests of pure worship are involved—the important things—not in individual tastes or in minor matters that will be resolved as maturity is reached. (Rom. 14:2-6, 17) They are to be “of the same mind in the Lord” (Phil. 4:2), not to be quarreling, but to “think in agreement.”—2 Cor. 13:11.
THE MIND OF GOD AND OF CHRIST
Christians are to strive to know God better, to the extent that he reveals his mind on matters. (Rom. 11:33, 34) And they are to have the mental attitude of obedience and humility of Jesus Christ; then they will have “the mind of Christ.” (1 Cor. 2:15, 16) Paul encourages his fellow Christians to forget the things behind and stretch forward to the things ahead. (Phil. 3:13-15) Peter likewise counsels: “Since Christ suffered in the flesh, you too arm yourselves with the same mental disposition.”—1 Pet. 4:1.
DULLNESS OR CORRUPTNESS OF MIND
The Israelites at Mount Sinai, because of not having hearts fully turned to Jehovah, were dull in mental perception, as were those who continued under the Law after God, through Jesus, had abolished it. (2 Cor. 3:13, 14) They did not see that Jesus was the One pointed to by the Law. (Col. 2:17) As to men who did not approve of holding God in accurate knowledge but who worshiped created things, “God gave them up to a disapproved mental state”; they are in darkness mentally, doing all manner of unprofitable and unfitting things. (Rom. 1:28; Eph. 4:17, 18) Corrupt-minded men resisted the truth even in Moses’ time, and later such men fought true Christianity, some even claiming to be Christians, yet trying to divide and disrupt congregations. (2 Tim. 3:8; Phil. 3:18, 19; 1 Tim. 6:4, 5) With minds and consciences defiled, nothing is clean to them; therefore they talk profitlessly in an effort to deceive the minds of true Christians by trying to bring them into bondage to ideas of men. (Titus 1:10-16) For this reason it is essential for all Christians, and particularly for those in responsible positions, to be sound in mind.—Rom. 12:3; 1 Tim. 3:2; Titus 2:6; 1 Pet. 4:7.
The “god of this system of things,” the Devil, is responsible for blinding the minds of unbelievers to the illumination of the good news about the Christ. (2 Cor. 4:4) The danger exists, therefore, that this archenemy of God may seduce Christians by his cunning, to corrupt their minds away “from the sincerity and the chastity that are due the Christ.” (2 Cor. 11:3) Accordingly, it is necessary that Christians exhibit unity of mind and reasonableness, continuing in prayer, in order that the peace of God “that excels all thought” may guard their mental powers by means of Christ Jesus.—Phil. 4:2, 5-7.
HEALING OR OPENING UP THE MIND
Jesus restored soundness of mind to a man possessed by demons, illustrating his power to do this even to those driven insane by demons. (Mark 5:15; Luke 8:35) He also can open up the minds of those who have faith to grasp the meaning of the Scriptures. (Luke 24:45) Timid persons, or those feeling inferior intellectually, can take comfort from the apostle John’s words: “We know that the Son of God has come, and he has given us intellectual capacity that we may gain the knowledge of the true one [Jehovah God].”—1 John 5:20.
Paul showed the Corinthian congregation that he was sound in mind when talking to build them up but that he appeared in their eyes to be ‘out of his mind’ (or, ‘beside himself’) when boasting about his credentials as an apostle, a thing a Christian would not normally do. But, he explains, he was forced to do this to bring them back to God, to save them from being pulled away. This was because they had looked to false apostles and were being turned in the wrong direction.—2 Cor. 5:13; 11:16-21; 12:11, 12, 19-21; 13:10.
An industry nearly as old as mankind. The Genesis account says that “Tubal-cain, the forger of every sort of tool of copper and iron” lived in pre-Flood days. (Gen. 4:22) Moses, writing about 1513 B.C.E., in describing the river Pishon, mentions the “land of Havilah, where there is gold. And the gold of that land is good.” (Gen. 2:11, 12) Whether the gold from Ophir was from underground lodes or was placer mined is not known.—1 Ki. 9:28; Job 28:16.
These metals were probably found to some extent in rather pure forms on or near the surface of the ground. In time, underground or lode mining operations were employed. Shafts were sunk deep along rich ore-bearing veins. About 3,600 years ago Job described how miners had “sunk a shaft far from where people reside.” There “in the gloom and deep shadow” they searched, having swung down and precariously dangled to obtain the desired metals.—Job 28:1-11.
Mining was carried on extensively by the Egyptians at the time of the Exodus; the Israelites, upon leaving Egypt, took metals and precious stones, later used in building the tabernacle. (Ex. 12:35, 36; 35:22; 39:6-14) Egyptian turquoise mines were located on the Sinai Peninsula some fifty miles (80.5 kilometers) from Mount Sinai. Remains of Egyptian mining operations have been found along the E coast of the Red Sea. Ancient mining tools of stone and bronze have been found. For splitting rocks, ancients used both fire and wedges.
Moses described the Promised Land into which the Israelites were about to enter as “a land the stones of which are iron and out of the mountains of which you will mine copper.”—Deut. 8:9; see COPPER; IRON; REFINE, REFINER.
(Mi·niʹa·min) [from the right hand].
1. One of the Levites serving under Kore in office of trust for the distribution of the holy contribution among their brothers at priests’ cities in King Hezekiah’s day.—2 Chron. 31:14, 15.
3. A priest among those with trumpets who participated in the ceremony for the inauguration of Jerusalem’s rebuilt wall in Nehemiah’s day. (Neh. 12:40, 41) He is possibly the priest called “Mijamin” at Nehemiah 10:7.
[Heb., a form of the root verb sha·rathʹ, to minister (in the sense of waiting upon or serving others); Gr., di·aʹko·nos, from di·aʹ, through, and koʹnis, dust, pointing to one who is dusty from running in the service of another. In both Hebrew and Greek the verb or noun forms are applied to both male and female. (2 Sam. 13:17, 18; 1 Ki. 1:4, 15; 2 Cor. 3:6; Rom. 16:1)]. Joshua was Moses’ minister “from his young manhood on.” (Num. 11:28; Josh. 1:1) Elijah’s attendant was called his minister and waiter. (2 Ki. 4:43; 6:15) Kings and princes had their royal attendants or ministers (2 Chron. 22:8; Esther 2:2; 6:3), some of whom waited on the royal tables.—1 Ki. 10:4, 5; 2 Chron. 9:3, 4.
JEHOVAH’S ANGELIC MINISTERS
Jehovah God created the angels in their tens of millions, all of whom he has under his control, and whom he doubtless can call by name, as he does the numberless stars. (Ps. 147:4) These serve him as his ministers, doing his will in the universe. (Ps. 103:20, 21) The psalmist says of Jehovah that he makes “his angels spirits, his ministers a devouring fire.” (Ps. 104:4) They are described as “spirits for public service, sent forth to minister for those who are going to inherit salvation.” (Heb. 1:13, 14) Angels ministered to Jesus Christ in the wilderness, after he had defeated Satan’s attempts to cause him to deviate from obedience to Jehovah (Matt. 4:11); also an angel appeared, strengthening him when he was praying in Gethsemane. (Luke 22:43) In the prophet Daniel’s vision, wherein “someone like a son of man” was given indefinitely lasting rulership over all peoples and languages, millions of angels are shown to be ministering about the throne of the Ancient of Days.—Dan. 7:9-14.
THE TRIBE OF LEVI
After the Israelites were delivered from Egypt, and when the nation was organized under the Law covenant, Jehovah chose the males of the tribe of Levi as his special ministers. (Num. 3:6; 1 Chron. 16:4) Some of them, the family of Aaron, were priests. (Deut. 17:12; 21:5; 1 Ki. 8:11; Jer. 33:21) The Levites had various duties in their ministry, some of them being caretakers of the sanctuary with all its utensils, ministers of the singing, and so forth.—Num. 3:7, 8; 1 Chron. 6:32.
In addition to using all the males of the tribe of Levi, Jehovah employed others to minister to his people Israel in a special way. These were the prophets, who served only as individually appointed and commissioned by Jehovah. Some of these were also of the priestly line of descent, but many were from other tribes of Israel. (See PROPHET.) They were messengers of Jehovah; they were sent to warn the nation when it deviated from the Law and they sought to turn the kings and the people back to true worship. (2 Chron. 36:15, 16; Jer. 7:25, 26) Their prophecies aided, encouraged and strengthened right-hearted ones, especially during times of spiritual and moral decay, and at times when Israel was threatened by enemies round about.—2 Ki. chap. 7; Isa. 37:21-38.
Their prophecies also pointed to Jesus Christ and the Messianic kingdom. (Rev. 19:10) John the Baptist did an outstanding work, turning “the heart of fathers back toward sons, and the heart of sons back toward fathers” as he prepared the way for Jehovah’s representative, the Lord Jesus Christ. (Mal. 4:5, 6; Matt. 11:13, 14; Luke 1:77-79) Not only to their contemporaries did the prophets minister, for the apostle Peter writes to Christians: “It was revealed to them that, not to themselves, but to you, they were ministering the things that have now been announced to you through those who have declared the good news to you with holy spirit sent forth from heaven. Into these very things angels are desiring to peer.”—1 Pet. 1:10-12.
Jesus Christ is Jehovah’s chief minister (di·aʹko·nos). He “became a minister of those who are circumcised in behalf of God’s truthfulness, so as to verify the promises He made to their forefathers”; also, “that the nations might glorify God for his mercy.” Therefore, “on him nations will rest their hope.”—Rom. 15:8-12.
Jesus’ appointment was from Jehovah himself. When he presented himself for baptism, “the heavens were opened up,” the account says, “and he [John the baptizer] saw descending like a dove God’s spirit coming upon him [Jesus]. Look! Also, there was a voice from the heavens that said: ‘This is my Son, the beloved, whom I have approved.’” (Matt. 3:16, 17) Jesus had served Jehovah for untold ages in his prehuman existence, but here he entered upon a new ministry. Jesus proved he was indeed God’s minister, serving both God and his fellowmen. Consequently, in the synagogue of his hometown of Nazareth, Jesus was able to take the scroll of Isaiah and read what is now chapter sixty-one, verses 1, 2: “The spirit of the Lord Jehovah is upon me, for the reason that Jehovah has