Relax and Learn With Crosswords
MILLIONS of persons regularly do crossword puzzles. Are you one of them? If not, perhaps you have been missing something, for crosswords can help you learn while you relax.
When you endeavor to solve crossword puzzles, you will no doubt find that your vocabulary, as well as your appreciation for the shades of meaning of words, increases. As a result, everyday reading and conversation can become more enjoyable.
Also, many interesting and useful facts will come to light when, on occasion, you have to do research to find the correct answers. This can be absorbing. So working on a crossword, even for a short time, can provide a refreshing change of activity.
Crosswords Through the Centuries
Crosswords are not altogether new. About 100 years ago one was discovered, scratched into a fragment of wall plaster, during the excavations of the 2,000-year-old Roman city of Corinium, in Gloucestershire, England. But their development in England as word puzzles dates to about the middle of the last century. Soon they were printed in children’s books and various periodicals.
However, it was not until this popular pastime migrated to America that the puzzle developed into a serious adult diversion. The first modern crossword was published on December 21, 1913, in Fun, the Sunday supplement of the New York World. Although this puzzle was presented as just one of a varied group of mental exercises, it quickly caught the public’s fancy.
Since then, crosswords have spread into all countries. They have been compiled in nearly all languages. Today countless millions of people have learned to relax and learn with their favorite crossword.
Types of Crossword Clues
In order to solve a crossword puzzle, you need to know something about the kinds of clues that may be employed. They can be divided under five main group headings.
First of all, there are the straightforward DIRECT clues, with no hidden meanings. These clues can sometimes be single-worded, seeking a synonym (a word with a similar meaning). For example, “RAPID”  will probably call for the answer “Fast.” (Where used, the figure in brackets signifies the number of letters in the answer.) If, however, the single-word clue itself has more than one meaning, finding the correct answer will not be so easy. For instance, the clue “FLEET”  could suggest either “Nimble” or “Armada.” The correct word, of course, is determined by the interlocking letters of the crossword itself. Sometimes an entire phrase is given as a clue, as in: “Popularly known as the ‘Sunflower State.’”  The answer is “Kansas.”
A PALINDROME, sometimes called a ‘sotadic’ after a Thracian, Sotades, of the third century B.C.E., is a word or phrase that can be read the same backward as forward. Some examples are: Mum (or Mom), Dad, Eve, Hannah, Nun (the father of Joshua), Gog, deified, rotator, kayak and level.
Turning of a word back to front, not to form the same word (as in the case of a palindrome), but a completely different word, is known as a REVERSAL. Not many words in fact have this strange characteristic, but here are a few: Zeus [Suez]; Enid [Dine]; War [Raw]; Reviled [Deliver]; Flog [Golf]; Repel [Leper]; Snug [Guns]; Stressed [Desserts]; Smart [Trams]; Yard [Dray]; Stop [Pots].
By rearranging the letters of a word or phrase to form another word or phrase, we have what is termed an ANAGRAM. There are thousands of words that in themselves prove to be one-word anagrams. To illustrate: CREATION - Reaction; RANSOM - Romans; TESTAMENT - Statement; EDUCATION - Auctioned, Cautioned; TIREDNESS - Residents, Dissenter; ARGENTINE - Tangerine; ONTARIO - Oration; PERSIA - Praise, Aspire.
A unique anagram involving two words is “the classroom,” which (by readjusting the letters of the two words) can be read as “schoolmaster.” If a crossword compiler desired to do so, he could clue this word for his readers with what is termed a CRYPTIC clue. For instance: “He might well make changes in the classroom. ” As you will observe, this cryptic clue guides the solver toward the solution, although the answer (“schoolmaster”) does not readily present itself. There are in fact many different kinds of cryptic clues and they are not all easy to solve. Yet, in some English-speaking countries, they are often more popular than the simple, direct type of clue. Cryptic clues can be used with palindromes, anagrams, spelling puns, spoken puns, charades and reversals.
A Bible Crossword
Crosswords can, of course, be slanted toward a particular interest, or compiled with a specific subject in mind. With this article is an example of a Biblical puzzle, specially compiled for Awake! You may easily identify some of the words for which clues are given. Others may be more difficult. But in many cases you will be helped by looking up the Bible reference that is cited alongside the clue. When you look up those texts you may find other information that interests you even more than the word that you were seeking. Take time to enjoy it. After all, crosswords are meant to be, not only mentally stimulating, but also instructive and enjoyable.
1. Of his four sons, only the firstborn Johanan did not rule as king over Judah  (1 Chronicles 3:15)
4. A stopper and starter of the human race  (a cryptic clue) (Romans 5:12-14)
9. Jacob’s ninth son  (Genesis 49:14, 15)
10. One of the 12 apostles  (Luke 6:12-16)
12. The postexilic name of the sixth lunar month of the sacred Jewish calendar  (Nehemiah 6:15)
13. A contemporary of the prophets Hosea and 24 down  (Jeremiah 26:17, 18)
14. Nationality of king who ruled Babylon after Belshazzar  (Daniel 5:30, 31)
17. Where Goliath came from  (1 Samuel 17:4-10)
18. A kind of interpretation that was not the basis for Scripture prophecy, according to 2 Peter 1:20 
21. A lie cost his life  (Acts 5:1-10)
26. Leading number of Ninevites  (a cryptic clue)
27. Matthias ‘took his office of oversight’  (Acts 1:15-26)
28. His other name was Edom  (Hebrews 12:12-17)
31. Vineyard owner and victim of a wicked plot by Queen Jezebel  (1 Kings 21:1-19)
32. Her name sounds something like a gem, but she was a liar  (Acts 5:1)
33. Certain part of “treasures in heaven”  (a cryptic clue) (Hebrews 6:19)
34. City the name of which means “He to whom it belongs”  (Psalm 78:57-61)
1. He led the Jews into the Promised Land  (Acts 7:44, 45)
2. The Pharisees were a prominent religious ‐‐‐‐ of Judaism  (Acts 15:1-5)
3. Abednego’s Hebrew name  (Daniel 1:1-7)
5. Disown, as Peter did to Jesus 
6. Portrayed in the book of Esther  (Esther 3:1-4)
7. Jesus did it both in heaven and on earth 
8. What is “‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ than honey”?  (Judges 14:16-18)
11. Possessed by each of the 10 virgins  (Matthew 25:1-13)
15. Son of Jesse  (1 Samuel 16:1-13)
16. Receiver of a letter from 23 across  (2 Corinthians 2:12, 13)
19. Biblical events before the Common Era serve as a ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ for Christians  (1 Corinthians 10:6-11)
20. He introduced Paul to Peter  (Acts 9:22-29)
22. Benjamite king of Israel  (Acts 13:20, 21)
23. Title given to rulers of Egypt  (Jeremiah 44:29, 30)
24. A major Hebrew prophet  (Acts 8:26-33)
25. Tribe through which Messiah came  (Genesis 49:10)
29. Heavenly body 
30. Precious stone concealed centrally by Clopas  (a cryptic anagram)
CROSSWORD SOLUTIONS PAGE 28