Bible Book Number 19—Psalms
Writers: David and others
Writing Completed: c. 460 B.C.E.
1. What is the book of Psalms, and what does it contain?
THE book of Psalms was the inspired songbook of true worshipers of Jehovah in ancient times, a collection of 150 sacred songs, or psalms, set to music and arranged for the public worship of Jehovah God in his temple at Jerusalem. These psalms are songs of praise to Jehovah, and not only that, they also contain prayers of supplication for mercy and help, as well as expressions of trust and confidence. They abound with thanksgivings and exultations and with exclamations of great, yes, superlative, joy. Some are recapitulations of history, contemplating Jehovah’s loving-kindness and his great deeds. They are packed with prophecies, many of which have had remarkable fulfillments. They contain much instruction that is beneficial and upbuilding, all of it clothed in lofty language and imagery that stirs the reader to the very depths. The psalms are a sumptuous spiritual meal, beautifully prepared and spread invitingly before us.
2. (a) What titles have been applied to Psalms, and with what meanings? (b) What is a psalm?
2 What is the significance of the book’s title, and who wrote the Psalms? In the Hebrew Bible, the book is called Seʹpher Tehil·limʹ, meaning “Book of Praises,” or simply Tehil·limʹ, that is, “Praises.” This is the plural form of Tehil·lahʹ, meaning “A Praise” or “Song of Praise,” found in the superscription of Psalm 145. The name “Praises” is most appropriate, as the book highlights praise to Jehovah. The title “Psalms” comes from the Greek Septuagint, which used the word Psal·moiʹ, denoting songs sung with a musical accompaniment. The word is also found at a number of places in the Christian Greek Scriptures, such as at Luke 20:42 and Acts 1:20. A psalm is a sacred song or poem used in the praise and worship of God.
3. What do the superscriptions tell as to the writers?
3 Many of the psalms have headings, or superscriptions, and these often name the writer. Seventy-three headings bear the name of David, “the pleasant one of the melodies of Israel.” (2 Sam. 23:1) No doubt Psalms 2, 72, and Ps 95 were also written by David. (See Acts 4:25, Psalm 72:20, and Hebrews 4:7.) Additionally, Psalms 10 and 71 appear to be a continuation of Psalms 9 and 70 respectively and therefore may be attributed to David. Twelve psalms are ascribed to Asaph, evidently denoting the house of Asaph, as some of these speak of events later than Asaph’s day. (Ps. 79; Ps 80; 1 Chron. 16:4, 5, 7; Ezra 2:41) Eleven psalms are directly attributed to the sons of Korah. (1 Chron. 6:31-38) Psalm 43 appears to be a continuation of Psalm 42, and therefore it may also be attributed to the sons of Korah. In addition to mentioning “the sons of Korah,” Psalm 88 also accredits Heman in its superscription, and Psalm 89 names Ethan as the writer. Psalm 90 is attributed to Moses, and Psalm 91 is probably Moses’ as well. Psalm 127 is Solomon’s. Over two thirds of the psalms are thus ascribed to various writers.
4. What time period is covered by the writing?
4 The book of Psalms is the Bible’s largest single book. As evidenced by Psalms 90, 126, and Ps 137, it was long in the writing, at least from the time Moses wrote (1513-1473 B.C.E.) until after the restoration from Babylon and probably Ezra’s day (537–c. 460 B.C.E.). Thus, the writing is seen to span approximately a thousand years. The time covered by the contents is much greater, though, starting from the time of the creation and epitomizing the history of Jehovah’s dealings with his servants down to the time of the composition of the last of the psalms.
5. (a) How does the book of Psalms reflect organization? (b) What further information is supplied by the superscriptions? (c) Why is it not necessary to pronounce the word “Seʹlah” in reading the psalms?
5 The book of Psalms is one that reflects organization. David himself refers to “the processions of my God, my King, into the holy place. The singers went in front, the players on stringed instruments after them; in between were the maidens beating tambourines. In congregated throngs bless God, Jehovah.” (Ps. 68:24-26) This gives the reason for the oft repeated expression “To the director” in the superscriptions, as well as the many poetic and musical terms. Some superscriptions explain the use or purpose of a psalm or provide musical instructions. (See the superscriptions of Psalms 6, 30, 38, 60, 88, 102, and Ps 120.) For at least 13 of David’s psalms, such as Psalms 18 and 51, the events spurring their composition are briefly related. Thirty-four of the psalms are entirely without superscriptions. The little word “Seʹlah,” occurring 71 times in the main text, is generally thought to be a technical term for music or recitation, although its exact significance is unknown. It is suggested by some that it indicates a pause for silent meditation in the singing or in both the singing and the instrumental music. Hence, it need not be pronounced in reading.
6. (a) Into what separate volumes has the book of Psalms been divided? (b) Who apparently arranged the book of Psalms into final form?
6 From ancient times, the book of Psalms has been divided into five separate books, or volumes, as follows: (1) Psalms 1-41; (2) Psalms 42-72; (3) Psalms 73-89; (4) Psalms 90-106; (5) Psalms 107-150. It appears that the first collection of these songs was made by David. Evidently Ezra, the priest and “skilled copyist in the law of Moses,” was the one used by Jehovah to arrange the book of Psalms into final form.—Ezra 7:6.
7. What other features of Psalms are to be noted?
7 The progressive growth of the collection may explain why some of the psalms are repeated in the different sections, such as Psalms 14 and 53; 40:13-17 and Ps 70; 57:7-11 and Ps 108:1-5. Each of the five sections closes with a blessing pronounced on Jehovah, or a doxology—the first four of these including responses by the people and the last one being the entire Psalm 150.—Ps. 41:13, footnote.
8. Explain and illustrate the acrostic style of composition.
8 A very special style of composition is employed in nine psalms; it is called acrostic because of its alphabetic structure. (Psalms 9, 10, 25, 34, 37, 111, 112, 119, and Ps 145) In this structure the first verse or verses of the first stanza begin with the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet, ʼaʹleph (א), the next verse(s) with the second letter, behth (ב), and so on, through all or nearly all the letters of the Hebrew alphabet. This may have served as a memory aid—just think of the temple singers having to remember songs as long as Psalm 119! Interestingly, an acrostic of Jehovah’s name is found at Psalm 96:11. The first half of this verse in Hebrew consists of four words, and the initial letters of these words, when read from right to left, are the four Hebrew consonants of the Tetragrammaton, YHWH (יהוה).
9. (a) Because of what background do many of the psalms make a direct appeal to mind and heart? (b) What else contributes to their power and beauty?
9 These sacred, lyric poems are written in unrhymed Hebrew verse and display unsurpassed beauty of style and rhythmic flow of thought. They speak directly to the mind and heart. They paint vivid pictures. The wonderful breadth and depth, in both the subject matter and the strong emotions expressed, are due in part to David’s extraordinary life experiences, which provide background to many of the psalms. Few men have lived so varied a life—as a shepherd boy, a lone warrior against Goliath, a court musician, an outlaw among loyal friends and among traitors, a king and conqueror, a loving father beset with divisions in his own household, one who twice experienced the bitterness of serious sin and yet was ever an enthusiastic worshiper of Jehovah and lover of His Law. Against such a background, it is little wonder that the book of Psalms runs the entire scale of human emotions! Contributing to its power and beauty are the poetic parallelisms and contrasts so characteristic of Hebrew verse.—Ps. 1:6; 22:20; 42:1; 121:3, 4.
10. What testifies to the authenticity of Psalms?
10 The authenticity of these most ancient songs to Jehovah’s praise is amply testified to by their being in complete harmony with the rest of the Scriptures. The book of Psalms is quoted numerous times by the writers of the Christian Greek Scriptures. (Ps. 5:9 [Rom. 3:13]; Ps. 10:7 [Rom. 3:14]; Ps. 24:1 [1 Cor. 10:26]; Ps. 50:14 [Matt. 5:33]; Ps. 78:24 [John 6:31]; Ps. 102:25-27 [Heb. 1:10-12]; Ps. 112:9 [2 Cor. 9:9]) David himself said in his last song: “The spirit of Jehovah it was that spoke by me, and his word was upon my tongue.” It was this spirit that had operated upon him from the day of his anointing by Samuel. (2 Sam. 23:2; 1 Sam. 16:13) Additionally, the apostles quoted from the Psalms. Peter referred to “scripture . . . which the holy spirit spoke beforehand by David’s mouth,” and in a number of quotations from the Psalms, the writer to the Hebrews referred to them either as statements spoken by God or introduced them with the words, “just as the holy spirit says.”—Acts 1:16; 4:25; Heb. 1:5-14; 3:7; 5:5, 6.
11. How is supporting testimony crowned by Jesus’ own statements?
11 Coming to the strongest proof of authenticity, we quote Jesus, the risen Lord, saying to the disciples: “These are my words which I spoke to you . . . that all the things written in the law of Moses and in the Prophets and Psalms about me must be fulfilled.” Jesus was there grouping the entire Hebrew Scriptures in the way adopted by the Jews and well known to them. His mention of the Psalms included the whole of the third group of Scriptures, called the Hagiographa (or Holy Writings), of which Psalms was the first book. This is confirmed by what he said a few hours earlier to the two on their way to Emmaus, when “he interpreted to them things pertaining to himself in all the Scriptures.”—Luke 24:27, 44.
CONTENTS OF PSALMS
12. How does Psalms quickly strike up a theme of happiness, as well as the Kingdom theme?
12 Book One (Psalms 1-41). All of these are directly ascribed to David except Psalms 1, 2, 10, and Ps 33. Psalm 1 strikes the keynote at the outset, as it pronounces happy the man delighting in Jehovah’s law, contemplating it day and night in order to follow it, in contrast with ungodly sinners. This is the first pronouncement of happiness found in Psalms. Psalm 2 opens with a challenging question and tells of the combined stand of all the kings and high officials of earth “against Jehovah and against his anointed one.” Jehovah holds them in derision and then speaks to them in hot anger, saying: “I, even I, have installed my king upon Zion, my holy mountain.” He is the one who will break and dash in pieces all opposition. You other kings and rulers, “serve Jehovah with fear” and acknowledge His Son lest you perish! (2 Vss. 2, 6, 11) Thus the Psalms quickly strike up the Kingdom theme of the Bible.
13. What else does the first collection of psalms make prominent?
13 In this first collection, prayers, both of petition and of thanksgiving, are prominent. Psalm 8 contrasts Jehovah’s greatness with man’s smallness, and Psalm 14 exposes the folly of people who refuse to submit to God’s authority. Psalm 19 shows how the wonderful creation of Jehovah God declares his glory, and 19 verses 7-14 extol the rewarding benefits of keeping God’s perfect law, which is later reflected on a grander scale in Psalm 119. Psalm 23 is universally accepted as one of the masterpieces of all literature, but it is even more magnificent in the beautiful simplicity of its expression of loyal trust in Jehovah. Oh, that we may all ‘dwell in the house of Jehovah, the Great Shepherd, to the length of days’! (23:1, 6) Psalm 37 gives good counsel to God-fearing people who live among evildoers, and Psalm 40 expresses the delight of doing God’s will, even as David did it.
14. What is said about redemption in Book Two of the Psalms, and what prayers of David are featured?
14 Book Two (Psalms 42-72). This section starts with eight Korahite psalms. Psalms 42 and 43 are both attributed to the sons of Korah, since together they are in reality one poem in three stanzas, linked together by a recurring verse. (42:5, 11; 43:5) Psalm 49 emphasizes the impossibility of man’s providing his own ransomer, and it points to God as the one strong enough to redeem man “from the hand of Sheol.” (49 Vs. 15) Psalm 51 is a prayer of David, uttered after his terrible sin with Bath-sheba, the wife of Uriah the Hittite, and shows his genuine repentance. (2 Sam. 11:1–12:24) This section closes with a psalm “regarding Solomon,” a prayer for his peaceful reign and for Jehovah’s blessing to go with him.—Ps. 72.
15. What does Book Three state regarding Israel’s history, Jehovah’s judgments, and his Kingdom covenant?
15 Book Three (Psalms 73-89). At least two of these, Psalms 74 and 79, were composed following the destruction of Jerusalem in 607 B.C.E. They lament this great catastrophe and implore Jehovah to help his people ‘for the sake of the glory of his name.’ (79:9) Psalm 78 recounts the history of Israel from the time of Moses until when David “began to shepherd them according to the integrity of his heart” (78 vs. 72), and Psalm 80 points to Jehovah as the real “Shepherd of Israel.” (80 Vs. 1) Psalms 82 and 83 are strong pleas to Jehovah to execute his judgments against his enemies and the enemies of his people. Far from being vindictive, these petitions are to the end “that people may search for your name, O Jehovah . . . , [and] that people may know that you, whose name is Jehovah, you alone are the Most High over all the earth.” (83:16, 18) Last in this section comes Psalm 89, highlighting “Jehovah’s expressions of loving-kindness,” as shown preeminently in his covenant made with David. This is for an everlasting heir to David’s throne, who will rule to time indefinite before Jehovah!—89 Vss. 1, 34-37.
16. How does Book Four exalt Jehovah’s kingship and his keeping covenant?
16 Book Four (Psalms 90-106). Like Book Three, this contains 17 psalms. It begins with the prayer of Moses, setting in sharp relief God’s eternal existence and the short life span of mortal man. Psalm 92 extols Jehovah’s superior qualities. Then there is that grand group, Psalms 93-100, that commence with the stirring cry, “Jehovah himself has become king!” Hence “all you people of the earth” are called upon to “sing to Jehovah, bless his name . . . , for Jehovah is great and very much to be praised.” “Jehovah is great in Zion.” (93:1; 96:1, 2, 4; 99:2) Psalms 105 and 106 thank Jehovah for his wondrous deeds in behalf of his people and for his faithfully keeping his covenant with Abraham in giving his seed the land, despite their countless murmurings and backslidings.
17. Of what unusual interest is Psalm 104, and what theme is repeated from this point on?
17 Of unusual interest is Psalm 104. This extols Jehovah for the dignity and splendor with which he has clothed himself, and it describes his wisdom as displayed in his many works and productions on earth. Then the theme of the entire book of Psalms is set forth with full force, as the exclamation appears for the first time: “Praise Jah, you people!” (104 Vs. 35) This call to true worshipers to render Jehovah the praise due his name is, in Hebrew, just one word ha·lelu–Yahʹ or “Hallelujah,” which latter form is familiar to people all over the earth today. From this verse on, the expression occurs 24 times, a number of psalms both opening and closing with it.
18. (a) What refrain highlights Psalm 107? (b) What are the so-called Hallel Psalms?
18 Book Five (Psalms 107-150). In Psalm 107 we have a description of Jehovah’s deliverances, accompanied by the melodious refrain: “O let people give thanks to Jehovah for his loving-kindness and for his wonderful works to the sons of men.” (107 Vss. 8, 15, 21, 31) Psalms 113 to 118 are the so-called Hallel Psalms. According to the Mishnah, these were sung by the Jews at the Passover and at the festivals of Pentecost, Booths, and Dedication.
19 Psalm 117 is powerful in its simplicity, being the shortest of all psalms and chapters in the Bible. Psalm 119 is the longest of all psalms and Bible chapters, containing a total of 176 verses in its 22 alphabetic stanzas of 8 verses each. All but two of these verses (119:90 and 122) refer in some way to the word or law of Jehovah God, repeating several or all of the expressions (law, reminder, orders, commandment, judicial decisions) of Psalm 19:7-14 in each stanza. The word of God is referred to more than 170 times by one or the other of the following 8 expressions: commandment(s), judicial decision(s), law, orders, regulations, reminder(s), saying(s), and word(s).
20, 21. (a) What are the Songs of the Ascents? (b) How do they express David’s appreciation of the need for united worship?
20 Next, we find another group of psalms, the 15 Songs of the Ascents, Psalms 120-134. Translators have rendered this expression in various ways because its meaning is not fully understood. Some say it refers to the exalted contents of these psalms, though there does not seem to be clear reason to exalt them above the other inspired psalms. Many commentators suggest that the title derives from the use of these songs by the worshipers traveling up, or “ascending,” to Jerusalem for the annual festivals, the trip to the capital being regarded as an ascent because the city was situated high up in the mountains of Judah. (Compare Ezra 7:9.) David especially had a deep appreciation of the need for God’s people to unite in worship. He rejoiced to hear the invitation: “To the house of Jehovah let us go”; and the tribes did go up, “to give thanks to the name of Jehovah.” On that account he earnestly sought for the peace, security, and prosperity of Jerusalem, praying: “For the sake of the house of Jehovah our God I will keep seeking good for you.”—Ps. 122:1, 4, 9.
21 Psalm 132 tells of David’s oath to give himself no rest until he has found an appropriate resting-place for Jehovah, as represented by the ark of the covenant. After the Ark has been set up in Zion, Jehovah is described in beautiful poetic phrase as saying that he has chosen Zion, “my resting-place forever; here I shall dwell, for I have longed for it.” He recognized this central place of worship, “for there Jehovah commanded the blessing.” “May Jehovah bless you out of Zion.”—132:1-6, 13, 14; 133:3; 134:3; see also Psalm 48.
22. (a) How is Jehovah’s praiseworthiness extolled? (b) How does the glorious theme of the book rise to a crescendo in the concluding psalms?
22 Psalm 135 extols Jehovah as the praiseworthy God who does all his delight, in contrast with the vain and empty idols, whose makers will become just like them. Psalm 136 is for responsive singing, each verse concluding: “For his loving-kindness is to time indefinite.” Such responses are shown to have been used on many occasions. (1 Chron. 16:41; 2 Chron. 5:13; 7:6; 20:21; Ezra 3:11) Psalm 137 relates the longing for Zion that dwelt in the hearts of the Jews when exiled in Babylon and also testifies that they did not forget the songs, or psalms, of Zion though they were far from their homeland. Psalm 145 exalts Jehovah’s goodness and kingship, showing that he “is guarding all those loving him, but all the wicked ones he will annihilate.” (145 Vs. 20) Then, as a rousing conclusion, Psalms 146-150 strike up again the glorious theme of the book, each one beginning and ending with the words, “Praise Jah, you people!” This melody of praise rises to a grand crescendo in the 150th Psalm, where 13 times in the space of six verses it calls on all creation to praise Jehovah.
23. (a) What living message is contained in Psalms? (b) How are Jehovah’s name and sovereignty exalted?
23 Because of their perfection of beauty and style, the psalms of the Bible are to be included among the greatest literature in any language. However, they are much more than literature. They are a living message from the Supreme Sovereign of all the universe, Jehovah God himself. They give deep insight into the fundamental teachings of the Bible, speaking first and foremost of Jehovah, its Author. He is clearly shown to be the Creator of the universe and everything in it. (8:3-9; 90:1, 2; 100:3; 104:1-5, 24; 139:14) The name Jehovah is indeed magnified in the book of Psalms, where it appears about 700 times. Additionally, the abbreviated form “Jah” is to be found 43 times, so that all together the divine name is mentioned about 5 times, on the average, in each Psalm. Moreover, Jehovah is spoken of about 350 times as ʼElo·himʹ, or God. Jehovah’s supreme rulership is shown in references to him as “Sovereign Lord” in a number of psalms.—68:20; 69:6; 71:5; 73:28; 140:7; 141:8.
24. What is said in Psalms concerning mortal man, and what sound counsel is given?
24 In contrast with the eternal God, mortal man is shown to be born in sin and in need of a redeemer, and he is shown as dying and returning to “crushed matter,” going down into Sheol, the common grave of mankind. (6:4, 5; 49:7-20; 51:5, 7; 89:48; 90:1-5; 115:17; 146:4) The book of Psalms emphasizes the need for heeding the law of God and trusting in Jehovah. (1:1, 2; 62:8; 65:5; 77:12; 115:11; 118:8; 119:97, 105, 165) It warns against presumptuousness and “concealed sins” (19:12-14; 131:1) and encourages honest and healthful associations. (15:1-5; 26:5; 101:5) It shows that right conduct brings Jehovah’s approval. (34:13-15; 97:10) It holds out bright hope in saying that “salvation belongs to Jehovah” and that in the case of those fearing him, he will “deliver their soul from death itself.” (3:8; 33:19) This brings us to the prophetic aspect.
25. (a) With what is the book of Psalms virtually packed? (b) How did Peter use Psalms in identifying the Greater David?
25 The book of Psalms is virtually packed with prophecies pointing forward to Jesus Christ, the “son of David,” and the role he would play as Jehovah’s Anointed One and King.a (Matt. 1:1) As the Christian congregation sprang into life on the day of Pentecost 33 C.E., the holy spirit began to enlighten the apostles as to the fulfillment of these prophecies. On that very day, Peter quoted repeatedly from Psalms in developing the theme of his famous speech. This had to do with an individual: “Jesus the Nazarene.” The latter part of his argument is based almost entirely on quotations from the Psalms proving that Christ Jesus is the Greater David and that Jehovah would not leave Jesus’ soul in Hades but would raise him from the dead. No, “David did not ascend to the heavens,” but as he foretold at Psalm 110:1, his Lord did. Who is David’s Lord? Peter reaches his great climax and forcefully answers: “This Jesus whom you impaled”!—Acts 2:14-36; Ps. 16:8-11; 132:11.
26. How did Peter’s speech prove to be beneficial?
26 Was Peter’s speech, based on the Psalms, beneficial? The baptism of about 3,000 who were added to the Christian congregation the same day speaks for itself.—Acts 2:41.
27. How did “the holy spirit” interpret Psalm 2?
27 Shortly after, at a special gathering, the disciples appealed to Jehovah and quoted Psalm 2:1, 2. They said that this had been fulfilled in the united opposition of the rulers against God’s “holy servant Jesus, whom [God] anointed.” And the account goes on to say that they were “all filled with the holy spirit.”—Acts 4:23-31.
28 Look, now, at the letter to the Hebrews. In the first two chapters, we find a number of quotations from the Psalms respecting the superiority of Jesus, as God’s heavenly enthroned Son, over the angels. Paul shows from Psalm 22:22 and other references that Jesus has a congregation of “brothers,” part of Abraham’s seed and “partakers of the heavenly calling.” (Heb. 2:10-13, 16; 3:1) Then, commencing at Hebrews 6:20 and continuing through Heb chapter 7, the apostle enlarges on the additional office that Jesus occupies as “high priest according to the manner of Melchizedek forever.” This refers to God’s oath-bound promise at Psalm 110:4, to which Paul makes reference time and again in proving the superiority of Jesus’ priesthood over that of Aaron. Paul explains that by Jehovah’s oath Jesus Christ is a priest, not on earth, but in heaven and “he remains a priest perpetually”—the benefits of his priestly service will be eternal.—Heb. 7:3, 15-17, 23-28.
29. What outstanding example of devotion should we heed, as stated in the Psalms and explained at Hebrews 10:5-10?
29 Further, at Hebrews 10:5-10, we are told of Jesus’ fine appreciation for the sacrificial course that was God’s will for him and of his determination to carry out that will. This is based on David’s words at Psalm 40:6-8. This exemplary spirit of devotion is of the greatest benefit for all of us to consider and to copy so as to win God’s approval.—See also Psalm 116:14-19.
30. How did the Psalms foretell Jesus’ course in detail, and how must he have drawn comfort from them?
30 The course that Jesus took, culminating in that terrible ordeal he endured on the torture stake, was foretold in the Psalms in remarkable detail. This included his being offered vinegar to drink, the casting of lots for his outer garments, the cruel treatment of his hands and feet, the mockery, and the still more bitter mental anguish of that agonizing cry: “My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?” (Matt. 27:34, 35, 43, 46; Ps. 22:1, 7, 8, 14-18; 69:20, 21) As indicated by John 19:23-30, even during those hours, Jesus must have drawn much comfort and guidance from the Psalms, knowing that all these scriptures had to be fulfilled down to the last detail. Jesus knew that the Psalms also spoke concerning his resurrection and exaltation. He doubtless had such things in mind when leading in “singing praises,” or psalms, with his apostles on the last night before his death.—Matt. 26:30.
31. What does the book of Psalms foretell in connection with the Kingdom Seed and Jesus’ congregation?
31 Thus Psalms clearly identifies the “son of David” and Kingdom Seed to be Christ Jesus, who is now exalted as both King and Priest in the heavenly Zion. Space does not permit a description in detail of all the passages from Psalms that are quoted in the Christian Greek Scriptures as fulfilled in this Anointed One of Jehovah, but a few more examples are here listed: Ps. 78:2—Matt. 13:31-35; Ps. 69:4—John 15:25; Ps. 118:22, 23—Mark 12:10, 11 and Acts 4:11; Ps. 34:20—John 19:33, 36; Ps. 45:6, 7—Heb. 1:8, 9. Also, Jesus’ congregation of true followers is foretold in the Psalms, not as individuals, but as a group taken into God’s favor from all nations to share in a work of praise to Jehovah’s name.—Ps. 117:1—Rom. 15:11; Ps. 68:18—Eph. 4:8-11; Ps. 95:7-11—Heb. 3:7, 8; 4:7.
32. (a) What does the study of Psalms reveal as to Jehovah’s vindication and Kingdom purposes? (b) In appreciation of his kingship, how should we express loyalty and thankfulness?
32 Our study of the Psalms adds much to our appreciation of the kingship of Jehovah God, which He exercises through the promised Seed and Kingdom Heir, to His glory and vindication. May we ever be among those loyal ones who exult in ‘the glorious splendor of Jehovah’s dignity’ and who are spoken of in Psalm 145, which is referred to as “a praise, of David”: “About the glory of your kingship they will talk, and about your mightiness they will speak, to make known to the sons of men his mighty acts and the glory of the splendor of his kingship. Your kingship is a kingship for all times indefinite, and your dominion is throughout all successive generations.” (Ps. 145:5, 11-13) True to the prophetic psalm, the splendor of God’s established Kingdom by Christ is even now being made known to the sons of men in all nations. How thankful we should be for that Kingdom and its King! Appropriate, indeed, are the closing words of the Psalms: “Every breathing thing—let it praise Jah. Praise Jah, you people!”—150:6.