Study Questions for the booklet Jehovah’s Witnesses and the Question of Blood
3 1 What fact about blood is being better understood?
3 2 What is an accepted therapeutic method, but who disagree?
3 3, 4 What Bible view do Jehovah’s Witnesses hold regarding life, and what questions does this raise?
3 5 What is the purpose of this publication, and how will the matter be handled?
4 1 To whom is this subject of interest?
4 2 What are some views as to the use of blood, and on what basis do Jehovah’s Witnesses take a stand on blood?
5 1 In view of the position taken by Jehovah’s Witnesses, what question logically arises?
5 2, 3 What shows that the Bible has much to say about blood, and what command regarding blood did God give early in mankind’s history?
6 1 What shows that in the killing of animals more is involved than just the matter of diet?
6 2, 3 What did the Creator attach to the use of blood, and how do we know that not just the blood of animals is involved?
7 1, 2 What was the nature of the command to Noah regarding blood, and what comments by a rabbi are pertinent here?
8 1, 2 What law to Israel showed that God’s ban on blood still applied, and what was the only way Israelites could use blood?
8 3, 4 (a) What precaution were Israelite hunters required to take when they killed animals for food, and why? (b) By heeding this command, they showed recognition of what fact?
9 1 (a) What penalties show that violating God’s law on blood was a serious offense? (b) Which scriptures show that eating flesh with the blood in it resulted in guilt?
9 2 Which Scriptural example shows that God’s law on blood could not be set aside in emergencies?
10 1 Why is it reasonable to conclude that God’s law regarding animal blood also applies to human blood?
10 2 What effect did the Messiah’s sacrificial death have on the dietary restrictions of the Mosaic law?
10 3 When dealing with the question of circumcision for Gentile Christians, what was decided regarding blood?
11 1 This decision of the apostolic council became a part of what?
11 2, 3 What did that decision explicitly state, and how do we know that it was not merely the apostles’ opinion?
12 1 According to Professor Walther Zimmerli, what distinction did that decree make?
12 2 What indicates that the command to abstain from blood was a moral requirement and not merely a dietary one?
12 3, 4 What shows the binding nature of the prohibition of blood and that it was not merely a temporary requirement? 13 1, 2 What does Eusebius say as to the prohibition of blood being recognized in his day?
13 3 to 14 2 What did Tertullian and Minucius Felix say as to Christians not eating blood in their day?
14 3, 4 What statements did a bishop and a Catholic Biblical scholar make on the subject of blood?
15 1 What did the Quinisext Council state regarding blood, and what did Otto of Bamberg say to new converts regarding blood?
15 2 What did Martin Luther write regarding Acts 15:28, 29?
15 3 What comment did a Baptist theologian make on Genesis 9:3, 4?
16 1 What answer did clergyman William Jones give to those who would ignore the Bible’s prohibition of blood?
16 2 What is the determination of Jehovah’s Witnesses regarding blood, based on which facts and scriptures?
17 1 What three points have been established, and what is the Scriptural basis for each?
17 2, 3 What question now presents itself, and what modern medical techniques may Bible principles be said to cover?
17 4 to 18 1 What distinction is not made at Acts 15:29, and for what reasons?
18 2 What firm position do Jehovah’s Witnesses take, and of what are they convinced?
19 1, 2 What is at stake in the issue of blood, and to what words of the psalmist do we wholeheartedly subscribe?
19 3, 4 What stand did the early Christians take and at what cost to themselves?
20 1 What responsibility do Jehovah’s Witnesses shoulder?
20 2, 3 (a) What objection is raised to refusing blood transfusions? (b) Why can Witnesses not be accused of suicide, as seen by the testimony of others?
21 1 Why is refusing blood transfusions not an exercising of one’s right to die?
21 2 Which rights have the courts given individuals, and why logically so?
22 1, 2 (a) Of what is the patient the final arbiter? (b) The right and duty of a physician is limited by what freedom of man?
22 3 What is the attitude of some persons regarding the preservation of life, but what question does this raise?
23 1 According to N. L. Cantor, what shows that the sanctity of life is not the supreme value, and how might this be illustrated?
23 2 What position of the Witnesses precludes anyone from trying to force a treatment upon them that violates their principles?
24 1 In one medical journal, what statement was made about doctors who try to force a certain treatment that violates the conscience of the patient?
24 2, 3 Why might a doctor find it distressing to deal with a Witness who refuses a blood transfusion?
25 1, 2 According to what medical and legal principles may a surgeon not follow his own convictions if they violate a patient’s conscience?
26 1, 2 Instead of abandoning a case, what should a doctor do when faced with a patient’s refusal to accept a blood transfusion?
27 1 What can be said about the moral obligations of both patient and doctor as regards “extraordinary” treatment? 27 2 What stand do Witnesses take as to medical treatment in general, but with what exception?
27 3 What facts do Witnesses appreciate relative to their stand on blood?
28 1 Of what fact are Witnesses aware, and what are they willing to face?
28 2 What conclusion was reached in an extreme case after a successful operation without blood?
29 1 Why need doctors not fear malpractice suits by Witnesses because of their stand on blood?
29 2 What is the gist of the form the AMA recommends that patients who refuse blood transfusions should sign?
30 1 How do the Witnesses show they are willing to accept personal responsibility for refusing blood transfusions?
30 2 What has been said as to the likelihood of a physician’s being sued for not forcing a blood transfusion on a patient?
30 3 What is the position in England when a patient dies because of having refused a blood transfusion?
31 1, 2 What moral obligation does a doctor have, but what moral obligation does he not have?
31 3 What charge could a doctor be liable for if he forced a blood transfusion upon a Witness patient?
32 1, 2 Which course by a doctor would be “most distasteful ethically,” and why is this so?
32 3 to 33 1 (a) What did West Germany’s Medical Tribune have to say about giving a patient a blood transfusion while he was unconscious? (b) What ruling by a court underscored this position, leading to what conclusion?
33 2, 3 (a) What aspect of this subject is highly charged with emotion? (b) How do Witnesses feel about it, and why?
34 1 (a) What has resulted from a lack of parental teaching? (b) In contrast, what do Witness parents do?
35 1, 2 Why should a doctor not feel that he must give a child a blood transfusion in spite of the resolute wishes of the parents against such?
35 3 Why is it fundamentally inconsistent to force a blood transfusion on a child of Witness parents?
36 1 Name a gross inconsistency that prevails in some hospitals.
36 2 What did a Scottish college lecturer have to say about forcing blood transfusions on adults and children?
37 1, 2 How does the principle of choice in medical treatment argue against forced blood transfusions?
37 3 What fact regarding the nature of medical knowledge further argues against forced blood transfusions?
37 4 What bearing does the principle of treating the whole person have on forced blood transfusions?
38 1, 2 What can be said about healing the body while breaking the spirit of a person?
38 3 to 39 2 Which facts argue that the stand of the Witnesses regarding blood transfusions is not unreasonable?
39 3, 4 Why do some doctors fail to view blood transfusions objectively, and why have some judges recommended alternative treatment?
40 1, 2 Which fact about blood has a strong bearing on the value of blood transfusions?
40 3 to 41 1 What other characteristics of blood have a bearing on the risk factor in blood transfusions?
41 2-4 What testimony is there to show that blood transfusions involve risks?
42 1-3 Why can knowledgeable doctors not dismiss the dangers of blood transfusions as being exaggerated?
43 1 Is there a likelihood of relief from blood transfusion problems? If not, why not?
43 2, 3 What various kinds of risks are associated with blood transfusions?
44 1, 2 What are some of the immediate harmful reactions to blood transfusions?
44 3-5 To what extent is the danger of transmitting disease associated with blood transfusions?
45 1, 2 What can be said about the incidence of serum hepatitis?
45 3 Why is the possibility of a Witness getting serum hepatitis more than a justifiable risk?
46 1, 2 What facts argue against a patient’s being reasonably assured that he will survive an attack of serum hepatitis?
46 3, 4 To what extent have modern techniques eliminated the risks of getting serum hepatitis from a blood transfusion?
47 1 What dilemma does syphilitic contamination of blood pose?
47 2 to 48 1 What other infections may be transmitted by blood transfusions?
48 2 What is another danger associated with blood transfusions, and how serious is it?
48 3 Because of the dangers associated with blood transfusions, what do some hospitals require of patients?
48 4 What is the primary reason why Witnesses will not accept blood transfusions?
49 1-3 In elective surgery, what alternatives are there to blood transfusions?
50 1, 2 Just what is the prime need when there is a great loss of blood?
51 1 Which is the fluid of choice when there is a great loss of blood?
51 2, 3 To what extent can one sustain the loss of blood, and why are alternative solutions not blood substitutes?
52 1, 2 What have facts shown as to a safe hematocrit or hemoglobin content for surgery?
53 1, 2 What has been learned as to a blood transfusion’s immediately enhancing the blood’s oxygen-carrying capacity?
53 3 What are some of the fluids used as alternatives to blood transfusions?
54 1 Which other plasma volume expanders have been used with good results?
54 2 What can be said about the use of various expanders in the acute stage of blood-volume crisis?
54 3 to 55 1 What evidence shows that blood is not the only effective replacement for blood loss?
55 2, 3 Name some of the advantages that plasma expanders have over blood.
55 4 What interesting facts has the experience of Dr. Denton Cooley revealed?
56 1 What have been the long-term effects of bloodless heart surgery on Witness adults and children?
57 1, 2 What have been the results where Witnesses have had to undergo operations where blood is normally considered essential?
57 3 What has been the experience of Dr. Philip Roen?
58 1, 2 What facts show that the position of the Witnesses regarding blood transfusions can be accommodated medically?
59 1, 2 (a) In view of all the foregoing facts, what should a doctor appreciate about Jehovah’s Witnesses? (b) What does this mean in his actual practice?
60 1, 2 What counsel is given the Witnesses when they are faced with the question of a blood transfusion?
60 3 By their stand on blood, what do the Witnesses manifest, in keeping with which example of early Christians?